Thermal assessment of glass facade panels under radiant heating - Experimental and preliminary numerical studies

  • Chiara Bedon University of Trieste
  • Marcin Kozlowski Lund University, Sweden; Silesian University of Technology, Poland
  • Daniel Honfi RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden


Nowadays, glass is increasingly being used as a load-bearing material for structural components in buildings and façades. Different structural member solutions (such as panels, beams, columns) and loading conditions were the subjects of several research studies in recent years. Most of them, however, were typically limited to experimental testing and numerical simulations on glass elements and assemblies at room temperature. Thermo-mechanical investigations, inclusive of the temperature-dependent behaviour of visco-elastic
interlayers used in laminated glass solutions, as well as the typical thermo-mechanical degradation of glass properties in line with temperature increase, in this regard, are still limited. Such an aspect can be particularly important for adaptive façades, in which the continuous variation of thermal and mechanical boundary conditions should be properly taken into account at all the design stages, as well as during the lifetime of a constructed facility. Given the key role that thermo-mechanical studies of glazing systems can pe use of
glass in façades, this paper focuses on Finite Element (FE) numerical modelling of monolithic and laminated glass panels exposed to radiant heating, by taking advantage of past experimental investigations. In the study discussed herein, being representative of some major outcomes of a more extended research project, one-dimensional (1D) FE models are used to reproduce the thermal behaviour of selected glass specimens under radiant heating, as observed in the past experiments. Given the high computational efficiency but very
basic assumptions of 1D assemblies, a critical discussion of experimental-to-numerical comparisons is then proposed for a selection of specimens.


Aguilar, J.O., Xamán, J., Olazo-Gómez, Y., Hernández-López, I., Becerra, G., & Jaramillo, O.A. (2017). Thermal performance of a room with a double glazing window using glazing available in Mexican market. Applied Thermal Engineering, 119: 505-515
Aldawoud, A. (2017). Assessing the energy performance of modern glass facade systems. MATEC Web of Conferences, 120, paper id: 08001, doi: 10.1051/matecconf/201712008001
Baumgärtner, L., Krasovsky, R.A., Stopper, J., & von Grabe, J. (2017). Evaluation of a solar thermal glass facade with adjustable transparency in cold and hot climates. Energy Procedia, 122: 211-216
Bedon, C. (2017). Structural glass systems under fire: overview of design issues, experimental research, and developments. Advances in Civil Engineering, Volume 2017, Article ID 2120570, 18 pages. Available online (accessed May 2018):
Bedon, C., Honfi, D., & Kozłowski, M. (2018a). Numerical Modelling of Structural Glass Elements under Thermal Exposure. The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Materials Sciences. DOI10.3390/ecms2018-05241
Bedon, C., & Louter, C. (2018). Thermo-mechanical Numerical Modelling of Structural Glass under Fire - Preliminary Considerations and Comparisons. Proceedings of Challenging Glass Conference, vol. 6, pp. 513-524,
Bedon, C., Pascual Agullo, C., Luna-Navarro, A., Overend, M., & Favoino, F. (2018b). Thermo-mechanical Investigation of Novel GFRP-glass Sandwich Facade Components. Proceedings of Challenging Glass Conference, vol. 6, pp. 501-512, Bedon, C., Zhang, X., Santos, F., Honfi, D., Kozlowski, M., Arrigoni, M., Figuli, M., & Lange, D. (2018c). Performance of structural glass facades under extreme loads – Design methods, existing research, current issues and trends. Construction and Building Materials, 163: 921-937
Cardenas, B., Leon, N., Pye, J., & Garcia, H.D. (2016). Design and modeling of high temperature solar thermal energy storage unit based on molten soda lime silica glass. Solar Energy, 126: 32–43
Cuzzillo, B.R, & Pagni, P.J. (1998). Thermal breakage of double-pane glazing by fire. Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, 9(1): 1-11
Debuyser, M., Sjöström, J., Lange, D., Honfi, D., Sonck, D., & Belis, J. (2017). Behaviour of monolithic and laminated glass exposed to radiant heating. Construction and Building Materials, 130: 212–229
Debuyser, M. (2015). Exploratory investigation of the behaviour of structural glass in fire. Master Dissertation, Ghent University, Belgium
Feldmann, M., Kasper, R., Abeln, B., Cruz, P., Belis, J., & et al. (2014). Guidance for European Structural design of glass components – support to the implementation, harmonization and further development of the Eurocodes. Report EUR 26439, Joint Research Centre-Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, doi: 10.2788/5523, Pinto Dimova, Denton Feldmann (Eds.)
Fang, Y., Eames, P.C., & Norton, B. (2007). Effect of glass thickness on the thermal performance of evacuated glazing. Solar Energy, 81(3): 395-404
Favoino, F., Jin, Q., & Overend, M. (2014). Towards an ideal adaptive glazed facade for office buildings. Energy Procedia, 62: 289-298
Ghosh, A., Norton, B., & Duffy, A. (2016). Measured thermal & daylight performance of an evacuated glazing using an outdoor test cell. Applied Energy, 177: 196-203
Ghoshal, S., & Neogi, S. (2014). Advanced Glazing System - Energy Efficiency Approach for Buildings - A Review. Energy Procedia, 54: 352-358
Li, D., Li, Z., Zheng, Y., Liu, C., & Lu, L. (2015). Optical performance of single and double glazing units in the wavelength 337-900 nm. Solar Energy, 122: 1091-1099
Haldimann, M., Luible, A., & Overend, M. (2008). Structural use of glass. IABSE, ISBN 978-3-85748-119-2
Hasselaar, B., & Looman, R. (2007). The climate adaptive skin, the integral solution to the conflict between comfort and energy performance. Proceedings of CIB World Building Congress 2017, pp. 1115-1125
Miller, C., Thomas, D., Kämpf, J., & Schlueter, A. (2015). Long wave radiation exchange for urban scale modeling within a Co-simulation environment. Proceedings of CISBAT 2015, September 9-11, 2015, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp.871-876
Parra, J., Guardo, A., Egusquiza, E., & Alavedra, P. (2015). Thermal performance of ventilated double skin facades with Venetian blinds. Energies, 8: 1882-4898, doi: 10.3390/en8064882
prEN thstr:2004. Glass in Buildings - thermal stress capitulation method, CEN, Brussels, Belgium
Simulia. ABAQUS v. 6.14 computer software and online documentation, Dassault Systems, Providence, RI, USA
Stefanizzi, P., Wilson, A., & Pinney, A. (1990). Internal long-wave radiation exchange in buildings: Comparison of calculation methods: Review of Algorithms. Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, 11(3): 81-85
Tong, T.W. (1994). Thermal Conductivity 22, Technomic Publishing Company, Ltd., Lancaster, PA, USA, ISBN 1-56676-172-7
Tong, S.T., Zhu, L.B., Guo, W., & Ma, F.D. (2002). Numerical simulation on thermal radiation of low emissivity glass surface. Journal of Building Materials, 5: 60-65
Tofilo, P., & Delichatsios, M. (2010). Thermally induced stresses in glazing systems. Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, 20(2): 101-116
Wang, T.-P., & Wang, L.-B. (2016). The effects of transparent long-wave radiation through glass on time lag and decrement factor of hollow double glazing. Energy and Buildings, 117: 33-43
Wang, T.-P., Wang, L.-B., & Li, B.-Q. (2013). A model of the long-wave radiation heat transfer through a glazing. Energy and Buildings, 59: 50-61
How to Cite
BEDON, Chiara; KOZLOWSKI, Marcin; HONFI, Daniel. Thermal assessment of glass facade panels under radiant heating - Experimental and preliminary numerical studies. Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, [S.l.], v. 6, n. 3, p. 49-64, july 2018. ISSN 2213-3038. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 12 dec. 2018. doi: