Urban Structures and Travel Behaviour
Experiences from Empirical Research in Norway and Denmark
In line with theoretical considerations, a number of empirical studies reviewed in this paper show that urban structural variables influence the inhabitantsÌ amount of transport and their choice of means of conveyance. This appears to be true across city sizes. The location of the residence relative to the city centre is the urban structural characteristic which, according to our analyses, exerts the strongest influence on travelling distances, modal split between car and non-motorized transport, and energy use for transport. The distance from the residence to the downtown area is a key factor influencing the accessibility to a number of facility types. Population densities at a local scale as well as for the city as a whole are also important to the amount of travel and the use of cars. In addition, a high road capacity contributes to the increase of the proportion of commuters travelling by car in the peak period.