Reducing Transport Intensity
In this paper, transport intensity concerns the economic or energy efficiency of transport.
The focus of the paper is the measurement and use of indicators of transport intensity. Most
research has concentrated on the volume and distance measures, which show continuous
increases over time, normally at a rate that is higher than the growth in Gross Domestic
Product (GDP). It is argued that an additional element needs to be included, namely
transport efficiency, which relates to modes, technologies, organisational structures, the use
of resources and prices. The measurement of GDP also needs to be extended. Measures of
economic and transport energy efficiency are applied to EU countries and contrasted with
similar measures for the USA and Canada. The empirical evidence is then placed in the
wider context of globalisation and economic change, and the case for real decoupling is
made for both the freight and passenger sectors.