Revealing transition patterns between mono- and multimodal travel patterns over time: A mover-stayer model
Recent empirical evidence suggests that travellers are becoming increasingly multimodal. Coinciding with this trend, a growing interest can be observed in the transport literature to study the concept of multimodality. Most studies, in this regard, have focused on assessing the determinants of multimodal travel behaviour. While it is interesting to know which factors, at a certain moment in time, affect the membership of mono/multimodal travel patterns, one general omission in the current literature relates to the questions how and why travellers switch between the mono/multimodal travel patterns over time. This study aims to fill this knowledge gap. To this end, a mixture latent Markov model is specified and estimated using data from the German mobility panel. Our mixture latent Markov models consist of latent travel patterns as well as latent mobility styles. To acquire insights on changes in travel behaviour various model specifications are tested. The travel data is best explained by a model consisting of five latent travel patterns and three mobility styles. The five travel patterns are can be conceived as (1) strict car users, (2) public transport and occasional car users, (3) car passengers, (4) car and bicycle users and (5) bicycle and occasional public transport users, and the three underlying mobility styles are identified as (1) habitual travellers, who stay in their respective pattern for three consecutive years, (2) car (in)dependent choice travellers, who switch within car and non-car patterns, and (3) car users with an alternative mode preference, who switch between car and noncar patterns. Overall, it is concluded that mixture latent Markov models are effective to reveal (heterogeneity in) transition patterns.