Essays by Kodalak and Kousoulas, with Mutual Responses


  • Gokhan Kodalak Pratt Institute
  • Stavros Kousoulas Delft University of Technology



Kodalak’s essay revisits Gilbert Simondon as a postwar philosopher, who formulated a new way of conceiving individual modalities—from crystals, technical objects and biological organisms to psychic phenomena and social collectives. Simondon’s metaphysical conception of ontogenesis—that explains how individuals emerge from a pre-individual field of metastable potentials through processes of individuation—helped him reconceive technical objects, no longer as passive automata, but as exuberant individuals, active and full of life, with irreducible modes of existence of their own. With this new vision, Simondon invites us to rethink our relationship with technical objects beyond the mythological attitudes of technocracy, technophilia, and technophobia, which can be further developed today for reconceiving architecture’s own technical modes of existence and charged relations with technology.

            Kousoulas’ essay begs the question: Why Simondon in a volume dedicated to Stiegler? It is not that Stiegler’s oeuvre cannot be examined without referring to the crucial influence that Simondon had for his thought. More important than this, it is only through Simondon that Stiegler makes sense. Simondon is keen to remind us that sense, first and foremost, stands for directionality: to make sense is to grasp a direction. Without Simondon’s critical reformulation of our technological becoming, Stiegler’s project remains null. In a non-zero-sum game, Stiegler through Simondon and (retroactively) Simondon through Stiegler, produce the norms and values of a directing sense that can indeed compel us to engage in our worldly endeavours with neganthropic care.

Author Biography

Stavros Kousoulas, Delft University of Technology

Stavros Kousoulas is Assistant Professor of Architecture Theory in the Faculty of Architecture of TU Delft. He has studied architecture at the National Technical University of Athens and at TU Delft. He received his doctoral title cum laude from IUAV Venice participating in the Villard d’ Honnecourt International Research Doctorate. He has published and lectured in Europe and abroad. He has been a member of the editorial board of Footprint: Delft Architecture Theory Journal since 2014.



Bardin, Andrea. Epistemology and Political Philosophy in Gilbert Simondon. Dordrecht: Springer, 2015.

Barthélémy, Jean-Hugues. Life and Technology: An Inquiry Into and Beyond Simondon. Lüneburg: Meson Press, 2015.

Chabot, Pascal. The Philosophy of Simondon: Between Technology and Individuation. London: Bloomsbury, 2013.

Combes, Muriel. Gilbert Simondon and the Philosophy of the Transindividual. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2013.

———. "On Nature." Log 49, edited by G. Kodalak and S. Kwinter (2020): 146-164.

De Boever, Arne et. al. eds. Gilbert Simondon: Being and Technology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2012.

Deleuze, Gilles. "On Gilbert Simondon." In Desert Islands and Other Texts, 1953–1974, 86-89. New York: Semiotext(e), 2004.

Kodalak, Gökhan. “From Architecture Lifeless to Architecture Alive.” In Architectures of Life and Death, edited by A. Radman & S. Kousoulas, 39-61. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, forthcoming 2021.

———. “Spinoza and Architecture: The Air of the Future,” Log, no.49 (Summer 2020): 122-146.

———. “Spinoza, Heterarchical Ontology and Affective Architecture.” In Spinoza’s Philosophy of Ratio, edited by Beth Lord, 89-108. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2018.

Kousoulas, Stavros. “Flights of a Spider: A Play of Architectural Limits.” In Communicate, Villard Journal, vol. 2, edited by L. di Lorenzo and G. Menzietti, 113-26. Rome: Quodlibet, 2020.

———. "Shattering the black box: Technicities of architectural manipulation." International Journal of Architectural Computing, vol.16, no.4 (2018): 295-305.

Mortamais, Elizabeth. "What is an Intelligent Building?" In Organizing Smart Buildings and Cities, edited by E. Magnaghi, et. al, 125-39. Cham: Springer, 2021.

Price, Cedric. "Concentrate." In Re:CP, 107. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2003.

———. "Has the Architectural Profession a Future?" AA Lecture (6 March 1975).

Radman, Andrej. "Machinic Phylum and Architecture." In Proceedings of the 2020 DigitalFUTURES, edited by Yuan P.F., Yao J., Yan C., Wang X., Leach N., 3-16. Singapore: Springer, 2021.

Scott, David. Gilbert Simondon's Psychic and Collective Individuation. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2014.

Simondon, Gilbert. Du mode d'existence des objets techniques. Méot, 1958; Paris: Aubier, 1989.

———. Individuation in Light of Notions of Form and Information. Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press, 2020.

———. L'individu et sa genèse physico-biologique (l'individuation à la lumière des notions de forme et d'information). Paris: PUF, 1964; J.Millon, coll. Krisis, 1995.

———. L'individuation psychique et collective. Paris, Aubier, 1989; 2007.

———. "On Techno-aesthetics." Parrhesia 14 (2012): 1-8.

———. On the Mode of Existence of Technical Object. Minneapolis: Univocal, 2017.

———. "Save the Technical Object." Espirit 76 (04/1983): 147-52.

———. "The Genesis of the Individual," in Incorporations: Zone 6, edited by Jonathan Crary and Sanford Kwinter, 296-320. New York: Zone, 1992.

———. "The Position of the Problem of Ontogenesis." Parrhesia 7 (2009): 4-16.

———. Two Lessons on Animal and Man. Minneapolis: Univocal, 2011.

Stiegler, Bernard. Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1998.

Teyssot, Georges. Topology of Everyday Constellations. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2012.

Thomas, Katie Lloyd. "Between the Womb and the World." In Relational Architectural Ecologies, edited by Peg Rawes, 192-208. Routledge: London, 2013.

Trummer, Peter. "Notes on Mechanology." Log 49, edited by G. Kodalak and S. Kwinter (2020): 164-68

Wiener, Norbert. Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. Cambridge: The Technology Press, 1948.


Aloa, Emmanuel and Judith Michalet. ‘Differences in Becoming: Simondon and Deleuze on Individuation’. In Philosophy Today, no. 3 (Summer 2017): 475-502.

Barthélémy, Jean-Hugues. Life and Technology: An Inquiry into and Beyond Simondon. Translated by Barnaby Norman. Leuphana University of Lüneburg: Meson Press, 2015.

Bateson, Gregory. Steps to and Ecology of Mind. New York: Random House, 1972.

Berressem, Hanjo. ‘Degrees of Freedom: Félix Guattari’s Schizoanalytic Cartographies’. In Schizoanalysis and Ecosophy. Edited by Constantin V. Boundas, 128–48. London: Bloomsbury, 2017.

Deacon, Terrence. Incomplete Nature: How Mind Emerged from Matter. New York: W.W. Norton & Co, 2012.

Deleuze, Gilles and Félix Guattari. A Thousand Plateaus. Translated by Brian Massumi. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987.

Deleuze, Gilles. ‘Il Senso in Meno, Part 1 -- Surfaces of Redundancy, Black Holes, Language and Orders’. In Deleuze & Guattari at Vincennes, 1975-76. Translated by Graeme Thomson and Silvia Maglioni.

Guattari, Félix. Schizoanalytic Cartographies. Translated by Andrew Goffey. London: Bloomsbury, 1989.

Kousoulas, Stavros. Architectural Technicities: A Foray into Larval Space (Abingdon: Routledge, 2022)

Kousoulas, Stavros. ‘Make and, by Making, Make Yourself: Norms, Values and Architectural Technicities’. In Philosophy and Human-Technology Relations Conference. University of Twente, November 2020,

Kousoulas, Stavros. ‘Synaptic Passages’. In The Future of Indeterminacy International Conference. University of Dundee, November 2021.

Radman, Andrej. ‘Generalised Chromaticism: The Ecologisation of Architecture’ in Embodiment and meaning-making: Interdisciplinary perspectives on architectural heritage, eds. A. Stanicic and A. Jelic, Special issue of the Journal of Architecture 27 no. 2 (March 2022).

Sauvanargues, Anne. Artmachines: Deleuze, Guattari, Simondon. Translated by Suzanne Verderber and Eugene W. Holland . Edinburgh: University Press, 2016.

Scott, David. ‘How Do We Recognise Deleuze and Simondon Are Spinozists?’. Deleuze Studies 11, no. 4 (2017): 555–79.

Simondon, Gilbert. Individuation in Light of Notion of Forms and Information. Translated by Taylor Adkins. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2020.

Simondon, Gilbert. On the Mode of Existence of Technical Objects. Translated by Cecile Malaspina and John Rogove. Minneapolis: Univocal, 2017.

Simondon, Gilbert. Sur la Technique: 1953–1983. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2014.