Estimating the Influence of Sea Level Rise and Climate Change on Coastal Defences in Western Taiwan
Keywords:typhoons, climate change, Taiwan, storm surge
Situated in the Western Pacific Ocean, Taiwan is frequently affected by powerful typhoons. The present research evaluates the storm surges that could take place along the western coastline of Taiwan, and the design water level that will likely be required by coastal structures in the course of the 21st century to protect coastal settlements. To do so, the intensity of a given case study typhoon (Soudelor, which caused great damage to Taiwan in 2015) that could affect the target case study area (Yunlin county) was modified by taking into account climate change and sea level rise (SLR), by changing the sea surface temperature (SST), atmospheric air temperature (AAT), and relative humidity (RH) in an ensemble of 14 GCMs in CMIP5 according to RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, targeting the year 2041~2060 and 2081~2100 time horizons. The Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW) and the Unstructured Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) were utilized to simulate the typhoons and storm surges. The hindcasting of the historical typhoon showed good agreement with the observed data provided by the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) in Taiwan, and the simulations under future climate change scenarios forecasted an increase in typhoon intensity, especially the maximum wind speed. However, the storm surge simulations indicated a limited increase in storm surge height, and even a decrease when considering also SLR. Nevertheless, the estimated maximum water level, including both effect of SLR and future storm surge height, can increase up to 3.53 m and 3.84 m relative to mean sea level at the tidal stations in Yunlin and Chiayi County, respectively. The results showed that storm surges in the study area, characterized by a shallow bathymetry with many sandbars and land reclamation projects, are highly influenced by the change in water depth due to SLR and tidal changes, and the existence of the Central Mountain Range, which can greatly affect the accuracy of the simulated typhoon wind fields.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Yuchia Chang, Martin Mäll, Ryota Nakamura, Tomoyuki Takabatake, Jeremy Bricker, Miguel Esteban, Tomoya Shibayama
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The authors declare that they have either created all material in the manuscript themselves, or have traceable permission from the copyright holder to use it in the present manuscript. They acknowledge that the manuscript will be placed on the JCHS website under the CC-BY 4.0 licence. They will retain copyright of the paper, and will remain fully liable for any breaches of copyright or other Intellectual Property violations arising from the manuscript.