Architectural Record 1942-1967

Chapters from the history of an architectural magazine


  • Phoebus Ilias Panigyrakis TU Delft, Architecture and the Built Environment



This PhD thesis examines the editorial policies and publishing history of the American periodical Architectural Record in the quarter century from 1942 to 1967. Operating since 1891, the Architectural Record is the longest-living and most circulated professional magazine of architecture, with a strong and lasting impact on the development of the discipline and the profession in the US and abroad. As an archive of architectural knowledge, its history during the mid-20th century is revealing the paradigm shift that occurred in-between the emergence of Modernism in pre-war Europe and its transition to Post-Modernism in the second half of the 20th c., as a largely American issue. The success and influence of the magazine was due to the resources of its parent corporations, F.W. Dodge and McGraw-Hill, its support and acknowledgement by professional and academic organizations and the connections, commitment and inventiveness of its editors. The editorial campaigns of the magazine trace the struggle for the adaptation of the modern movement in the American context and through that to its subsequent global eminence as “contemporary architecture,” a term popularised by the Record.

In the midst of the media revolution, the architectural magazines saw the transformation of the profession to an information-based business, beyond an art and an engineering science. At a time when “architectural composition” was redefined into “architectural design.” Amongst the greater media revolution emerging aggressively in the US, the Architectural Record undertook the task of catering for the needs of the practising architect in the post-industrial, managerial and information age. And while initially the magazines were following the architectural developments, reporting on literal images of architecture, by 1967 its editors were educating, managing, consulting and navigating the profession trough its new markets. This trajectory pinackled in the Record's editorial campaign for “the image of the architect” that exemplified the phenomenon of how magazines were lobbying for the profession. A phenomenon that is still largely inexplored and that defines 21st architectural practice and design.

But more than any theoretical sub-narrative, this thesis is dedicated to the history of the people and events that took place behind the pages of this era-defining magazine through the archives and living records of their time.


A radical mind: The genius of architect Walter Netsch,

Alofsin, Anthony, The Struggle for Modernism: Architecture, Landscape Architecture, and City Planning at Harvard, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2002).

Annals of Tourism Research, (April/June 1978): 290.

AIA Bulletin (Nov-Dec 1954):193.

AIA Bulletin, (Jan-Feb 1954):41.

AIA Bulletin (Sep-Oct, 1954):165.

Architectural Forum, (Sept. 1927): 279.

Architectural Record, (March 1948): 104.

Architectural Record, (June 1948): 108

Architectural Record, (Dec 1946): 80-4.

Architectural Record, (July 1944): 33.

Architectural Record, (May, 1962): 12.

Architectural Record, (July 1942): 34-36.

Architectural Record, (March, 1947): 65.

Architectural Record, (May 1947): 10.

Architectural Record, (Dec 1947): 69.

Architectural Record, (March 1948): 87.

Architectural Record, (May 1948): 140.

Architectural Record, (June 1954): 150.

Architectural Record, (June 1952).

Architectural Record, (March 1945): 99-116.

Architectural Record, (Jan 1934):3-8.

Architectural Record, (March 1963).

Architectural Record, (October 1962): 157.

Architectural Record, (May 1963): 163.

Architectural Record, (October 1965): 189.

Architectural Record, (February 1977): 57.

Architectual Record, (September 1966):9.

“Architectural Seniors Play Sophomores,” The technique, Thursday, (Dec. 2, 1926):1.

“An eating place for motorized diners,” Architectural Record, (July 1948): 121.

“Arch. Dept. admitted to membership in Association of Collegiate Schools of Arch.,” The technique, (Feb. 26, 1926): 1.

AIA Journal, April 1962.: 68.

Babson, Roger W., “F. W. Dodge: A Tribute,” Architectural Record, (Jan., 1916).

Barry, Joseph (ed.). The House Beautiful treasury of contemporary American homes. New York: Hawthorn Books Inc., 1958.

Baudrillard, Jean. Le Systeme des objets, (Paris, FR: Éditions Galimard, 1968), pp 229-274.

Bendner, Richard, "Review of Recycling Buildings: Renovations, remodelings, restorations and reuses, An Architectural Record Book, by Thompson, Elisabeth Kendall FAIA," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 36, No. 4, (Dec. 1977).

Benson, Robert Alan, “Douglass Putnam Haskell (1899-1979): The early critical writings,” (PhD dissertation, Ann Arbor, 1987).

Berger, Arthur Asa, Marketing and American consumer culture: A cultural studies analysis, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.

Blake, Peter, “The Soviet Architecture Purge," Architectural Record, (September 1949).

Building Market Publication and Services, (New York: F.W. Dodge, 1936).

Burchard, John Ely, “The state of architecture in Australia,” Architectural Record, (Aug 1952): 105

Burchard, John Ely, “A Pilgrimage: Ronchamp, Raincy, Vezelay,” Architectural Record, (March 1958): 171.

Burchard, John Ely, “Finland and architect Aalto,” Architectural Record, (January 1959): 126.

Burchard, John Ely, “A parable via Milano and Roma, Part I,” Architectural Record, (July 1960): 123.

Burchard, John Ely, “A parable via Milano and Roma, Part II,” Architectural Record, (August 1960)” 157.

Burchard, John Ely, “Humanity – our client,” Architectural Record, (July 1951): 86.

Burchard, John Ely, “The dilemma of architecture,” Architectural Record, (May 1955): 193.

Burchard, John Ely, “Architecture for the good life,” Architectural Record, (July 1956): 197.

Burchard, John Ely, “Architecture in a restless age,” Architectural Record, (May 1959)” 174.

Burchard, John-Ely. “The dilemma of architecture.” Architectural Record, (May, 1955): 193.

Bulletin of the Georgia School of Technology, Vol. 25, No. 1, (April 1928): 7.

Bulletin of the Georgia School of Technology, Vol. 26, No. 1, April 1929):7.

Bush Brown, Albert. “This new shell game.” Architectural Record, (Jun. 1957): 185.

Bush-Brown, Harold, Beaux Arts to Bauhaus and beyond: An architect’s perspective, (New York, NY: Watson-

Guptil Publications, 1976), 32.

Bush-Brown, Albert; Burchard, John-Ely, Architecture of America: A social and cultural history, Little & Brown,

Boston, 1961.

Carlson, David; Loveland, Karen. “An Exploratory Study of Bingo Cards Use in Consumer Magazines,” Journal of Direct Marketing Education, Willey, Volume 10, Number 3, (1996): 61-68.

Casson, Hugh, “On Architectural Journalism.” In: Concerning Architecture, Hitchcock et al, Penguin Press, 1967.

Clausen, Meredith L., Pietro Belluschi: Modern American Architect, MIT Press, 1999.

Colean, Miles, “The architect’s stake in private enterprise,” Architectural Record, (June 1948):97-99.

“Charette Club plans elaborate year,” The technique, (Sept. 23, 1925): 7.

“Commandant Comes Back for Fifth Year,” The technique, (May 13, 1927): 1.

“Conservative contemporary in New Orleans.” Architectural Record, (Jan 1955): 166-167.

“Contemporary Architecture of Finland.” Architectural Record (Feb 1956): 161-168.

“Contemporary Art in remodeled theatre; Faxon and Gruys, Architects,” Architectural Record, (May 1955): 211-213.

“Contemporary churches take top honors.” Architectural Record (Apr 1955): 10-11.

“Contemporary design amidst collegiate gothic.” Architectural Record (Oct 1952):159-164.

“Contemporary design in Israel.” Architectural Record, (Nov 1952): 151-158.

“Contemporary House in colonial setting.” Architectural Record (May 1954): 158-163.

“Contemporary planning for Cambridge.” Architectural Record (Apr 1954): 149-155.

Creighton, Thomas (ed.). Contemporary Homes Evaluated by Their Owners. New York: Reinhold, 1961.

Davern, Jeanne M. (ed.), Lewis Mumford: Architecture as a home for man, Architectural Record Books, New York, 1975.

Davern, Jeanne. “Emerson Goble: 1901-1969.” Architectural Record, (Dec 1969): 9.

Davis Gillies, Mary et. al. Let’s plan a home, (Surface Combustion Corporation, 1945).

Davison, Robert L.; Poor, Alfred E. ; Reynolds, H., “Effect of style on cost,” Architectural Record, (April 1929): 402.

Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, (Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1937), 958.

Desmond, Henry W., “By way of introduction,” Architectural Record, Vol.1, No. 1, (July Sept, 1892): 3.

Dichter, Ernest, The Strategy of Desire, London, UK: T.V. Boardman & Company Limited, 1960.

Dichter, Ernest, Psychology of everyday living, New York, NY: Barnes and Noble Inc., 1947.

Dichter, Ernest, Handbook of consumer motivations: The psychology of the world of objects, McGraw Hill Book Company, 1964.

Domestic architecture of the San Francisco Bay region. [Catalog of the exhibition held at the San Francisco Museum of Art, Sept. 16, Oct. 30, 1949], (San Francisco: San Francisco Museum of Arts, 1949).

Doubilet, Susan, “A critical survey of the Architectural record, 1891-1938, and the American architectural periodicals it absorbed, 1876-1938,” (PhD dissertation, Columbia University, 1981).

Dreller, Sarah M., “Architectural Forum, 1932-1964: A Time Inc. experiment in American Architecture,” (PhD dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2015).

Eisenberg, Lee, Shoptimism: Why the American consumer will keep on buying no matter what, New York, NY: Free Press, 2009.

Encyclopedia of Architecture & Construction, s.v. “Architectural Press U.S.” by Michael A. Tomlan: 286.

Esperdy, Gabrielle, Modernizing Main Street, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press), 119.

Elliot, Cecil D., The American Architect from the Colonial Era to the Present, (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company Inc., 2003).

Esperdy, Gabriele, “Architecture and popular taste,” Places Journal, May 2015,

Fuhlrott, Rolf, Deutschsprachige Architektur-Zeitschriften: Entstehung und Entwicklung der Fachzeitschriften iir Architektur in der Zeit von 1789-1918 (Munich: Verlag Dokumentation, 1975).

Freudenheim, Leslie Mandelson; Sussman, Elisabeth; Building with nature: roots of the San Francisco Bay Region tradition, (Santa Barbara, CA: P. Smith, 1974).

Forty, Adrian. Words and buildings. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd 2004.

Fullerton, Ronald A. “’Mr. MASS motivations himself’: Explaining Dr. Ernest Dichter,” Journal of Consumer Behaviour 6, (2007): 369-382.

"Funeral today for former P-R city editor Jeanne Davern," Press Republican, (17 Nov. 1982): 6.

“Fun and architecture: AIA meeting. Thomas Holden gains honorary AIA membership” Architectural Record, June, 1956.

“George A. Sanderson Editor, Architect, Obituary” New York Times, April 15 1959.

Giedion, Siegfried. “The state of contemporary architecture: The regional approach.” Architectural Record, (Jan 1954): 132.

Giedion, Siegfried. “The state of contemporary architecture: The need for imagination,” Architectural Record, (Feb 1954): 186.

Goble, Emerson, et al. A treasury of contemporary houses. New York: F.W. Dodge Corporation, 1954.

Goble, Emerson,“75 years of the Record”, Architectural Record, Vol 131, No 7, (July 1966): 9.

Goble, Emerson, “The new age of architecture,” Architectural Record, (July 1966): 147.

Goble, Emerson, “A precise language of visual communication,” Architectural Record, (March 1961): 9.

Goble, Emerson, "Architects as leaders," Architectural Record, (October 1961): 9.

Goble, Emerson, “Image of the architect,” Architectural Record, (April 1962): 9.

Goble, Emerson, “Corporate architectural practice,” Architectural Record, (May 1962): 163.

Goble, Emerson, “Do publicity efforts damage the architects?,” Architectural Record, (October 1965): 9.

Goble, Emerson, “Do you understand your new clients?,” (April 1966): 9.

Goble, Emerson, “The packaged society and its architecture,” (September 1966): 9.

Goble, Emerson, “Is there comprehension of architects and their work?,” (February 1967): 9.

Goble, Emerson, “Current architecture and its communication,” (April 1967): 9.

Goble, Emerson, “The image of the architect,” Architectural Record, (May 1959): 167.

Goble, Emerson, “Criticism is dead; Long live criticism,” Architectural Record, (July 1966):9.

Goble, Emerson, “Where do architects look for new clients?,” (May 1967): 9.

Goble, Emerson, “Realty eyes the architect and finds It needs him if–,” Architectural Record, (Nov. 1940): 48.

Goldberger, Paul, “Organic remedies: Building and the city,” Salmagundi, No. 49, (Summer 1980): 87-98,

accessed 5 February 2020,

Goldhagen, Sarah Williams, “Something to Talk about: Modernism, Discourse, Style,” Journal of the Society of

Architectural Historians, Vol. 64, No. 2 (Jun., 2005): 144-167.

Haskell, Douglas, “’Beauty’ for us demands architecture of larger scope at vastly broader scale,” Architectural

Record, (June 1948): 88-91.

Haskell, Douglas, “Architecture abroad and here”, Architectural Record, (January 1949): 95.

Haskell, Douglas. “Robie House: An open letter to the AIA.” Journal of the American Institute of Architects, (Aug. 1963): 115.

Haskell, Douglas. “The value of used architecture: a case of preserving the Robie House.” Architectural Forum, (Apr. 1957): 107.

Haskell, Douglas, “Architecture abroad and here”, Architectural Record, (January 1949): 95.

Hauf, Harold.“In transition.” Architectural Record, (October 1949): 87.

Heckscher, August, “The new measure of the architect,”Architectural Record, (September 1959): 193.

Heckscher, August, “Image of the future architect,” Architectural Record, (November 1959): 177.

HHFA Technical Bulletin [United States. Housing and Home Finance Agency] No. 1 (Washington DC: November 1947): 52.

Holden, Thomas, “The Washington building congress”, Architectural Record, (Jan 1948): 90.

Hudnut, Joseph,. “Aesthetics by slide rule.” Architectural Record, (Jan. 1956): 139.

Hudnut, Joseph. “A new eloquence for architecture.” Architectural Record, (Jan. 1956): 177.

Hudnut, Joseph, “The Post-Modern House”, Architectural Record, (May 1945): 70.

Hunt Jr., William Dudley; Encyclopedia of American architecture, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1980).

Hurtado Toran, Eva, "Las Publicaciones Periodicas de Arquitectura: Espana 1897-1937" (PhD dissertation, Universidad Polltecnica de Madrid, 2001).

“Is there a Bay Area Style?,” Architectural Record, May 1949, 92-97.

“John Knox Shear, Architect, was 40.” New York Times, January 11, 1958.

“John Knox Shear appointed editor-in-chief.” Architectural Record, (November 1954):7.

“John Knox Shear.” Architectural Record, January 1958.

Johnson, Phillip, “Architectural Freedom and Order,” Magazine of Art, (October 1948).

“Junior Architects Defeat Seniors, 6-0,” The technique, (Friday Dec. 18, 1925): 5.

“Kenneth Kinglsey Stowell, obituary,” New York Times, (January 24, 1969): 47.

Klaus, Jan Philipp, Um 1800, Architekturtheorie und Architekturkritik in Deutschland zwischen 1790 und 1810, chapter: Die Ersten Architekturzeitschriften, (Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 2001).

Lavin, Sylvia. “The Temporary Contemporary.” Perspecta, Vol. 34 (2003): 128.

Levy, David W., Herbert Croly of the New Republic, The Life and Thought of an American Progressive, (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1985), 75.

Lichtenstein, Suzanne. “Editing architecture: ‘Architectural Record’ and the growth of modern architecture, 1928-1938,’” (PhD dissertation), Cornell University, 1990.

Martinez, Jose Parra; Crosse, John; Treib, Mark, “Lewis Mumford, Henry Russel Hitchcock and the rise of ‘Bay’ regionalism.” In Regionalism, Nationalism & Modern Architecture Conference Proceedings. (Porto: October 25-27, 2018), 299.

Martinez, Jose Parra; Crosse, John; “Grace Morley, the San Francisco Museum of Art and the early environmental agenda of the Bay Region (193X-194X),” Feminismo/s, (32 Dec. 2018): 101-134. New

Houses and other buildings from Old, Forum supplement of November 1933, Mason, Joseph, et. al, 82 Distinctive Houses from Architectural Record. New York, NY: F. W. Dodge Corporation, 1952.

Mason, Joseph (ed.). 50 Best Homes from the Pages of Good Housekeeping. New York, NY: Good Housekeeping institute, 1952.

Mason, Joseph. History of Housing in the US, 1930-1980: Fifty Years of American Progress: The People, Money, Projects, and Politics That Shaped U.S. Home Building. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company, 1982.

“Membership List of the Classical Association of the Middle West and South,” The Classical Journal, (Jun. 1917):629.

McCloskey, Bernard J. (ed.), The Jambalaya Nineteen Twenty Nine, (New Orleans: Tulane University of Louisiana, 1929): pages: 333, 338, 348 and 40.

McCloskey, Bernard J. (ed.), The Jambalaya Nineteen Thiry One, (New Orleans: Tulane University of Louisiana, 1931):, 346.

Mumford, Lewis, “The architecture of the Bay Region.” In Domestic architecture of the San Francisco Bay region. [A catalog of an exhibition held at the San Francisco Museum of Art, Sept. 16 - Oct. 30, 1949], (San Fransisco: San Fransisco Museum of Art, 1949).

Mumford, Lewis. “The death of the monument.” Circle: International survey of constructive art, (1937): 263.

Nauman, Robert Allan, On the wings of Modernism: The United States Air Force Academy, (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2004), 28., accessed on 5 Feb. 2020,

“Numerical Listing of studies 1956-1986,” box 126, Item 17, Ernest Dichter papers (Accession 2407), Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, DE 19807.

Packard, Vance, The Hidden Persuaders, (London, UK: Longmans, Green and Co Ltd), 1957.

Pai, Hyungmin, The Portfolio and the Diagram: Architecture, Discourse, and Modernity in America, (New York: MIT Press, 2002).

Parnell, Steve, “Architectural Design, 1954-1972: The architectural magazine’s contribution to the writing of architecture” (PhD dissertation, University of Sheffield, 2011).

Parker, George, “It was rubbish then and it is rubbish now” from accessed on the 4th of April 2018. Originally published on September 10, 2007. Link: this is a magazine, find the actual volume and issue.

Pearlman, Jill, Inventing American Modernism: Joseph Hudnut, Walter Gropius and the Bauhaus Legacy at Harvard, (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007): 4.

Pokinski, Deborah Frances, The Development of the American Modern Style, (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1984).

Progressive Architecture, (May 1959): 61.

“Proceedings of the National Conference on Post-War Housing”, Architectural Record, (April, 1944): 93.

Purves, Edmund R., “Today’s concepts of architectural practice,” Architectural Record, (May 1959): 169-170.

“Radio News,” The technique, Thursday, (Dec. 2, 1926):1.“Many important changes have been made in faculty,” The technique, (Friday Sept. 18, 1925): 1.

Real Estate Record and Builders’ Guide, (June 13, 1891): 1215.

“Retail Therapy: how Ernest Dichter, an acolyte of Sigmund Freud, revolutionized marketing”, The Economist, 17 Dec 2011.

Richards, John Noble “The architect’s orbit of influence,” Architectural Record, (September 1959): 191.

Riley, Terence, The International Style: Exhibition 15 and the Museum of Modern Art, (New York: Rizzoli, 1992).

Rose, Margaret, The Post-Modern and the Post-Industrial, (London, Cambridge University Press), 187.

Rybczynski, Wytold, “Glossies: The decline of architectural magazines,” Slate. Nov. 15, 2015,

Rylance, Kelly, “New Orleans Architect, Elizabeth Kendall,” [blog post], August 4 2015, accessed 5 Feb 2020,

Russel Clement et al., Walter A. Netsch, FAIA: A critical appreciation and sourcebook, (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2008), 10.

Saint, Andrew, The Image of the Architect, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983).

Sawin, Martica (ed.), James Marston Fitch: Selected writings on architecture, preservation, and the built environment, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 2006.

Schwarzkopf, Stefan; Gries, Rainer. Ernest Dichter and motivation research: new perspectives on the making of post-war consumer culture. London UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

“Science church in contemporary form.” Architectural Record (Dec 1952): 136-141.

Scheick, William H., “An introduction to the membership,” AIA Journal, (1961): 62.

Selling the Architect, New York, NY: F.W. Dodge Corporation, 1936.

Serraino, Pierluigi, The creative architect: Inside the great midcentury personality study, (New York:Monacelli Press, 2016).

Snibble, Richard W., “The image of the architect,” AIA Journal, (1963): 11.

Shand-Tucci, Douglass, Built in Boston: City and Suburb, 1800-2000, (Boston: University of Massachusetts, 1999).

Shanken, Andrew. “Breaking the Taboo, Architects and Advertising in Depression and War,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, vol. 69, no. 3 (2010): 406-429.

Shear, John Knox. ‘A new editorial partnership.’ Architectural Record, (Dec 1956): 9.

Shear, John Knox. “Developments Affecting the Practice of Architecture Specialization of Practice.” Journal of Architectural Education (1947-1974), Vol. 11, No. 2 (Summer, 1956): 6.

Shear, John Knox. “Editorial.” Architectural Record, (Aug 1955):132.

Shear, John Knox. “How should architecture be taught?” Architectural Record, (Sep 1954): 182.

Shear, John Knox. “How do students become architects?” Architectural Record, (October 1954): 178.

Shear, John Knox. “The history of a room.” Charette, (Apr. 1950).

Shear, John Knox. “Who should study architecture?” Architectural Record, (Aug 1954): 194.

Simons, John Ormsbee. Landscape Architecture: The shaping of man’s natural environment. New York: F. W. Dodge Corporation, 1962.

Smith, Herbert et. al, Mid-century Houses with Technical Design Details and Data by the Editors of the Architectural Record. New York, NY: F. W. Dodge Co., 1950.

Stern, Robert; Stamp, Jimmy, Pedagogy and Place:100 years of Architecture Education at Yale, (New Haven:Yale University Press, 2016).

Stowell, William Henry Harrison, Stowell genealogy: A record of the descendants of Samuel Stowell of Hingham, Mass., (Rutland, VT: The Tutle Co.,1922), 7.

Stowell, Kenneth, Modernizing Buildings for Profit, (New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1935).

Stowell, Kenneth, “More–and faster–now,” Architectural Record, (March 1942): 37.

Stowell, Kenneth, “Design for Sale,” Architectural Record, (August, 1943): 41.

Stowell, Kenneth, “Plan for planning,” Architectural Record, (October, 1942): 35.

Stowell, Kenneth, “Trends: One, Two, Three,” Architectural Record, (October 1943): 43.

Stowell, Kenneth, “Design for Democracy,” Architectural Record, (July 1944): 36-37

Stowell, Kenneth, “They plan for the future,” Architectural Record (Sept 1942): 37.

Stowell, Kenneth, “Coordinating the coordinators,” Architectural Record, (May 1947): 35.

Stowell, Kenneth, “Design for sale,” Architectural Record, (Aug. 1943): 41.

Stowell, Kenneth, “Coordinating the coordinators,” Architectural Record, (May 1947): 35.

Stowell, Kenneth, “Plan now–with assurance”, Architectural Record, (November 1944): 57.

Stowell, Kenneth, “The house of the future, 194?-195?,” Architectural Record, (July 1943): 51.

Stowell, Kenneth, “Individual initiative,” Architectural Record, (April 1944): 63.

Stowell, Kenneth, “Codes, costs and standards,” Architectural Record, (February 1949): 83.

Stowell, Kenneth, “Who designs America’s houses?,” Architectural Record, (September 1948): 81.

Stowell, Kenneth, “Revelation by competition,” Architectural Record, (March 1949): 85.

Stowell, Kenneth, “Small houses, unlimited,” Architectural Record, (May 1948): 87.

Stowell, Kenneth, “Architects anonymous,” Architectural Record, (July 1948): 87.

Stowell, Kenneth, “Design for democracy now,” (Architectural Record, August 1942): 29.

Stowell, Kenneth, “Through words to words,” Architectural Record, (April 1947): 71.

Stowell, Kenneth, “Get in and Push,” Architectural Record, June 1947: 83.

Stowell, Kenneth, “Poor relations – Public, that is,” Architectural Record, (July 1947):69.

Stowell, Kenneth, “We believe…,” Architectural Record, (May 1949): 85

Stowell, Kenneth, “Which way lies freedom?” Architectural Record, (August 1948): 87.

“Structure and space in contemporary architecture.” (Feb 1955): 20-23.

Stubblebine, Jo (ed.), The Northwest architecture of Pietro Belluschi, (New York, NY: F.W.Dodge Co., 1953).

Tafuri, Manfredo, “The Disenchanted Mountain: The Skyscraper and the City.”The American City: From the Civil War to the New Deal, Gino Ciucci et al., (Boston: MIT Press, 1973), 391.

Tomlan, Michael A. “Architectural Press U.S.” In the Encyclopedia of architecture: Design, engineering & construction, Volume 1, 1st ed. Washington DC, USA: Wiley, 1990.

Temko, Allan, “Thompson, Elisabeth Kendall obituary”, SF Gate,April 21, 1998,


The Illio, (Urbana: University of Illinois, 1923): 443.

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art, s.v. “Hudnut, Joseph,” by Anthony Alofsin, Vol. 1, (New York, NY:

Oxford University Press, 2011), 558.

Thompson, Elisabeth Kendall, “A bronze plaque is not enough,” Architectural Record, (Nov. 1963).

Thompson, Elisabeth Kendall, “A sound beginning: at grass roots,” Architectural Record, (Oct. 1964).

Thompson, Elisabeth Kendall, “A sound beginning,” Architectural Record, (May 1958).

Thompson, Elisabeth Kendall, “The gap that does not close,” Architectural Record, (Jan., 1964).

Thompson, Elisabeth Kendall, “What price good design,” Architectural Record, (May 1962).

Thompson, Elisabeth Kendall, “For Shell-conscious architects and engineers,” Architectural Record (August 1962).

Thompson, Elisabeth Kendall, “The changing practice of architecture,” Architectural Record, (Nov. 1960).

Thompson, Elisabeth Kendall, “Wanted: New concepts” Architectural Record, (Feb 1964).

Thompson, Elisabeth Kendall, “All the brains are not in academe,” Architectural Record, (Feb. 1965).

Thompson, Elisabeth Kendall, “An end to pollution of urban vistas” Architectural Record, (Nov. 1965).

Thompson, Elisabeth Kendall, “Time to take account,” Architectural Record, (May 1964)

Thompson, Elisabeth Kendall, “Beauty is a bargain,” Architectural Record, (Oct. 1965).

Thompson, Elisabeth Kendall, “Time and money for the ‘new’ urban design,” Architectural Record, (April 1965).

Thompson, Elisabeth Kendall, “Conversation at noon: Or criticism on the half shell,” Architectural Record, (Nov. 1961).

Thompson, Elisabeth Kendall, “Criticism is more than a flaming sword.” Architectural Record, (Dec. 1961)., accessed 5 Feb. 2020, “Italy’s contemporary architecture,” (Feb 1956): 58; 62.

University of Wisconsin Yearbook, The Badger: Volume XL (1926): 326. Retrieved from accessed Oct 2019.

USA. Government Printing Office, Department of the Air Force Appropriations of the House of Representatives. 1977.Hearing before a subcommittee of the committee on appropriations house of representatives: ninety-fifth congress, part 2. Washington DC:86.

“War planning and defence,” Architectural Record, (Dec 1950).

Wiggins, Glenn E. 1995 “Mumford and Wright: The power of the critic.” In 83rd ACSA Annual meeting proceedings, 1995: 142.

White, James Terry (ed), National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Vol 20, 353.

Wickersham, Jay. “From disinterested expert to marketplace competitor: how anti-monopoly law transformed the ethics and economics of American architecture in the 1970s,” Architectural Theory Review, vol. 20, no 2, (2015): 138-158.

Woods, Mary Norman, “The American Architect and Building News, 1876-1907,” (PhD dissertation, Columbia University, 1983).

Woods, Mary Norman, “The First American Architectural Journals: The Profession’s Voice”, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 48, No. 2, (June 1989).

Working group, Hearing before a subcommittee of the committee on appropriations house of representatives: ninety-fifth congress, part 2, (Washington DC: US Government Printing Office, 1977), 86.

Yamasaki, Minoru. “Toward an architecture for enjoyment.” Architectural Record, (Aug. 1955): 142.






Book (Full version)