How to ensure control of cooperative vehicle and truck platoons using Meaningful Human Control


  • Simeon Calvert Department of Transport & Planning, Delft University of Technology
  • Giulio Mecacci Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University
  • Daniel D. Heikoop CBR
  • Robbert Janssen Transport Beat



Vehicle cooperation, not vehicle automation, will yield the greatest benefits on road traffic. However, satisfactory human control over platoons of cooperative vehicles still has a large number of uncertainties and issues to be addressed. This paper aims to address these broader issues of control over a cooperative vehicle platoon by focussing on a truck platooning system as a case example, and taking the perspective of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) as control concept. MHC goes further than mere operational control as it addresses issues that exist in current system designs, and proposes improvements based on a novel and more encompassing set of conditions for control. These issues are addressed in regard to the vehicles and their Operational Design Domains (ODD), the role and ability of the drivers (both leading and following) and how these exist in regard to their road environment. We conclude that current advances are making progress, but that from a MHC perspective, issues still remain for the operational and tactical implementation of truck platoons and cooperative driving that need to be addressed in regard to ODDs and drivers. Furthermore, consideration of responsibility and liability aspects is required that stretches beyond nominal appointment thereof, as this does not satisfy important ethical and societal standards. This is demonstrated in the paper through two hypothetical cases focussing on issues on a system level and one further analysis which is focussed on the role of the driver in the platooning system.


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How to Cite

Calvert, S., Mecacci, G., Heikoop, D. D., & Janssen, R. (2021). How to ensure control of cooperative vehicle and truck platoons using Meaningful Human Control. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 21(2), 95–119.