A Cluster Analysis of Temporal Patterns of Travel Production in the Netherlands: Dominant within-day and day-to-day patterns and their association with Urbanization Levels
This paper explores temporal patterns in travel production using a full month of production data from traffic analysis zones (TAZ) in the (entire) Netherlands. The mentioned data is a processed aggregated derivative (due to privacy concerns) from GSM traces of a Dutch telecommunication company. This research thus also sheds light on whether such a processed data source is representative of both regular and non-regular patterns in travel production and how such data can be used for planning purposes. To this end, we construct normalized matrix (heatmap) representations of weekly hour-by-hour travel production patterns of over 1200 TAZs, which we cluster using K-means combined with deep convolutional neural networks (inception V3) to extract relevant features. A silhouette score shows that three dominant clusters of temporal patterns can be discerned (K=3). These three clusters have distinctly different within-day and day-to-day production patterns in terms of peak period intensity over different days of the week. Subsequently, a spatial analysis of these clusters reveals that the differences can be related to (easily observable) land-use features such as urbanization levels (i.e., Urban, Rural, and mixed-level). To substantiate this hypothesis and the usefulness of this clustering result, we apply an OVR-SMOTE-XGBoost ensemble classification model on the land-use features of the TAZs (i.e., to identify their cluster). The results of our clustering analysis show that given the land-use features, the overall production patterns are identifiable. Further analysis of the mixed-level areas shows a more complex relationship between temporal heterogeneity and spatial characteristics. Population density seems to impose additional uncertainty on the temporal patterns. All in all, feature selection and spatial and temporal discretization play essential roles in identifying the dominant trip production patterns. These findings are directly useful for data-driven estimation and prediction of demand time series. Furthermore, this study provides further insights into people's mobility, relevant for transportation analysis and policies.
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Copyright (c) 2023 Zahra Eftekhar, Adam Pel, Hans van Lint
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.