Exploring the impact of household interactions on car use for home-based tours: a multilevel analysis of mode choice using data from the first two waves of the Netherlands Mobility Panel
While most studies on mode choice behaviour and households are typically based on individual travel behaviour decisions, less is known about how relations inside households affect mode choice. This paper addresses this topic by examining intra- and inter-household variation in car use. The decision to use the car is modelled for home-based tours, based on data from the 2013 and 2014 waves of the Netherlands Mobility Panel. A multilevel framework is used to investigate mode choice behaviour at tour, individual and household level to account for the impact of individual and household characteristics on travel mode choice, interdependencies of individuals within their households and variation in individual travel mode choice and other characteristics over time. The results show that variability between households and individuals accounts for more than one third of the total variation in the mode choice of home-based tours. In dual-income households, intra-household interactions have a larger effect on car use than interhousehold interactions. Although only two panel waves are used, the model results show significant time effects on mode choice: if the same tour was also conducted in the previous year and one person changed working hours or work location, car use is less likely.