A+BE | Architecture and the Built Environment https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe <p>Open access doctoral thesis&nbsp;series on Architecture and the Built Environment</p> TU Delft Open en-US A+BE | Architecture and the Built Environment 2212-3202 Understanding comfort and health of outpatient workers in hospitals, a mixed-methods study https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6109 <p>Against the backdrop of an increasing need for healthcare, staff shortages and relatively high rates of sick leave, understanding of wellbeing (comfort and health) of hospital workers is important. This research aims to provide a contribution, through a mixed-methods approach, with broad and in-depth insights into comfort and health. Therefore, data have been collected from questionnaires, building inspections, interviews, and photos, and analysed with several techniques. Personal, work, and building-related aspects were included in data collection, because a preliminary literature review identified mutual relations with comfort and health. As previous studies on outpatient workers were missing, while staff is generally less satisfied with comfort than patients, this research focuses on staff in outpatient areas. To gain insights into the outpatient workers’ comfort and health, four important aspects are highlighted: differences in comfort in relation to room types, occupant profiles differentiated by the individuals’ preferences and satisfaction, changes of preferences due to contextual changes, and associations of health with building-related aspects. This research builds on previous studies which identified indoor environmental quality (IEQ) profiles of home occupants and school children. New are social comfort profiles, comparison between room types and contextual influence on preferences, as well as the studied occupant group and building. The study enables academical and practical exploration of preferences and perceptions of comfort and their integration in the design process.</p> <p>AnneMarie Eijkelenboom, architect with 25 years’ experience, is determined to improve wellbeing of occupants through expansion and integration of academical knowledge and practical experience in design of buildings.</p> AnneMarie Eijkelenboom Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-12 2021-10-12 19 1 310 10.7480/abe.2021.19.6109 Disclosing Interstices https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6070 <p>Leftover spaces are neglected and obsolete spaces within the city. As they are temporarily unoccupied by defined urban functions, leftover spaces provide unique “interstitial conditions” that open for wild species as well as different informal social activities, offering crucial complements to the formal and defined urban spaces. In this context, the design of leftover spaces poses a paradox between the practice of design that projects a set of definitions onto the site, and the indeterminacy of leftover spaces that opens for appropriation and interpretation. By recognizing this paradox within the design of leftover spaces, this thesis strives to explore open-ended design approaches that engage leftover spaces without losing their essential qualities of indeterminacy. Three case studies—Valby Smedestræde 2 in Copenhagen, Le Jardin Du Tiers-Paysage [the Garden of the Third Landscape] in Saint-Nazaire, and the Dalston Eastern Curve Garden in London are scrutinized with a uniform framework consisting of four lenses: the morphological, social, ecological and material lens. The plan, the section, the perspective and axonometric drawings are used as tools to examine the cases and further, to represent the results of reading through each lens. The study delivers four general modi operandi—disclosing, selecting, founding, and sustaining—for engaging with the interstitial condition of leftover spaces. This thesis further invites for an exploration on the role of “gardeners”, nurtures and balances diverse social and ecological practices in the on-going transformation of the site.</p> Sitong Luo Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-09 2021-09-09 19 1 370 10.7480/abe.2021.16.6070 Computational Design of Indoor Arenas (CDIA) https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6050 <p>Indoor arenas are important public buildings catering for various activities (e.g., sports events, stage performances, assemblies, exhibitions, and daily sports for the public) and serving as landmarks in urban contexts. The multi-functional space and long-span roof structure of an indoor arena are highly interrelated, which impact the multi-functionality and structural performance and mainly define the overall form of the building. Therefore, it is crucial to integrate the multi-functional space and long-span roof structure to formulate proper forms for indoor arenas, in order to satisfy various design requirements during the conceptual design. This thesis aims at formulating a computational design method, ‘Computational Design of Indoor Arena (CDIA)’, to support the conceptual design of indoor arenas by using the computational techniques of parametric modelling, Building Performance Simulations (BPSs), Multi-Objective Optimizations (MOOs), surrogate models based on Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN), and clustering based on Self-Organizing Map (SOM clustering). In the formulation of CDIA, these techniques are modified, improved and organized into five components and three workflows, to satisfy the demands of the conceptual design of indoor arenas.</p> Wang Pan Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 19 1 296 10.7480/abe.2021.10.6050 Space layout and energy performance https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5972 <p>Studies have shown that space layout design can impact the building energy performance (BEP). However, its isolated effect on the BEP has not been identified yet. Performative computational architecture has proven to be effective to improve the BEP. However, only a few studies have tried to apply the performative computational architecture to space layout design. This research aims to investigate how space layout affects BEP, and to develop a computational optimisation method for space layout to improve the BEP of office buildings. Firstly, the mechanism on how space layout affects the BEP and how much energy is affected by space layout were identified through literature review and simulation. 11 layouts with different function allocations were simulated and compared. The outcome showed that layout variance affected lighting the most, and the maximum difference happened in Harbin, being 46% without shading and 35% with shading. As a follow-up, another literature review was conducted, which identified the functional requirements of space layout design, methods for automatic generation of space layout, and requirements for energy performance optimisation. In addition, a computational method was developed to optimise space layout design for energy performance improvement, regardless of functional requirements. As a result, the relationship between space layout and energy demands were recognised. In conclusion, space layout has proven to be a significant influence on the BEP, and conscientious design can improve it. For optimal energy performance, manual design of space layout is not feasible; in order to do that, a computational approach is needed.</p> Tiantian Du Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-14 2021-07-14 19 1 248 10.7480/abe.2021.15.5972 Solar Geometry in Performance of the Built Environment https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5920 <p>As part of the passive design strategy, the development of computational solar envelopes plays a major role to construct a cooperative environmental performance exchange between new buildings and their local contexts. However, the state-of-the-art computational solar envelopes pose a great challenge in understanding site characteristics from a given context. Existing methods predominantly construct 3D context models based on basic architectural geometric shapes, which are often isolated from the surrounding properties of local contexts (i.e., vegetation, materials). Thus, they only focus on context-oriented buildings and energy quantities that unfortunately lack a contextual solar performance analysis. It is clear that this condition may result in a fragmented understanding of the local context during the design and simulation process. With the potential application of attribute point cloud information, it is necessary to consider relevant parameters such as surface and material properties of existing contexts during the simulation of solar geometries, which are currently absent in computational frameworks. As such, the new method is required to enable architects not only to measure specific performances of the local context but also to identify vulnerable areas that may affect the proposed design. This research focuses on exploring an integrated computational design method for solar geometry based on solar and shading envelopes, and geometric and radiometric information from point cloud data. In particular, two computational models consisting of SOLEN (Subtractive Solar Envelopes) and SHADEN (Subtractive Shading Envelopes) are developed, which are applied to temperate and tropical climates, respectively. In design practice, these models help architects to produce informed-design decisions towards high-performed building massing.</p> Miktha Farid Alkadri Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 19 1 260 10.7480/abe.2021.13.5920 Land in Limbo https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5813 <p>Numerous actors have been involved in the planning of the port and city of Naples. National and local authorities—namely central government, the Region, the Municipality of Naples, and the Port Authority—act upon the port at different scales, according to diverging interest and by using different planning tools. Each entity has different spatial claims and contrastive views on what port city integration can be. Their diverse goals have led port and city to develop into separate entities, from a spatial, cultural, economic as well as administrative perspective. The different scopes of their planning are particularly visible in the areas at the intersection of land and water, where the relationship is characterized by waiting conditions across different dimensions and scales.<br>The separation between port and city in Naples originates from history. This PhD thesis looks at the past as a resource, sometimes as a problem in the way it produces inertia, but certainly as a heritage made of signs, traces, and cultures, written and rewritten on the urban palimpsest. Using and challenging the concept of path dependence—defined here as a resistance by institutions and people to change patterns of behavior and to repeat previous decisions and experiences—this PhD thesis argues that in order to overcome inertia, it is important to recognize the interests and spatial claims of all the stakeholders involved port city planning and to identify shared goals and values as a foundation for future design.</p> Paolo De Martino Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-14 2021-05-14 19 1 288 10.7480/abe.2021.09.5813 Hybrid Intelligence in Architectural Robotic Materialization (HI-ARM) https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5799 <p>With increasing advancements in information and manufacturing technologies, there is an ever‑growing need for innovative integration and application of computational design and robotic fabrication in architecture. Hybrid Intelligence in Architectural Robotic Materialization (HI-ARM) provides methods and frameworks that target this need. HI-ARM introduces methodologies and technologies that incorporate computational, fabrication and material intelligence in integrated design-to-robotic-production workflows. The intelligence is explored at multiple architectural scales (Macro, Meso, Micro) through hybridization of building processes or multi-mode robotic production and multi-materiality. Porosity, Hybridity, and Assembly are introduced as main constituents for materialization frameworks relying on computational design and robotic production. These are tested in a series of original experiments that are presented in this thesis together with four peer-reviewed published papers discussing the process of developing integrated design-to-production methodologies in detail. The contributions show how both architectural materialization processes and building products can be customized in different phases and scales. Moreover, the developed discourse and definitions address the impacts of this research through the lenses of computation and automation in research, education, and practice in the fields of Architecture, Engineering, and Construction.</p> Sina Mostafavi Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 19 1 266 10.7480/abe.2021.12.5799 Cities in interaction https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5793 <p>Cities never function in isolation but as nodes in overarching systems characterised by flows of goods, people, and information. To fully understand the evolution of cities, a relational approach is needed, which investigates cities in relation to other cities and urban regions. While a significant part of urban system research has focused on aspects such as the concentration of populations and economic activities, the understanding of the actual networks connecting cities and their impact is still limited. However, the required data is notoriously difficult to obtain. This dissertation contributes to knowledge on the relationship between cities in the Netherlands by exploiting – in novel ways – three data sources: web pages mentioning cities, local historical newspapers, and administrative registers. After providing an overview of the systems of cities literature, the toponym co-occurrences method is explored. This method aims at identifying patterns of relations between cities in a systematic way by looking at the co-mentions of cities in text documents (here in web pages). Using text as data appeared as a great direction for studying urban systems, and elements from this first exploration are used in the next section of the thesis where the past dynamics of the Dutch urban system is reconstructed using information flows retrieved from digitised historical newspapers. Finally in a last empirical part, the potential of information from individual-level registers about professional and residential trajectories for measuring relations between places at multiple spatial scales is investigated. This measure is then used to reveal the nested hierarchy of functional regions in the Netherlands.</p> Antoine Peris Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 19 1 206 10.7480/abe.2021.07.5793 Quality failures in Energy-saving renovation projects in Northern China https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5751 <p>The energy-saving renovation of an existing building is a critical strategy in achieving a longterm energy goal in the Chinese context. However, in China, building energy renovation projects are subjected to quality failures resulting in energy wastage, a decrease in the energy efficiency of the project, an increase in project cost, and thus negatively affecting the overall performance of the renovation projects. In order to avoid them happening in the future, it is essential to find and analyse the causes of quality failures in energy-saving renovation projects. Therefore, using a four-step process, this research aims to deepen the understanding of the causes of quality failures in energy-saving renovation projects of the existing residential buildings. The first and second steps are to identify and analyse the quality failures and their causes. The deeper insights from a quality management perspective are explored in the third step. The fourth step is to investigate how the actors and their interactions affect and cause quality failures during the renovation policy implementation process. This research mainly concludes the causes of quality failures in the building energy renovation projects. It is important to state that most of the quality failures can be avoided at the management level. Some external causes originated at a policy level and outside the project. The findings of this research would be valuable for policy-makers and project coordinators both for predicting and avoiding quality failures and for developing proper action and policy interventions to ensure successful building energy renovations in the future.</p> Yuting Qi Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 19 1 216 10.7480/abe.2021.08.5751 The balancing act https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5750 <p>Public bodies acting in the construction industry have to deal with major transitional issues, such as globalization and urbanization, population ageing, climate change and digitalization. Moreover, the public domain, private parties and society are becoming increasingly interdependent. As a result, safeguarding public values in the built environment has become ever more complex. Public bodies face the challenge to adhere to collective public values while confronted with private and societal values of external partners. This means that they have to deal with value pluralism and value-conflicts. In research, scarce attention has been paid to providing guidance to practitioners for dealing with multi-value trade-offs in operational processes. Hence, this research provides a construction-sector specific operationalization and a network perspective to the field of public value research. This research highlights the important role to be played by public commissioning in terms of safeguarding public values. It consists of three qualitative studies that utilize a range of different methods, including interviews, observations and document analysis. By this the research provides a contemporary perspective through which to study and execute the safeguarding of public values by public clients in the transition towards network governance in the construction industry. The dynamics of the sector-specific value interests of public construction clients, the occurrence of value conflicts in commissioning, and the safeguarding processes within both internal and external commissioning are studied. The practical implications derived from the research were translated into a value dialogue tool that can be used by public construction clients to professionalize safeguarding in their daily practice.</p> Lizet Kuitert Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 19 1 234 10.7480/abe.2021.06.5750 STACKED https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5666 <p>Expanding cities across the world rely increasingly on the global food network, but should they? Population growth, urbanisation and climate change place pressure on this network, bringing its resilience into question. For decades urban agriculture has been discussed in popular media and academia as a potential solution to improve food security, quality and sustainability. The new idol in this discussion is the plant factory: A fully closed system for crop production. Arrays of LEDs provide light and hydroponics provide water and nutrients to vertically stacked layers of crops, hence the term vertical farming. The plant factory features more extensive climate control than high-tech greenhouses. The question remains whether this level of climate control is necessary, effective and/or efficient. The scope of this research is therefore to investigate the potential and limitations of plant factories for urban food production. The STACKED method was developed to address the performance of plant factories across multiple scales, from leaf to facility to city. The role of plant processes in the total energy balance was outlined first. Performance was assessed by analysing the resource requirements, including energy, electricity, water, CO2 and land area use, for the production of fresh vegetables. The impact of façade and cooling system design was analysed in detail. Lastly, the effects of local food production on the urban energy balance were assessed for various scenarios. The results of this dissertation can serve as a foundation for future studies on the application of plant factories in both theoretical and real world applications.</p> Luuk Graamans Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 19 1 266 10.7480/abe.2021.05.5666 Spatial Planning for Urban Resilience in the Face of the Flood Risk https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5635 <p>The research was inspired by the increasing impact of extreme weather events and changing climate patterns on flood-prone regions and cities, and the consequent human and economic costs. Despite global efforts for flood resilience and climate adaptation involving climate analysts, economists, social scientists, politicians, hydrological engineers, spatial planners, and policymakers, it is only partially clear how best to construct resilience measures and implement concrete initiatives. The complexity of institutions is a key factor that is often neglected, and which needs further investigation. The thesis examines the institutional arrangements that determine the role of spatial planning in managing flood risk, through an in-depth case study of Guangzhou, one of the most vulnerable cities in China and globally. The thesis employs theories of historical institutionalism, planning procedure and planning tools, policy framing and collaborative governance, to explore the mechanisms and factors that influence the creative planning and design process. Content analysis, GIS-based mapping, stakeholder analysis and TOWS analysis are used to investigate data from official policy documents, grey literature, geo-information data and interview scripts. The findings indicate that institutional arrangements, such as long-established planning traditions, formal planning procedures and tools, policy framing patterns and contextual organisational factors, determine spatial planning’s role in managing flood risk. They do this through (1) the extent of the changeability of an established planning system towards expanded flood resilience measures; (2) the performance of cross-level communication and boundary-spanning work between planning and water management; (3) the legal framework that planners and hydrological engineers follow; and (4) the capacities of planning and water management institutions to work on flood issues. This research shows how to apply knowledge from policy science, political science, institutional science and administration, to analyse the nature of the planning process in tackling the urgent challenge of flood risk and climate change.</p> Meng Meng Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-11 2021-03-11 19 1 296 10.7480/abe.2021.04.5635 Spatial Planning and Design for Resilience https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5633 <p>Faced with the highly overlapping factors of the external disturbances -- natural disasters caused by extreme climate change, and internal interactions -- the contradiction between natural conditions and rapid urbanization, traditional spatial planning and design used to pursue economic development could not be flexible enough to respond to the dynamic and uncertain future of the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Therefore, spatial planning and design should pay great attention to the fragile natural base layer and unexpected external disturbances that will negatively impact the PRD caused by increasing natural disasters, such as flooding and land subsidence situation. Based on the idea of spatial resilience, this doctoral dissertation aims to give an answer to the research question: What are the theories and methods of spatial planning and design for resilience? How is it possible to apply the theory and method of spatial planning and design for resilience to the PRD? Five major research contents are conducted. First of all, literatures on exploring the physical context, the crucial stages of spatial transformation, as well as spatial planning and design practices of the PRD are reviewed. Secondly, the theory of spatial planning and design for resilience is systematically researched. Thirdly, implementation method for spatial planning and design for resilience is provided. Fourthly, the empirical research of the theory and method of spatial planning and design for resilient PRD is conducted and possible new schemes are produced. Fifthly, the corresponding principles and strategies of resilient flood control and drainage on Hengli Island are proposed. The research outcomes obtained from this doctoral dissertation can be possibly applied to the further spatial planning and design practice for establishing a resilient PRD.</p> Wei Dai Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-10 2021-03-10 19 1 368 10.7480/abe.2021.03.5633 Housing Refurbishment for Energy Efficiency and Comfort https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5577 <p>The housing stock in Vietnam has boomed in the last few decades, especially in urbanised areas. However, the increasing number of housing units did not go along with housing quality, a healthy living environment or a sustainable building stock. Recent legislation only applies to public buildings but not the private housing sector, which accounts for the majority of the building stock. Therefore, this research aimed to contribute to a more sustainable building stock in Vietnam by improving the energy efficiency in new and renovated urban houses. This research started with examining the energy upgrade potential of the existing houses in Vietnam. Both passive and active refurbishment design measures were investigated for the Vietnamese context. Among the measures, a green facade has a large potential in energy saving. Effect of a green facade on thermal and energy performance was tested by conducting a physical experiment on a real tube house in Hanoi. Next, a stepped design strategy was introduced in a student design workshop in Vietnam. The participants were trained to apply sustainable and energy efficient design measures for Vietnamese tube houses. In addition, the vision for designing future tube houses was discussed on several sustainability aspects: urban densification, energy efficiency, circular economy and social interaction. This research is also expected to contribute to the establishing of a future national technical regulation for private housing in Vietnam.</p> Phan Anh Nguyen Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-17 2021-02-17 19 1 291 10.7480/abe.2021.02.5577 Public Rental Housing Governance in Urban China https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5576 <p>Recently, Chinese Public Rental Housing (PRH) provision has witnessed a shift from ‘government’ to ‘governance’: policy making shifted from government steering to mixed forms involving government, market and civic actors to pursue effective and fair policies. In the meantime, this new-era PRH governance is credited with mixed results. However, the existing studies fail to describe the mechanisms underlying this new-era governance of PRH with the rising involvement of market actors and those in civil society and whether the new-era governance is considered to be effective, achieving the objective of stability. Therefore, this PhD research aims to fill the two research gaps through building a better understanding of the PRH governance in the current Chinese context and evaluating PRH governance. To fulfil this aim, this dissertation is underpinned by a theoretical foundation from the governance perspective and adopts a mixedmethod approach with quantitative and qualitative data in the study of Chinese PRH provision. The dissertation reveals the essence of the current Chinese PRH governance by bringing forth a governance model and shows the structures and mechanisms for non-governmental actors to play a role in the governance of PRH. The dissertation also shows the perceived governance outcomes from tenants’ perspective and demonstrates two main governance challenges of Inclusionary Housing, a newly introduced instrument adopted in the Chinese PRH governance. Based on the results, this PhD research theoretically and empirically contributes to the housing governance literature.</p> Juan Yan Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-17 2021-02-17 19 1 182 10.7480/abe.2021.01.5576 Business Innovation Towards a Circular Economy https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5470 <p>We currently live in a carbon intensive linear economy. On the basis of burning fossil fuels, we take, make and waste an increasing amount of materials. This has pushed us against serious planetary boundaries. Radical reductions in environmental impact are needed over the coming decades. Entire economies and societies will have to reorganize. A promising candidate to support this reorganizing is a circular economy. It cuts waste, emissions and pollution, and it keeps the value of products, components and materials high over time. &nbsp;Companies can innovate towards a circular economy by following five key resource strategies: narrow, slow, close, regenerate, and inform. This thesis explores these strategies – through case research and a design science approach. It shows that an ecosystem perspective is necessary to implement these strategies – and provides tools and methods that can help to put an ecosystem perspective into action. This can help companies to develop circular ecosystem value propositions: that propose a positive collective outcome, fulfill user needs in exciting ways, and minimize environmental impact.</p> Jan Konietzko Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-06 2021-01-06 19 1 204 10.7480/abe.2020.22.5470 Mapping Landscape Spaces https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5403 <p>Landscape design focuses on the construction and articulation of outdoor space and results in landscape architectonic compositions. In order to communicate about three-dimensional forms and functions, vocabulary, representations, and tools (in terms of spatial-visual characteristics) are of fundamental importance for landscape architects to describe, interpret, and manipulate landscape spaces. While combining design vocabulary and landscape indicators, qualitative and quantitative mapping approaches, visual representation and interpretation methods, this research aims to provide a framework for describing, understanding, and communicating about spatial-visual characteristics in landscape design. A pilot study is used to explore the potential of specific mapping approaches, such as compartment analysis, 3D landscapes, grid-cell analysis, landscape metrics, visibility analysis, and eye-tracking analysis, which are employed to address spatial-visual phenomena like sequence, orientation, continuity, and complexity. Hypothetical design experiments are conducted to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of spatial-visual mapping in the design process. Interviews with designers are carried out to reflect on techniques for mapping spatial-visual characteristics in the daily practice of landscape architecture. This research opens a way in which to apply visual landscape research in the process of landscape design and supports the development of multidisciplinary approaches. By expanding the spatial-visual mapping toolbox, designers can engage in issues of landscape development, transformation, and preservation while providing realistic and instrumental clues for interventions in urban landscapes.</p> Mei Liu Copyright (c) 2020 Mei Liu 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 19 1 248 10.7480/abe.2020.20.5403 Anchoring the design process https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5351 <p>This thesis proposes a framework to address the design process in design education. Building upon the assumption that teachers, being professional designers, do not discuss the design process in the architectural design studio and do not have a vocabulary to do so, five generic elements or anchor points are defined which represent the basic design skills. The validity of the framework and the assumption is tested respectively in interviews with a variety of designers and in observations of dialogues between teachers and students. In the final test the design process is addressed in the design studio: the first experiences show that students’ understanding and self-efficacy may increase. The five elements enable teachers and students to address the designerly attitude. The way designers reason consist of: (1) experimentation; an experimentation-based way of thinking; how to explore and reflect, (2) the frame of reference; a knowledge-based way of thinking; how to work with common and proven ‘professional’ knowledge, and (3) the guiding theme; a value-based way of thinking; how to take a position in the design process. Next to that, (4) the laboratory is the (visual) language or set of means designers use to think designerly, and (5) the domains are the playing field of the designer, the product aspects s/he should address.</p> Elise van Dooren Copyright (c) 2020 Elise van Dooren 2020-10-17 2020-10-17 19 176 176 10.7480/abe.2020.17.5351 Towards an Architecture of Self-reliance https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5346 <p>This research project focuses on how decisions made by practitioners, articulating rural housing in Sub-Sahara Africa, contribute to the decreasing level of self-reliance inhabitants have regarding their housing. Multiple case studies on Mt. Elgon proved that inhabitants have a significantly higher self-reliance level, comparing traditional to modern housing. To study this phenomenon in practice and to articulate suitable design support the Design Research Methodology was chosen. The research clarification pinpointed inhabitant capacities as the key-contributor to self-reliant housing. Household survey outcomes proved that large numbers of rural inhabitant’s desire housing which they have insufficient capacities for. Indicating that the inhabitants experience a disparity between existing and desired housing capacities, moreover an inability to bridge this disparity independently, and consequently require external help. Architect seemed most appropriate to offer this help as it consist of sociocultural, engineering and design tasks. Architects are not trained in inhabitant capacity evaluation and as no suitable design tools existed, this research project developed the required design support, its application requirements and the impact measurements. These were then tested in a pilot project on Mt. Elgon. The findings were used to evaluate the support’s impact and suitability. The support tool users found it suitable to assess and integrate inhabitant capacities into housing solutions. The impact shows that the support group families have sustained their family’s level of self-reliance unlike the control group. The developed technological design, with modifications, could be used not only in rural Kenyan communities, but also help others around the continent.</p> Michiel Smits Copyright (c) 0 2020-10-14 2020-10-14 19 1 368 10.7480/abe.2020.19.5346 Urban Renewal Decision - Making in China https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5247 <p>To meet the growing rigid demand of urban housing, urban renewal has played a significant role, which significantly promotes the urban prosperity in China. However, at the same time, many problems occurred through large-scale urban renewal projects. To avoid unintended consequences that occurred in urban renewal, how these decisions were made can be one key focus. To better achieve the goal of sustainability, this research aims to deepen the understanding of urban renewal decision-making in China and contribute to recommend strategies to improve the system. Based on the participatory decision-making theory and the characteristics of urban renewal, a conceptual framework is built to achieve the aim of this research. According to the research framework, this research firstly conducted an empirical study of stakeholders’ expectations in urban renewal projects. Eighteen factors are identified and compared among the main stakeholder groups. Secondly, this research explores the stakeholders and their participation in the decision-making of urban renewal in China. Stakeholder Analysis and Social Network Analysis are complemented as the research methodology. In the third step, transaction costs theory is adopted to improve the understanding of urban renewal decision-making process in China. Based on the results of the above three steps, the last step of this research systematically determines a set of strategies for improving urban renewal decision-making in China by adopting the Analytic Network Process. The findings of this research add new knowledge on the exploration of the decision-making of public projects and can be directly adopted by the authority in practice.</p> Taozhi Zhuang Copyright (c) 2020 Taozhi Zhuang 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 19 1 202 10.7480/abe.2020.16.5247 Pearl River Delta: Scales, Times, Domains https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5212 <p>An implemented design of an urban area not only imposes long-term conditions on societal processes, but also on natural processes. The urbanization of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is a highly dynamic process that has interfered with many natural and artificial processes in the complex system. The involved human and natural processes, each with their own scale and speed of change, compose the complex urban delta landscape. The dominance of the efficiency-oriented fast urbanization process and its accompanying infrastructure development have put the deltaic social, cultural, and ecological environments at greater risk. Human activities have caused conflicts of a lack of cooperation with nature and coordination with other human activities during the rapid urbanization. The effectiveness of the related plans and designs depends on their capability to acknowledge and adapt to the nature of urban deltas.</p> <p>The research aims to provide an understanding of an urbanizing delta in which different scales, times, and domains are related to each other; and to examine how this understanding can be used in a planning and design process in a rapidly urbanizing delta. A mapping method is developed according to the key notions in the understanding of urban deltas, namely its systems, scales, and temporality. The systematic mapping approach was used to organize and analyze both short-term and long-term spatial data during the rapid delta urbanization processes by transforming spatial data via scales, times, and domains. The mapping approach works with insufficient data, which is often the case in a rapidly changing environment, to identify spatial challenges from a longterm perspective.</p> <p>Applied in the PRD, the knowledge of the development of the urban landscape had been inventoried, synthesized, and presented in its own spatial-temporal model using maps. Three types of processes (landscape formation, infrastructure extension, and urbanization) were identified according to their speeds. Spatial interactions were illustratively explained on both the delta scale and local scale from 4000 BC to the present with a time extent ranging from 2000 years to 50 years. The visualization revealed a transition of the regional pattern from a water-based mode to a land-based mode, during which an unawareness of the landscape and a detached urban pattern were developed. The present flooding issue was revealed by identifying the critical threshold signals, namely sudden changes in the spatial pattern of the dike system. Such trends increased the flood risk in the new urban areas on both the delta and regional scales. The mapping approach provided a probable vision of 2080, and a possible alternative vision. The two visions offered both the options of repair and transformation for the discussion of future planning and design. Both empirical and hypothetical mapping were deployed to provide a comprehensive understanding of the delta. Mapping served as a tool with which to not only represent existing knowledge, but also to seek missing knowledge.</p> <p>The intervention of this mapping framework was applied and evaluated in terms of design, decision-making, and education, and the insights gained were used to discover new possibilities and strategies for the delta. The systematic spatialization approach provided a spatial analysisbased design and planning alternative. In this approach, evidence-based arguments facilitated the cooperation and collaboration of professionals, stakeholders, and the interested public during the planning and design of the delta. During knowledge gathering and the re-mapping process, current stakeholders from different domains were able to collaborate, new stakeholders (the citizens) became involved, and enough awareness of natural processes was created to spur cooperation during the decision-making process. The systematic mapping across scales, time, and domains provided the stakeholders with a new mindset during design and planning, in which they were able to collaborate with each other and develop interventions that could cooperate with the natural process in the rapidly urbanizing delta. The mapping approach also directed possibilities of sustainable planning and design process by generating a circulation among the individual design, collective design, and mass awareness of the PRD. The mapping approach thus served as a vehicle that brought awareness to the spatial relationships, exchange of knowledge, and means of collaboration in both the short term and long term, on both small and large scales, and among different domains and stakeholders.</p> <p>This study contributes to the knowledge of urban delta planning and design from the following five aspects. (1) It extends the understanding of the differences and mutual influences of the urban and natural dynamics to the highest level by investigating the region with the fastest urbanization process in the past four decades. (2) It provides an approach for the analysis, understanding, and evaluation of the rapid change of urban dynamics on a large scale and with an extreme transition stage. (3) It enables the possibility of achieving a more effective, adaptive, and resilient strategy by providing an understanding of spatial knowledge. For the first time, the complexity and uncertainty of urban deltas and essential relationships (such as natural-human, land-water, and spatialmanagement relationships) on a substantial scale and with a rapid change of speed are explored. Furthermore, (4) this study devises, employs, and tests innovative visualization via multiple spatial and temporal scales. This is required to establish suitable interventions and measures via interactive communication and decision-making during the processes of design, planning, and management with stakeholders. Finally, (5) this study provides an effective data acquisition and analysis method to bypass the issues of data censorship, insufficiency, and inaccuracy in Chinese urban research. In other words, this study provides a strategy to achieve more integrated and resilient delta planning and design. It provides a substantial opportunity via visualization and spatialization to overcome the obstacle of localism among different levels of governments in the decision-making and implementation processes. It also helps to increase public awareness of, and participation in, the planning and design process, which are often lacking in the Chinese context.</p> Liang Xiong Copyright (c) 2020 Liang Xiong 2020-11-17 2020-11-17 19 1 218 10.7480/abe.2020.21.5212 African New Towns https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5198 <p>The New Towns (mixed use urban developments planned and built from scratch) initiated across the African continent since 1990 are overwhelmingly designed and built according to urban planning models from the previous century (Watson 2013; Marcinkowski 2018; Keeton and Provoost 2019). This has produced a generation of New Towns with rigid physical infrastructure and strict building regulations, that do not support the spatial manifestations of the ‘informal’ sector. As a result, these New Towns may become insular enclaves and informal settlements may develop adjacently to them. Residents of these adjacent areas may not have access to the services and amenities offered within the New Towns (Keeton and Provoost 2019). Coupled with the implicit vulnerabilities of emerging and threshold economies, the contextual mismatch of the imported urban models exacerbates spatial segregation at an urban scale. Additionally, contemporary New Town models often do not take current climate variability or future climate change threats into account. As implemented in the African context, they rarely respond effectively to surrounding natural landscapes or environmental sensitivities (Keeton and Nijhuis 2019).</p> <p>Building on the arguments that (1) equal access to resources is a key component of sustainable development and that (2) urban planning benefits from new linkages between critical social theory and environmental science, this research proposes that applying adaptive urban planning principles to New Towns in the African context can increase ecological sustainability and social inclusivity (WCED 1987; Fainstein and Campbell 2012). The objective of this research is therefore to address the spatial challenges of African New Towns by developing an alternative planning and design approach that acknowledges both social and environmental dimensions, as well as the constant state of change that all cities exhibit. This is done by addressing four main research questions: (1) What are the spatial problems of African New Towns caused by the application of common planning approaches? (2) What are the principles of a more adaptive and sustainable planning and design approach and how can they address these problems? (3) How and to what extent can the adaptive planning and design principles be improved and applied? And finally, (4) As a result of the findings, how can adaptive planning approaches and the related principles be implemented?</p> <p>The research first identifies the spatial challenges specific to contemporary African New Towns through a combination of empirical data collection and literature review. The research moves forward to bring these shared spatial challenges together with a set of guidelines for New Towns originally written by Michelle Provoost as an addition to UN-Habitat’s New Urban Agenda (Provoost 2016). The analysis of shared spatial challenges is used to revise, expand and refine these guidelines into a set of adaptive planning and design principles specific to African New Towns. The resulting principles are then tested by applying them through case study analysis of three existing New Towns to establish their universality as well as their ability to acknowledge local specificities.</p> <p>In the final phase of the research, two short-term workshops validate the results by testing implementation of the principles in two African New Towns (Tatu City, Kenya and Mahonda, Zanzibar). The research concludes that the adaptive planning and design principles can be an effective starting point for stakeholders involved in the development of New Towns across Africa. It furthermore concludes that these principles must be adapted locally to meet the individual urgencies of different sites.</p> <p>This research contributes to the existing body of literature on contemporary African New Towns (Watson 2014; Murray 2017; Van Noorloos and Kloosterboer 2018; Keeton and Provoost 2019). Notably, most authors working on this topic primarily employ internet sources or a single case study to build their arguments, which can be problematic in the African context where remotely-sourced data is often unreliable and New Towns as a group exhibit vast divergences that may limit the transferability of results from individual case studies. This research therefore fills a knowledge gap by bringing together empirical evidence acquired during fieldwork in Angola, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, and Tanzania, combined with literature review and the results of interdisciplinary workshops to support its claims. It also contributes to the current debate on normative assumptions regarding planning in the Global South (Watson 2002; Watson 2016; Cirolia and Berrisford 2017), and directly addresses the disconnect between academia and practice regarding contemporary African New Towns (Grubbaur 2019; Keeton and Provoost 2019). Finally, this study aims to provide an alternative approach for planners, developers and decision-makers initiating tomorrow’s New Towns in Africa.</p> Rachel Keeton Copyright (c) 2020 Rachel Keeton 2020-08-28 2020-08-28 19 1 368 10.7480/abe.2020.18.5198 Samenspel in stedelijke vernieuwing https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5197 <p>Investeringen door woningcorporaties zijn van groot belang voor de continuïteit van de stedelijke vernieuwing in Nederland. Corporaties keren echter terug naar hun kerntaak en zijn terughoudend om te werken aan herdifferentiatie van vernieuwingswijken. Dit proefschrift maakt inzichtelijk op welke wijze investeringsbeslissingen van woningcorporaties in stedelijke vernieuwing tot stand komen in samenwerking met andere actoren. Op basis van een casestudy zijn eerst factoren verkend die van invloed zijn op het investeringsgedrag. Vervolgens is aan de hand van gamesimulaties onderzocht of corporaties en respectievelijk beleggers, bouwers en gemeenten elkaar kunnen stimuleren om te investeren door een andere samenwerkingswijze. De onderzoeksresultaten wijzen uit dat er met name kansen liggen in de samenwerking van corporaties met beleggers en gemeenten. In het samenspel met beleggers is onder meer transparantie van belang en is cultuurverschil een belemmerende factor. In het samenspel met bouwers leiden langdurige samenwerkingsafspraken tot meer snelheid in investeringsbeslissingen, maar niet tot de gewenste kostenreductie. In het samenspel met gemeenten zijn een gedeelde visie en een wederkerige vertrouwensrelatie van groot belang.</p> Nicole Plasschaert Copyright (c) 2019 Nicole Plasschaert 2020-08-28 2020-08-28 19 1 306 10.7480/abe.2019.11.5197 Control Shift https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5195 <p>The legacy of industrialisation counts only a few decades of being accepted as cultural heritage. The change of perceptions over its connotation and significance, from a menace to historic landscapes to an outstanding historical resource, took place in an era of massive sociocultural and economic upheavals. Those far-reaching developments reshaped both the theory and the practice of heritage conservation.</p> <p>Since the 1970s, new conservation approaches started emerging and being employed, next to the long established strategies of preservation and restoration. Adaptive reuse was included in the repertoire of conservation and quickly gained ground, as a strategy which allowed both the preservation of heritage values and sustainable development. The incorporation of adaptive reuse as an alternative conservation approach marked a noteworthy shift in heritage care. Contemporary conservation seized aiming at the prevention of change. Instead, it embraced it, following the new axiom: ‘Managing change’.</p> <p>This dissertation, positioned in the crossroads of the heritage conservation, architectural and spatial planning fields, focuses on Industrial Heritage Reuse practice in Europe. Despite widely employed in the last half century, Industrial Heritage Reuse still remains particularly challenging and highly confusing, hiding internal and external risks. Those resonate from the conditions of present times, the ambiguities of the contemporary framework of conservation, the embedded dilemmas of the Reuse practice as well as from the particularities of this special heritage group.</p> <p>This vastly complex yet fascinating topic has not yet been studied holistically under the circumstances dictated by the contemporary era. A deeper and broader understanding of the practice has assumed greater urgency in the 21st century, as it is the stepping stone for the enhancement of the practice -a demand that is increasingly stressed by academic and professional circles.</p> <p>The aim of this dissertation is to explore the potential of enhancement of the Industrial Heritage Reuse through the identification and analysis of its influencing Aspects, under the light of the contemporary theoretical conservation concepts, the current demands of the field of practice and the rising challenges of the 21st century context.</p> <p>This research addresses a topical issue, drawing from the concepts of the contemporary theory of conservation, challenging outdated theoretical notions and conventional practical and methodological applications. Furthermore, it sheds light to a hazy and confusing subject, addressing the tensions and the unresolved issues, highlighted by the existing literature on multiple disciplines. It revisits and reinterprets the standing axiom ‘Managing Change’, providing the scientific community with missing answers on the way, the Actors and the criteria based on which this can be achieved. Drawing upon both theory and practice on an international level, this inquiry gives a holistic and multileveled view on the subject under investigation, stimulating further thought and debate.</p> <p>Apart from extending the academic body of knowledge, the intention of this doctoral research is also to become a useful springboard for the practitioners that engage with Industrial Heritage Reuse. In order to achieve that, this dissertation presents an international and retrospective review of Industrial Heritage care, allowing experience drawn from one country to inform approaches on safeguarding via Reuse on other countries. Furthermore, it offers inspiration and raises awareness through the ‘ReIH’ online knowledge platform (http://reindustrialheritage.eu/projects) and the analysis of twenty cases studies of best practice. Lastly, taking into account the pressing issues of sustainability, equality and multilateralism, it offers guidance, providing a much needed alternative framework for the conservation of Industrial Heritage. This framework is capable of practical implementation and can contribute to an enhanced, more responsive, more sustainable, more inclusive, more value-driven and more holistic practice.</p> Theodora Chatzi Rodopoulou Copyright (c) 2020 Theodora Chatzi Rodopoulou 2020-08-21 2020-08-21 19 1 630 10.7480/abe.2020.13.5195 Multiscale spatial contexts and neighbourhood effects https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5194 <p>This thesis has developed alternative methods of operationalising neighbourhoods at multiple spatial scales and used them to advance our understanding of spatial inequalities and neighbourhood effects. The underlying problem that motivated this thesis is that many empirical studies use predefined administrative units, and this does not often align with the underlying theory or geography. Despite the extensive literature on neighbourhood effects and, more generally, on sociospatial inequalities, spatial scale remains an under-analysed concept. As a response to this research gap, this thesis takes a multiscale approach to both theory and empirical analysis of neighbourhood effects, highlighting the multitude of spatial processes that may affect individual outcomes of people. To operationalise this, we created bespoke areas (centred around each location) at a range of one hundred scales representing people’s residential contexts, primarily in the Netherlands but also in multiple European capitals. Using microgeographic data and a large number of scales combined with small distance increments revealed subtle changes in sociodemographic characteristics across space. In doing so, we provided new insights into ethnic segregation, potential exposures to poverty, and neighbourhood effects on income, all in light of the fundamental issue of spatial scale: The analyses of sociospatial inequalities are substantially affected by the scale used to operationalise spatial context, and this varies within and between cities and urban regions. The aim of this thesis was therefore not to find a single, ‘true’ scale of neighbourhood, but to acknowledge, operationalise, and better understand the multiplicity of spatial scales.</p> Ana Petrović Copyright (c) 2020 Ana Petrović 2020-08-21 2020-08-21 19 1 192 10.7480/abe.2020.15.5194 The Privatisation of a National Project https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5193 <p>In Israel, the development of new settlements is a leading national project. This began in the turn of the 20th century as national Zionist organisations established new frontier settlements in Palestine, in the efforts to secure the territory needed for a future state and to encourage a spiritual national renaissance. With its establishment in 1948, the young state of Israel took over the process, continuing the pre-state settlement endeavours of securing spatial control while endorsing a new unified national identity. Accordingly, the state promoted, directed, and executed the construction of a series of rural and industrial settlements that corresponded with the national geopolitical agenda and the hegemonic socialisation policy. Consequently, the architectural and urban features of these settlements were parallel to the ruling political, economic and social values and were thus characterised by reproduced homogeneous and economical residential environments.</p> <p>During the 1970s, the monolithic state-led development began to transform with the growing privatisation of the Israeli economy. These transformations reached a point of no return with the election of the first liberal and anti-socialist government in 1977; eventually turning into a national consensus. At the same time, the state did not abandon its geopolitical agenda and the attempts of securing spatial control through settlement. Nevertheless, it began dismantling its monopoly over the establishment of new localities, granting selected group spatial privileges and thus turning them into spatial agents that develop the frontier on its behalf. Initially, the privatisation of the national settlement project began with ex-urban and suburban communities, serving favoured societal groups. Eventually, with the growing involvement of private capital, it turned into a large-scale corporate-led development venture, dictated by financial interests while fulfilling geopolitical objectives.</p> <p>Privatisation, neoliberalism and market-economy are usually used as an antithesis to state involvement, regulation and nationalism. Conversely, this dissertation illustrates that the privatisation of the national territorial project was a statedirected effort intended to align the geopolitical agenda with the prevailing neoliberal order; using the market-economy as a means to enhance the state’s control over space. This dissertation focuses on the border area with the occupied Palestinian West-Bank, the Green-Line. Scarcely populated in the first three decades after the establishment of Israel, this area witnessed an ever-growing state-directed development effort following the occupation of the Palestinian territories in 1967.&nbsp;Developed by an increasing private involvement, this area constitutes a unique case study on the relationship between geopolitics and market economy; marked by the construction of the first privately developed national infrastructure project in the early 2000s – the Trans-Israel Highway.</p> <p>To understand the privatisation of this national project since 1977, this dissertation proposes focusing on the settlement mechanism. This comprises the reciprocal interests of the state and various private groups to develop and domesticate the frontier area of the Green-Line. Centring on the spatial privileges the state granted diverse spatial agents, this dissertation examines how different favoured groups were given the power to colonise, plan, develop and market space in return for enhancing the state’s power over it. Investigating how this settlement mechanism transformed over the years, including a variety of spatial agents and diverse spatial privileges, this research explores the increasing privatisation of the local economy and culture, as well as the manner in which it was manifested in the built environment. Examining the modifications in the architectural and urban products this mechanism produced, this research analyses the materialisation of the privatised national settlement project and how it transformed together with the changing political and economic interests.</p> <p>Focusing on the area along the Green-Line, this dissertation starts with examining the Community Settlements of the late 1970s and then moves to the Suburban Settlements of the 1980s. Examining both phenomena, the dissertation explains how their ex-urban and suburban qualities corresponded with the granted spatial privileges, forming a geopolitical tool intended to domesticate the Green-Line. Subsequently, the dissertation concentrates on the mass suburbanisation of the 1990s and the financialisation of the 2000s. Examining both stages, this dissertation illustrates how the state asked to domesticate the frontier by turning it into a real estate market; directing investment while securing the developers’ profitability and rentability concerns. Observing these four stages, this dissertation examines the gradual privatisation of the settlement mechanism. Analysing the different settlement phenomena, this research explains how the transforming individual and corporate interests were manifested in the built environment. Eventually, enabling the continuation of the national geopolitical agenda by tying it to the rationale of the market; replacing the former monolithic state-led development by uniform and reproduced corporate-led projects.</p> Gabriel Schwake Copyright (c) 2020 Gabriel Schwake 2020-08-21 2020-08-21 19 1 416 10.7480/abe.2020.14.5193 Energetische upgrading van Nederlandse Wederopbouw flats https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5192 <p><strong>Problem definition</strong></p> <p>According to the European Union, the future (2050) will be completely energy neutral and circular. Renovation concepts are needed for making existing homes more sustainable, taking into account the housing qualities of the existing stock, changed requirements and housing requirements, accessibility of the concepts on a large scale and simultaneous technical, social, energetic and circular renovation. For terraced houses, many energy concepts and strategies are available for the energy transition in the direction of energy neutral, while for high-rise houses, little knowledge is available. In the area of renovation to circular, as far as feasible, little knowledge is available. The research, therefore, focuses on high-rise system houses from the Reconstruction period 1950-1975, with a focus on the energetic spatial part of the renovation concept.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong></p> <p>The research aims to develop possible strategies for energetically upgrading existing Dutch high-rise system houses from the Reconstruction period to energy-neutral for large-scale application with a view to circularity. This objective has practical relevance: society benefits from large-scale upgrades to achieve European climate objectives. Corporations, which primarily own the Reconstruction high-rise flats for social rental, owners’ associations and residents, benefit from new insights that can contribute to the circular energy upgrade of this stock. The theoretical relevance is to increase scientific knowledge in the field of energetic and circular upgrading.</p> <p><strong>Research methods</strong></p> <p>The existing high-rise housing stock from the Reconstruction Period (Flat 1.0) is mapped based on literature research and case studies to provide an answer to possible strategies for energy upgrading. The theoretical framework studies general system theory and various layers approaches to support the research. The essential concepts are defined using literature research. Flat 2.0 categories energetic&nbsp;adjustments focused on ‘comfort upgrading’. The focus of a new generation of adaptations of Reconstruction of high-rise flats (Flat 3.0) is on spatial energy upgrading to energy-neutral apartments and on which design principles and technical and energetic principles they are based.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p> <p>The system theory provides tools for determining the choice of modular or integral upgrading. The scale-up of upgrades requires a modular approach because of a few relationships beyond a specific system boundary of upgrade elements. Accessibility and a layered approach are essential conditions.</p> <p>The simultaneity of the necessary technical, social, energetic and circular renovation, with the approximately 650,000 porch houses and 250,000 gallery houses that have to be renovated in a short time, provides an entirely different approach to the Flat 3.0 upgrade concept. This forces a radical approach in which an incremental approach is no longer sufficient. Scaling requires industrially oriented, innovative ideas.</p> <p>Flat 3.0 describes five possible strategies in the form of positions relative to the thermal shell, and combinations between them, to limit heat loss.</p> <p>Eliminating structural and building physical defects of the existing stock (Flat 1.0) is an opportunity for functional upgrading in the field of accessibility and social safety. Comfort upgrading (Flat 2.0) is the starting point. The technical upgrading of the shell of the building can take place in several ways: adapt the existing shell or place a new shell for the current shell. Both whether or not in combination with an extension or with gallery/balcony replacement due to thermal bridges or poor technical condition. Sixteen strategies are described for this. A simple building model shows the relationship between energy ambition and the amount of self-generated energy on or on the building. The building model shows that with a closedness of at least 40 % of the sun-oriented facade, 40 % of the access facade and 100 % of both end facades and roof, the generation of standardized building-related and user-related energy can be met on an annual basis. The possible closedness of the facade consists of 5 principal variants. The design of the upgrade depends on the construction method within which a construction system has been applied. A unique way is an entirely new circular ‘overcladding’ around the existing building envelope. The new industrial overcladding repairs defects in the old building envelope. Functionally, this means better wheelchair accessibility, better separation between public and private and more spacious balconies for increased living comfort. The roof zone and the front wall zone can serve as a place for additional housing for small families in the form of stacked&nbsp;and connected tiny active flat house modules. These modules designed for circularity simultaneously provide thermal upgrading of the relevant existing facade surfaces. To become energy-neutral or even energy-supplying, and thus also to meet the userrelated energy demand, the façade and roof area sustainable can generate energy. Enlargement of these energy-generating surfaces is an essential condition for a lower closedness of the residential facade.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations</strong></p> <p>The indicated directions for the upgrade of high-rise flats can be converted into specific elaborations for specific high-rise flats in particular contexts with particular clients. The detailing and materialization in support of the modular circular upgrade principle are central to this. Besides, financial feasibility based on circular business models and multiple value creation needs additional research.</p> Frits Schultheiss Copyright (c) 2020 Frits Schultheiss 2020-08-21 2020-08-21 19 1 518 10.7480/abe.2020.12.5192 Architectural Record 1942-1967 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5191 <p>This PhD thesis examines the editorial policies and publishing history of the American periodical Architectural Record in the quarter century from 1942 to 1967. Operating since 1891, the Architectural Record is the longest-living and most circulated professional magazine of architecture, with a strong and lasting impact on the development of the discipline and the profession in the US and abroad. As an archive of architectural knowledge, its history during the mid-20th century is revealing the paradigm shift that occurred in-between the emergence of Modernism in pre-war Europe and its transition to Post-Modernism in the second half of the 20th c., as a largely American issue. The success and influence of the magazine was due to the resources of its parent corporations, F.W. Dodge and McGraw-Hill, its support and acknowledgement by professional and academic organizations and the connections, commitment and inventiveness of its editors. The editorial campaigns of the magazine trace the struggle for the adaptation of the modern movement in the American context and through that to its subsequent global eminence as “contemporary architecture,” a term popularised by the Record.</p> <p>In the midst of the media revolution, the architectural magazines saw the transformation of the profession to an information-based business, beyond an art and an engineering science. At a time when “architectural composition” was redefined into “architectural design.” Amongst the greater media revolution emerging aggressively in the US, the Architectural Record undertook the task of catering for the needs of the practising architect in the post-industrial, managerial and information age. And while initially the magazines were following the architectural developments, reporting on literal images of architecture, by 1967 its editors were educating, managing, consulting and navigating the profession trough its new markets. This trajectory pinackled in the Record's editorial campaign for “the image of the architect” that exemplified the phenomenon of how magazines were lobbying for the profession. A phenomenon that is still largely inexplored and that defines 21st architectural practice and design.</p> <p>But more than any theoretical sub-narrative, this thesis is dedicated to the history of the people and events that took place behind the pages of this era-defining magazine through the archives and living records of their time.</p> Phoebus Ilias Panigyrakis Copyright (c) 2020 Phoebus Ilias Panigyrakis 2020-08-21 2020-08-21 19 1 348 10.7480/abe.2020.11.5191 Countercurrent Heat Exchange Building Envelope Using Ceramic Components https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5190 <p>Research and development in building envelope design have promoted the convergence of two system types, Thermo-Active Building Systems and Adaptive Building Envelopes, that re- conceptualize the envelope as a distributed energy transfer function that captures, transforms, stores, and even re-distributes energy resources.</p> <p>The widespread deployment of Thermo-Active Building Systems as a building envelope will depend on several factors. These factors include the value of the design attributes that impact energy transfer in relation to the performance of the building envelope assembly and the return on investment that these attributes individually or in the aggregate can provide as a reduction in Energy Use Intensity. The research focus is on the design development, testing, and energy reduction potential of a Thermo-Active Building System as an adaptive countercurrent energy exchange envelope system using ceramic components: the Thermal Adaptive Ceramic Envelope.</p> Jason Oliver Vollen Copyright (c) 2020 Jason Oliver Vollen 2020-08-21 2020-08-21 19 1 296 10.7480/abe.2020.05.5190 Individually controlled noise reducing devices to improve IEQ in classrooms of primary schools https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5113 <p>In recent decades, many indoor environmental quality (IEQ) related problems (such as noise, odour, overheating, glare…) in classrooms have been identified. The impact of IEQ in classrooms on school children has been thoroughly researched. Consequently, many studies have been carried out to attempt to improve the IEQ in classrooms. However, most of the IEQ-improvements were developed based on general requirements and ignored individual differences. No matter how advanced these improvements are, always some children keep being unsatisfied with the IEQ in their classrooms. Given the fact that different children have different IEQ perceptions, preferences, and needs, it makes more sense to control the IEQ in classrooms on the level of the individual rather than of the room. Only by doing this can the comfort, health, and ultimately performance of school children be improved. For this reason, this research explored the possibility of customizing IEQ in classrooms of primary schools in the Netherlands. This thesis addressed the following topics:</p> <p>–Current ways of controlling IEQ in classrooms and their effect on school children’s IEQ perception;</p> <p>– Individual preferences and needs of primary school children related to IEQ in classrooms;</p> <p>– Impact of the main IEQ problem on school children’s perception and performance;</p> <p>– Use of individually controlled devices to cope with the main IEQ problem in classrooms;</p> <p>– Children’s feedback on an individually controlled noise-reducing device.</p> <p>Several approaches were used to address these topics, including a field study, lab studies, computer simulations and a prototype study.</p> <p>In the spring of 2017, the indoor environment group conducted the field study in 54 classrooms of 21 primary schools in the Netherlands. 54 teachers’ questionnaire and 1145 children’s questionnaire were collected and analysed. The results of the field study provided insight into the current ways to control IEQ in classrooms, as well as the preferences and needs of children with respect to IEQ in their classrooms.</p> <p>Through a series of correlation analyses, the current ways to control IEQ, namely teachers’ IEQ-improving actions, were shown to be inefficient in improving children’s IEQ perceptions in classrooms, even though these actions were conducted based on children’s requests. Two possible explanations can be put forward. First, a teacher could only take one action to respond to one child at a time, therefore, another child’s request might have been ignored. Second, the options that teachers had to change the IEQ in classrooms were quite limited (for example, in most classrooms, opening windows was the only thing the teacher could do if children felt too hot in summer). It was, therefore, concluded that a more effective method to control the IEQ in classrooms is needed.</p> <p>To create a good learning environment for school children, it is important to know their perceptions, preferences, and needs concerning IEQ in their classrooms. The analyses of the 1145 children’s responses showed that different children within the same classroom could have different IEQ perceptions, preferences, and needs. Based on their IEQ perceptions, preferences, and needs and with the use of a twostep cluster analysis method, the children were grouped into six clusters (‘Sound concerned’, ‘Smell and Sound concerned’, ‘Thermal and Draught concerned’, ‘Light concerned’, ‘All concerned’ and ‘Nothing concerned’), with each a different profile was established.</p> <p>The analysis of the children’s responses also showed that 87% of the children were bothered by noise (mainly caused by themselves) in their classrooms. Therefore, noise was identified as the main problem in the classrooms studied. To get more insight in this main problem, a lab study was conducted in the spring of 2018 in which children were invited to participate in a listening task with different background sounds. The experiment was conducted in two chambers (acoustically treated chamber and untreated chamber) with different reverberation times (RTs) at the same time. Results of the two-way ANOVA analysis showed a significant interaction between the impact of sound type and sound pressure level (SPL) on children’s performance in the untreated chamber (RT = 0.3 s). Additionally, the t-test results showed that children performed significantly better in the untreated chamber than in the treated chamber (RT = 0.07 s). This indicated that a shorter RT is not always better, and it was recommended to also introduce a lower limit for the RT in classrooms to prevent over-damping.</p> <p>After the establishment of the main IEQ problem, namely noise, the next step of this research was searching for an effective way to address this problem. Because the use of individually controlled devices in offices has shown to be able to improve both the IEQ and the workers’ satisfaction rates, it was assumed that these devices can have a similar effect on children in classrooms. To get a preliminary understanding&nbsp;of this assumption, a series of computer simulations was therefore conducted to test the effect of an individually controlled device on noise reduction. By comparing the simulation results of these individually controlled devices with the conventional ways to reduce noise (namely acoustic ceiling tiles), it was seen that the individually controlled devices have the ability to provide better acoustics in terms of providing shorter RTs and higher speech transmission indices.</p> <p>Subsequently, a real individually controlled noise-reducing device (ICND) was prototyped and tested in a lab study during the summer and autumn vacation of 2019. This prototype was similar to the stimulated device. It looks like a large umbrella that hung above every child’s head. In this research, two identical prototypes were tested with more than 200 school children, whose feedback was collected through questionnaires. Children could control the device using a remote controller. The descriptive analysis of children’s answers indicated that most of them liked this device and wanted to have one in their classrooms. The content analysis elucidated the reasons for their choices: children liked this device mainly because of its appearance (they thought it looked funny/cool/nice), and they wanted to have it mainly because of its functionality (they thought it worked/helped/reduced noise). Additionally, the device’s noise reducing effect was confirmed by simulations and measurements. This study showed the potential of the ICND to create better acoustics for every school child, and resulted in clear recommendations to improve the prototype.</p> <p>To sum up, this research showed that school children differ in their IEQ preferences and needs and, based on that, classified them into six clusters. It also indicated that teachers’ actions could not effectively improve IEQ in classrooms, which paves the way for the need for individual control of IEQ in classrooms of primary schools. Then, an ICND was designed and tested to address the main IEQ problem in classrooms, namely noise. The results obtained from the simulations, measurements, and children’s feedback on the prototype of the ICND, indicated the feasibility of such devices in classrooms at primary schools. More research in real classrooms, however, is needed.</p> Dadi Zhang Copyright (c) 2020 Dadi Zhang 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 19 1 258 10.7480/abe.2020.10.5113 Securing Healthy Circular Material Flows In The Built Environment https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5038 <p>Departing from two problem statements, one concerning circularity in the built environment and one concerning flexibility in the built environment, this dissertation sets out to answer two main research questions: – In an Open Building division of support and infill, to what extent can the infill contribute to sustainable circular material &amp; product flows? – Which qualitative and quantitative criteria and preconditions are central to integrating the notions of user health &amp; well-being, circularity, and flexibility in infill configurations? In view on these research questions, this dissertation revolves around multiple topics and disciplines, addressing material properties, material flows, product design, and user benefits, relating to a specific building component: non-bearing partitioning. The research follows a mixed-method approach, primarily qualitatively driven and supported by quantitative data and tools. Literature studies, workshops and expert consultations are applied throughout the trajectory to derive, test and adjust criteria, guidelines and design concepts. The dissertation is structured around four research chapters (each set-up as a separate academic article), preceded by a general introduction and background sketch, and followed by an overarching evaluation of the findings. The results from the first research chapter (Chapter 3) concern the distinction of various intrinsic and relational properties, as well as an inventory matrix based on building layers and material reutilisation routes. In the next chapter (Chapter 4), a first set of criteria is derived (Circ-Flex I) in order to integrate flexibility, circularity and user benefits. In Chapter 5, criteria are further elaborated, including assessment guidelines that pinpoint health, well-being, and operational performance (Circ- Flex II). The following chapter (Chapter 6) is aimed at design aspects: a design conceptualisation trajectory is laid out, applying design preconditions rooted in the criteria that were shaped in the preceding chapters. Furthermore, a novel flow analysis and modelling method is utilised with respect to secondary raw materials: the Activity-based Spatial Material Flow Analysis (AS-MFA). This stage revolves around materialisation and operational propositions for an innovative partitioning configuration of side-panel and insulation. The innovations are based on renewable material and reversible adhesive technologies.</p> <p>The following conclusions are derived from the research:</p> <p>Circularity in the built environment can only occur if flexibility is fully integrated in the whole building (component) value network, and conversely, flexibility in the built environment increasingly depends on the handling and management of materials designated for healthy, circular applications.</p> <p>– Infill parts, implemented in an Open Building context, enable multiple short to medium length cycles within the longer service lives of multi-family building structures, following changes in user requirements. As such, this model accommodates more sustainable product and material flows. However, decisive success factors are the attitude of and interplay between actors in the value network, not least the end-user.</p> <p>– Technical circularity potential of building products and materials resides at the intersection of intrinsic and relational characteristics.</p> <p>– The differentiation of building layers and parts, in combination with differentiated reutilisation routes, provides leverage for more advanced approaches to circular building strategies, anticipating multiple handling and treatment processes.</p> <p>– To bring circular building to scale in a socially engaged way, value models need to take account of actors’ shared incentives around flexibility and health, as well as split incentives around circularity.</p> <p>– Monitoring the operational performance is key for capitalising on the intrinsic health and circularity potential of building components during their service life.</p> <p>– Research and design exercises into circular building concepts and products benefit reciprocally from data and experience in adjacent disciplines, such as urban planning and waste management, whilst integrating multiple sub-systems associated with value creation in circular models.</p> <p>– Modifications associated with the innovative partition concepts occur above all in raw material sourcing, manufacturing, reutilisation logistics, and data-sharing, of which the latter should extend to the end-user.</p> <p>Next to partitioning, the findings can be relevant for other infill components as well, such as: kitchen cabinets, stairs, furniture, and the interior side-sheeting and insulation of walls and ceilings in energy-renovations. Follow-up research and practical efforts should be aimed at the development and testing of products, as&nbsp;well as value propositions regarding ownership: from regular transactions in which ownership shifts to the customer, to more innovative models in which ownership stays with the supplier or shifts to an intermediary actor (e.g. pay-per-use, buy-back or deposit model). Securing healthy circular material flows in the built environment cannot be the objective of one industry, let alone one organisation, but reshuffles whole value networks. This cannot be done without binding agreements and&nbsp;multi‑criteria learning loops. The first emphasises legal frameworks. This is therefore another prime area for future action. The aspect of multi-criteria learning loops, finally, relates to the need for more sophisticated data-exchange, also engaging endusers, which is nowadays rare in housing.</p> Bob Geldermans Copyright (c) 2020 Bob Geldermans 2020-06-19 2020-06-19 19 1 284 10.7480/abe.2020.06.5038 Architecture and the Time of Space https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5036 <p>During my early introduction to architecture I found that I was motivated not only by matters pertaining to what architecture is, but also, to what it can do. Thus, the questions motivating this work derive from my education in architecture which, at their most rudimentary level, entail a deep fascination with the nature of space, and thus the problem of time. And, subsequently, a practical desire to understand the conditions that constituted experience, and thus perception, sensation and mind. My interest also developed from a general disposition towards others and world founded in principles of human equality and rights with respect to both freedom and responsibility. During my years practicing architecture, these questions as they were brought through the perspective of design continued to inspire me. At the same time, my interest in investigating these questions through theoretical and philosophical research persisted until my aspiration to engage in critical thought outpaced my desire to practice. Hence, a turn in career to work as an academic in the discipline of architecture and the area of architecture theory.</p> <p>This research may be perceived by some as situated outside the realm of architecture. However, this is not the case. My approach to architecture theory is not one that begins with a study of the object, or, for some, one might say the subject of architecture. That is, if the object is understood as the manifestation in thought, process or form of the building or built environment (real or conceived) itself; and if the subject is understood as the thought or idea emanating from the mind of the architect (as author). While there is much architecture theory advanced from this perspective lining my own bookshelves and utilized in my work as an educator. The concerns that have always called me towards thinking about architecture as the imagined and constructed world in which we live are those that query the very nature of concepts, notions, ideologies and intellectual constructions and beliefs upon which culture and society – architecture as both a cultural product and a social actor – are formed. This goes, as well, to the considerations that motivate my concern for people, not users or inhabitants as such, but as ontologically situated beings in the world. Accordingly, my work primarily deals with the content, history and effects of architecture as it relates to theories of space, time, the body, and cognition. Employing and developing theories and methods from disciplines including philosophy, cultural studies, literary theory, political, social and economic theory, cognitive psychology, and the neurosciences in the broadest sense.</p> <p>Admittedly, the nature of theoretical discourse has shown itself to be problematic over the past fifty-plus years; it has also proven to be transformative. Critical thinkers in the late 1960s developed a sustained critique of their philosophical predecessors – primarily in regard to Marx on one hand and Heidegger on the other – with a critique of social history and a displacement of metaphysics resulting in a repositioning of social and cultural discourse. Of course, the debate unfolded against the philosophical and aesthetic background of not only Marx and Heidegger, but also Nietzsche, Hegel and Freud on one hand, and Manet, Cézanne, Baudelaire and Mallarmé, Wagner and Debussy on the other. In architecture, the debate extended to Ruskin and Wölfflin, and to Wright and Corbusier, amongst others. This period, in itself, refers to an unprecedented artistic, scientific, economic, and technological mutation. Prevalent underpinnings remain identifiable, for instance an attack on the absolute nature of knowledge, which has brought about a fundamental rethinking of both the nature of consciousness, as well as a critique of science. As Foucault suggested, one of the great problems that arose in the 1950s was that of the political status of science and the ideological functions that it could serve. Another rebuke can be seen as the challenge to the primacy of truth as an adequation of subject to thing. This culminated in a radical critique of subjectivity resulting, some years later, in the so-called post-humanist-subject. In order to be rid of the subject itself, Foucault, in ‘Truth and Power’ (1977) argued that it was necessary to dispense with the essentialist subject both at the extremes and in-between the enlightenment’s humanist subject and its ideals of knowledge as self-constituting; as well as phenomenology’s fabrication of the subject as evolving through and embodying the course of history.</p> <p>Reflecting on this history, that post-war moment of theory, one cannot help but be struck by the complexity and the ambiguity of the adventure; qualities most evident in the fact that new spaces and new means of writing and drawing, of thinking and making emerged. Ideas that modified our understanding of both communication and the image, of both space and time. Discourses, when combined with a reflexivity within certain architectures and certain texts, rendered them somehow indefinitely open. In the 1960s, literary theory transformed thought on both sides of the Atlantic. For instance, Roland Barthes’s de-sanctioning of the biography-centric author, or the removal of authority from the author turned scriptor in ‘The Death of the Author’ (1967), or Julia Kristeva’s concept of intertextuality with ‘Word, Dialogue and Novel’ (1969). These works impacted our thinking on linguistic phenomena and the origin (or non-originality) of textual content and further, on the invention of new forms of writing and affective relations. Such theories informed and redirected thinking in architecture, for instance, Diana Agrest and Mario Gandelsonas’s work ‘Semiotics and Architecture: Ideological Consumption or Theoretical Work’ was published in the first issue of Oppositions, an architectural journal produced between&nbsp;1973 and 1984 by the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in New York. With this, the influence of the French intellectual climate as well as the Italian discourse on semiotics was brought to the centre of Anglo-American discourse in architecture theory.</p> <p>The intellectual trajectory along which this history is traced and the terrain on which it now takes place will be recognisable to anyone familiar with the work of such thinkers as Henri Bergson, Louis Althusser, Gabriel Tarde, Walter Benjamin, Pierre Bourdieu, Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, Jacques Lacan, Jean-Francois Lyotard, and, of course, Félix Guattari, Gilles Deleuze, and Maurizio Lazzarato. The importance of the radically original works that emerged in the seventies and eighties cannot be overestimated, for instance: Foucault’s Discipline and Punish and his lectures at the Collège de France, The Birth of Biopolitics, and Deleuze and Guattari’s Capitalism and Schizophrenia volumes Anti-Oedipus and A Thousand Plateaus. These works, translated into English shortly after their original publication, were being read throughout many disciplines outside of philosophy including schools of architecture, and their influence can only be said to have increased.</p> <p>I share the above brief history so as to situate my work for those less familiar with the work of theory – whether architecture or otherwise – as this, too, is the intellectual trajectory and exploration along which my own work, as well as many of my contemporaries, travels. In my own work, the influence of the nineteenth/ twentieth-century French vitalist philosopher Henri Bergson – the great thinker of time and, as Walter Benjamin suggested, a seminal source to consult in considering the problem of experience – has quite profoundly informed my thinking and shaped its outcomes. Both with respect to time and space as well as body and brain, his influence is reflected in the title of this volume. That said, this is not a collection of chapters on Bergson’s philosophy. It is a collection on critical concepts I believe to be of importance for contemporary critique, delivered through topics that are relevant – at times directly and at others indirectly – to our current moment. This is a work of great commitment and it has sustained itself over time. It is my hope the reader finds some value in this as well.</p> Deborah Hauptman Copyright (c) 2020 Deborah Hauptman 2020-06-19 2020-06-19 19 1 154 10.7480/abe.2020.09.5036 Thinking- Skins https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5035 <p>Under the guiding concept of a thinking skin, the research project examines the transferability of cyber-physical systems to the application field of façades. It thereby opens up potential increases in the performance of automated and adaptive façade systems and provides a conceptual framework for further research and development of intelligent building envelopes in the current age of digital transformation.</p> <p>The project is characterized by the influence of digital architectural design methods and the associated computational processing of information in the design process. The possible establishment of relationships and dependencies in an architecture understood as a system, in particular, are the starting point for the conducted investigation. With the available automation technologies, the possibility of movable building constructions, and existing computer-based control systems, the technical preconditions for the realisation of complex and active buildings exist today. Against this background, dynamic and responsive constructions that allow adaptations in the operation of the building are a current topic in architecture. In the application field of the building envelope, the need for such designs is evident, particularly with regards to the concrete field of adaptive façades. In its mediating role, the façade is confronted with the dynamic influences of the external microclimate of a building and the changing comfort demands of the indoor climate. The objective in the application of adaptive façades is to increase building efficiency by balancing dynamic influencing factors and requirements. Façade features are diverse and with the increasing integration of building services, both the scope of fulfilled façade functions and the complexity of today’s façades increase. One challenge is the coordination of adaptive functions to ensure effective reactions of the façade as a complete system. The ThinkingSkins research project identifies cyber-physical systems as a possible solution to this challenge. This involves the close integration of physical systems with their digital control. Important features are the decentralized organization of individual system constituents and their cooperation via an exchange of information. Developments in recent decades, such as the miniaturisation of computer technology and the availability of the Internet, have established the technical basis required for these developments. Cyber-physical systems are already employed in many fields of application. Examples are decentralized energy supply, or transportation systems with autonomous vehicles. The influence is particularly evident in the transformation of the industrial sector to Industry 4.0, where formerly&nbsp;mechatronic production plants are networked into intelligent technical systems with the aim of achieving higher and more flexible productivity.</p> <p>In the ThinkingSkins research project it is assumed that the implementation of cyber-physical systems based on the role model of cooperating production plants in IIndustry 4.0 can contribute to an increase in the performance of façades. Accordingly, the research work investigates a possible transfer of cyber-physical systems to the application field of building envelopes along the research question:</p> <p>How can cyber-physical systems be applied to façades, in order to enable coordinated adaptations of networked individual façade functions?</p> <p>To answer this question, four partial studies are carried out, which build upon each other. The first study is based on a literature review, in which the understanding and the state-of-the-art development of intelligent façade systems is examined in comparison to the exemplary field of application of cyber-physical systems in the manufacturing industry. In the following partial study, a second literature search identifies façade functions that can be considered as components of a cyber-physical façade due to their adaptive feasibility and their effect on the façade performance. For the evaluation of the adaptive capabilities, characteristics of their automated and adaptive implementation are assigned to the identified façade functions. The resulting superposition matrix serves as an organizational tool for the third investigation of the actual conditions in construction practice. In a multiple case study, realized façade projects in Germany are examined with regard to their degree of automation and adaptivity. The investigation includes interviews with experts involved in the projects as well as field studies on site. Finally, an experimental examination of the technical feasibility of cyber-physical façade systems is carried out through the development of a prototype. In the sense of an internet of façade functions, the automated adaptive façade functions ventilation, sun protection as well as heating and cooling are implemented in decentrally organized modules. They are connected to a digital twin and can exchange data with each other via a communication protocol.</p> <p>The research project shows that the application field of façades has not yet been exploited for the implementation of cyber-physical systems. With the automation technologies used in building practice, however, many technical preconditions for the development of cyber-physical façade systems already exist. Many features of such a system are successfully implemented within the study by the development of a prototype. The research project therefore comes to the conclusion that the application of cyber-physical systems to the façade is possible and offers a promising potential for the effective use of automation technologies. Due to the&nbsp;lack of artificial intelligence and machine learning strategies, the project does not achieve the goal of developing a façade in the sense of a true ThinkingSkin as the title indicates. A milestone is achieved by the close integration of the physical façade system with a decentralized and integrated control system. In this sense, the researched cyber-physical implementation of façades represents a conceptual framework for the realisation of corresponding systems in building practice, and a pioneer for further research of ThinkingSkins.</p> Jens Böke Copyright (c) 2020 Jens Böke 2020-06-19 2020-06-19 19 1 286 10.7480/abe.2020.08.5035 In-Situ Determination of Buildings’ Thermo- Physical Characteristics https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4989 <p>Ever since the introduction of energy conversion systems in the built environment, buildings have become responsible for a considerable share of global energy consumption. Many countries have therefore aimed to invest on buildings’ energy efficiency plans to reduce the depletion rate of the fossil resources and the CO2 emissions associated with them. In this context, accurate determination of building’s thermo-physical characteristics is a necessity in the processes which lead to execution of energy conservation strategies in existing buildings. These characteristics are the essential inputs for buildings’ thermal modelling, quality control, energy audits, and energy labelling, the results of which are determinant for energy renovation decisions and policies. In practice, the values of these parameters are not always available because the current determination methods are time-and-effort-expensive, and consequently rarely used. In accordance with the large deviations observed between the in-lab and in-situ thermal behaviour of building components, a special attention is laid on in-situ methods. This thesis aims at developing and testing different in-situ determination methods and approaches at different levels. Theories, simulations, and experiments, are combined for determination of a number of buildings’ most important thermo-physical characteristics.</p> <p>Transmission losses through the façades are known to be responsible for a significant portion of heat loss in buildings and consequently are investigated in all standard energy calculation methods. Thus, the major part of the thesis is dedicated to the thermal behaviour of exterior walls. The exact construction of existing walls is generally unknown. Consequently, the estimation of their thermal resistance, thermal conductivity, and volumetric heat capacity can be erroneous. Later, the attention is upscaled to the building level where rather than local characteristics, global characteristics are determined.</p> <p>At the first stage, the walls’ in-situ determination of thermal resistance has been examined. Despite the advantages of the existing standard method, “ISO 9869 Average Method” for measuring this parameter, two problems have been pointed out: long duration and imprecision. Accordingly, this phase describes and demonstrates how the simplest modifications to this standard method can improve it in terms of solving these problems. Heat transfer simulations and experiments in a variety of wall typologies have been applied to show the effect of using an additional heat&nbsp;flux sensor, facing the first one, installed on the opposite side of the wall. Three estimations of thermal resistance based on either indoor or outdoor heat fluxes, and the average of the two values are then defined. It is shown that one of these values satisfies the convergence criteria earlier than the other two, leading to a quicker insitu determination of thermal resistance with a higher precision.</p> <p>To further shorten the measurement period, in the second phase, a new transient in-situ method, Excitation Pulse Method, EPM, is developed and examined experimentally on three walls. The method is inspired by the theory of thermal response factors. In EPM, a triangular surface temperature excitation is applied at one side of the wall and the heat flux responses at both sides are measured and converted into the wall’s corresponding response factors which then leads to the wall’s thermal resistance. To validate, the results are compared to the ones obtained following the ISO 9869. The good agreement of the results confirms the possibility of measuring the Rc-value within a couple of hours. Applying this method, the overestimation of around 400% between the actual and estimated values (in practice, often based on the construction year) of thermal transmittance was resolved. Thus, EPM is believed to significantly improve the required time and accuracy in determination of the thermal behavior of walls with unknown constructions. Experimental and practical details regarding the design and construction of the method’s prototype as well as its application range are demonstrated subsequently. EPM has been patented in the Dutch patent office (Patent No. 2014467) and can be applied on in-lab and in-situ circumstances.</p> <p>Following the success in the proof of principle, in the third phase, detailed conditions for correct application of EPM in heavy and multi-layered walls are further studied. Heat transfer theories, simulations, and experiments are combined to evaluate the method’s performance for different types of walls. A specific attention is devoted to the relationship between the walls’ thermal response time and the response factors’ time interval, affecting the accuracy of Rc-value determination. Additionally, other hidden information in the response factors of the walls such as the possible construction are revealed. It is moreover demonstrated that in addition to the thermal resistance, the two main thermo-physical properties of a wall, the thermal conductivity and the volumetric heat capacity, as well as the wall’s thickness can be determined using inverse modelling of the Response Factors. The accuracy and precision of the method is tested in many different ways, fortifying the confidence for future application of this method.</p> <p>In the last phase, the advancement of smart metering and monitoring systems in buildings are considered. Such smart technologies have led to utilization of the data from, for instance, home automation systems. This data acquisition is referred to&nbsp;as “on-board-monitoring” category of measurements, which removes the hassle, cost, and intrusion associated with locally-conducted experiments. The problem is then observed from a perspective wider than the component level. This time, the thermo-physical characteristics are studied for a whole building rather than just the walls. It is presumed that the current and future houses and their HVAC installations are by default, equipped with basic sensors, providing on-board monitored data. Therefore, the expected available data is measured and used as input parameters. A case study of an occupied apartment, in which air temperatures, humidity, and CO2 concentrations, gas consumption, and meteorological data have been measured for one year is investigated. Global characteristics such as the heat loss coefficient and thermal capacitance are estimated through inverse modelling of a 1st order circuit analogous to the thermal model of the building, and fed by the measurement data. In addition, using construction information, winter daily air change rates leading to ventilation and infiltration heat losses are estimated from the results of the inverse modelling. These results can be used to tailor the energy efficient use of the building.</p> <p>In summary, the in-situ determination of walls’ thermal resistance is conducted by two methods in this thesis. The first one calls for longer measurement methods (minimum three days), but includes a straight-forward, well-known procedure. This method is highly suitable for high temperature gradients across the wall. The second method, EPM, requires more complicated instrumentation, but in return, in addition to rapid (couple of hours) determination of the Rc-value, it provides the walls’ response factors which are required for a dynamic thermal building simulation. In addition, using the results of this method, the thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity can be determined. EPM is most suitable for light-to-medium weighted walls and for homogeneous walls of known thickness. Stable heat flux profiles at the surfaces of the wall increase the accuracy of the method, especially when the temperature gradients across the wall are lower. Finally, as a less intrusive approach, the data from the HVAC installations’ existing sensors can be used. Global characteristics including the heat loss coefficient and the global capacitance can be then determined for a whole building, followed by ventilation and infiltration losses. Despite the low accuracy, this process is more suitable when the smart meter data is available and measurements at component level are not desired.</p> <p>By introducing and testing new experimental and computational methods and approaches for reliable determination of buildings’ local and global thermo-physical characteristics, this thesis pays a significant contribution to the accuracy of the energy-related predictions and operations, especially within the built environment.</p> Arash Rasooli Copyright (c) 2020 Arash Rasooli 2020-06-19 2020-06-19 19 1 228 10.7480/abe.2020.07.4989 Energy in Dwellings https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4664 <p>Energy simulation models for buildings are widely used by policymakers, researchers and consultants as a tool to advice on the reduction of residential energy consumption. Previous studies have shown that there is a gap between theoretical building energy simulation results and actual energy use. The discrepancy between theory and practice is problematic, as for instance expected energy savings are often not achieved. This thesis shows that analysing specific household types and building characteristics can contribute to a better understanding of amongst others the influence of the occupant on actual energy consumption. The effectiveness of thermal renovations is dependent on both occupants and building characteristics, which means tailored advice on renovation measures is necessary. We also found that occupants and building characteristics are equally responsible for variances in actual residential energy consumption. To reduce the gap between theory and practice on a single building level, simulation models are improved using calibration methods. In the final part of this thesis, a method is developed to calibrate simulations on a building stock level, making building energy simulation tools more reliable for policymakers.</p> Paula van den Brom Copyright (c) 2020 Paula van den Brom 2020-02-27 2020-02-27 19 1 258 10.7480/abe.2020.17.4664 Visibility, democratic public space and socially inclusive cities https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4604 <p>This research introduces the concept of visibility as a useful tool to assess the democratic features of public spaces. We understand democratic public spaces as open spaces, which are accessible to all and allow different cultural expressions for individuals and groups. The concept of visibility refers to the visual perception of the observable features of distinctive urban groups in public space, which give evidence of their lived experiences, and how they engage with, shape, and construct public space in everyday life. The main assumption of the study is that the visibility of distinctive urban groups on the street manifests the rights of these groups to participate in the public life of the city, which is a key feature of a democratic public space. Consequently, the presence and changes in the visibility of urban groups in public space is a highly political issue, which raises concerns in relation to just or unjust urban conditions.</p> <p>Open and democratic public spaces are an asset to achieve socially inclusive cities, recognized as such in academic and policy circles. However, the present political and economic context has turned public spaces into a tool for the branding and marketing of cities. Public space is increasingly designed and geared to attract tourists and higher-income groups, leading to trends toward the commodification of urban development. Such trends discourage the presence in, and uses of, public space by some groups, contributing to the erosion of key features of democratic public spaces.</p> <p>The urban literature gives useful indications about the observable qualities of democratic public spaces, but their tangible and physical aspects have not been sufficiently studied in the urban design and planning literature. Furthermore, little attention has been given to the precise effects that urban transformations may have on the democratic features of public spaces, or on their implications for the design and planning of socially inclusive cities. Consequently, the main objective of this research is to advance knowledge about the democratic features of public space that promote socially inclusive neighbourhoods and cities.</p> <p>The approach considers the visibility of commercial and communal amenities as a proxy for the presence and appropriation of public space by immigrant groups through their distinctive signs, languages, and uses. The analysed and documented the recent changes in the visibility of Turkish amenities in the streets of Amsterdam&nbsp;in the context of urban transformations in the period between 2007 and 2016. The methodology of the research included deskwork and fieldwork. The former included theory review and identification of the policy context. The latter included primary data collection about the immigrant amenities’ spatial and social characteristics, mapping of the presence and changes of the amenities in two selected streets, and finally, analyses, synthesis and interpretation of the findings.</p> <p>Two streets located in the inner-city (Javastraat) and the outskirts (Burgemeester de Vlugtlaan) of Amsterdam were selected as case-study, in base of their location; demographic trends; and type of users. Their empirical examination was useful to appraise and document the presence and changes of Turkish amenities in these streets during the studied period.</p> <p>There are five major findings in this research. First, visibility can be operationalized by studying the spatial and social characteristics of immigrant amenities in public space. Measuring and documenting the spatial (at city and neighbourhood level) and social (social life of parochial and public realm) characteristics of immigrant amenities, the visibility of culturally distinctive groups in public space can be compared in a synchronic and diachronic way. This constitutes an innovative approach to the empirical assessment of public space, which complements statistical and quantitative approaches to public space. A longitudinal analysis of these changes then offers a better understanding of the relationship of these changes with the corresponding urban policies and trends.</p> <p>Second, immigrant neighbourhoods and their commercial amenities have been significantly affected by the commercial and residential gentrification of innercity immigrant neighbourhoods in Amsterdam. These trends have been the result of a gradual shift from a social democratic towards a liberal welfare regime in the Netherlands since the 1980s, which has strongly influenced successive national and city level urban policies and strategies. Since then, Amsterdam urban renewal and housing policies have evolved significantly from the ‘building for the neighbourhood’ approach towards a market-oriented approach.</p> <p>Third, the social characteristics of immigrant amenities – related to their capacity to promote social contacts within the immigrant and larger community – are different for commercial and communal amenities. The former are more open, and therefore more visible in public space. The location-related spatial characteristics vary for inner-city/outskirts and main street/back streets locations. Inner city and main street locations are more visible for a broader public. Other spatial characteristics that contribute to a greater visibility of immigrant amenities are high levels of legibility; personalisation; and robustness.</p> <p>Fourth, the visibility of distinctive urban groups in public space – linked to their participation in public life – is a strong indication of the socio-cultural inclusion of these groups into the society. Taking that into account, the decreasing visibility of Turkish amenities found in Javastraat during the 2007-2016 period has produced a negative impact on the socio-cultural inclusion of Turkish immigrants in Amsterdam.</p> <p>Fifth, the decreasing visibility of immigrant groups has detrimental consequences for shaping democratic public spaces and for promoting urban justice principles, specifically from the perspectives of diversity and equity. Diverse public spaces welcome urban groups from different social, cultural and economic backgrounds. Equity refers to the accessibility of public spaces – both physically and perceptually – for different groups.</p> <p>The overall conclusion is that visibility in public space can provide solid evidence of the most important aspects of democratic streets, which are difficult to obtain through conventional statistical methods. Even though this study focused on immigrant amenities (used as a proxy), the conclusions can be broadened to include other distinctive urban groups, such as sexual minorities, and vulnerable groups, as well as other forms of visibility such as festivals, parades and events.</p> <p>Visibility can be a valuable tool for ex-ante and ex-post evaluations of the democratic character of streets to inform designers, researchers and policy makers about the impact of the proposed or finished interventions. It would be especially valuable in cases of profound neighbourhood transformation processes, which modify the demographic profile of a neighbourhood.</p> <p>Finally, training and education of designers and planners of public space should incorporate visibility as an important concept to examine the diversity and vitality features of public space, in order to promote democratic streets and more socially inclusive cities. Neighbourhood visions and development plans should take into account the role of the presence of distinctive urban groups in public life to promote the sociocultural inclusion of distinctive urban groups.</p> Ceren Sezer Copyright (c) 2020 Ceren Sezer 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 19 1 202 10.7480/abe.2020.16.4604 Impact of personal control on user satisfaction https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4456 <p>Chapter 4 provided the impact of indoor climate on user satisfaction. Many studies reported that personal control over indoor environmental conditions is one of the influential factors for user satisfaction and environmental comfort due to its physical and psychological impacts. However, it is not clear to what extent users should be allowed to have control over the indoor environment. This chapter aims to identify the relationship between the extent to which users can personally control the conditions of their indoor environment and how satisfied they are with their thermal and visual comfort.</p> <p>Section 5.2 presents the data collection and assessment methods of occupants’ perceived satisfaction. The relationship between personal control and satisfaction is explained in section 5.3. Section 5.4 presents the dependency of user satisfaction with thermal comfort based on the degree of personal control over indoor environmental conditions, and section 5.5 explains the impact of the degree of person control on the user satisfaction with visual comfort. Section 5.6 discusses limitations of research of personal control, psychological impact of personal control, and how to design the personal control to optimise user satisfaction.</p> Minyoung Kwon Copyright (c) 2020 Minyoung Kwon 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 19 112 133 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4456 Conclusions https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4455 <p>This research has explored the relationship between user satisfaction and design factors for office renovations considering energy efficiency. The findings of this research strongly support user-focused renovations of office buildings. My motivation for this research started from the consideration of comfort and satisfaction of building users and the focus on providing better and comfortable work environments for office users. The focus on user comfort and satisfaction is important, because literature shows that the increase of user satisfaction leads to the improvement of productivity and less absenteeism in workspaces.</p> <p>This research has been conducted by applying diverse research methods and analyses, such as monitoring the indoor climate of office buildings, interviewing architects and facility managers, conducting user surveys, and conducting statistical analyses. This chapter presents the conclusions by answering the main research question and corresponding sub-questions of each chapter. This chapter also includes the general conclusions highlighting the scientific contributions to the body of knowledge of the built environment and limitations of the research.</p> Minyoung Kwon Copyright (c) 2020 Minyoung Kwon 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 19 216 227 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4455 User-focused design principles https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4454 <p>Chapter 7 tested the energy demand of possible office typologies. However, the main aim of the thesis is to develop user-focused design principles for energy efficient office renovation. Therefore, it is important to compare the degree of user satisfaction of highly energy-efficient office typologies. Based on the results from chapter 7, chapter 8 introduces design principles that architects, and facility and real estate managers can use to select the combination of parameters with better user satisfaction during a conceptual design stage of office renovation. It contains a database of the different degrees of user satisfaction with thermal, visual, and psychological comfort, according to the combination of design parameters.</p> <p>Section 8.2 explains the design principles considering user satisfaction and energy efficiency. Section 8.3 provides the overview of predicted satisfaction of 144 office combinations. Recommended office combinations based on energy efficiency are explained in section 8.4. Section 8.5 describes the process of application of the design principles: how can designers interpret and use the principles and predicted models for energy-efficient office renovation?</p> Minyoung Kwon Copyright (c) 2020 Minyoung Kwon 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 19 202 215 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4454 The Impact of Design Parameters on Energy Demand for Office Renovation https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4453 <p>Chapter 6 showed that the office layout and desk location were the most influential design factors for the thermal and visual comfort of users, and layout and orientation were most influential for psychological comfort in office buildings. Office design parameters were analysed to optimise user satisfaction in relation to indoor environmental and organisational quality in office buildings by showing predictable models. However, the predicted satisfaction models had not been tested in terms of energy performance. Therefore, this chapter evaluates the energy performance of the predicted models by computational assessment.a</p> <p>Section 7.2 explains the energy simulation scheme, model typologies, and simulation parameters. Section 7.3 presents the comparison of energy simulation results based on three design factors such as office layout, orientation and WWR. The results present the differences of the energy demand according to the alternative office typologies and contribution of design factors. The annual energy demand of 24 models are compared on the basis of different model typologies, and present the most energy-efficient typologies in section 7.4.</p> Minyoung Kwon Copyright (c) 2020 Minyoung Kwon 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 19 178 201 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4453 Impact of design factors on user satisfaction https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4451 <p>Personal control was one of the influential parameters for user satisfaction presented in chapter 5. Personal control is not related to architectural office design, and in this thesis it is not associated with privacy and communication with colleagues. Thermal and visual comfort is analysed exhaustively in this chapter. Psychological comfort is an extra parameter for user satisfaction studies since the design factors such as office layout could be correlated to privacy, communication and so on. As a next step, chapter 6 investigates influential office design factors on user satisfaction related to thermal, visual, and psychological comfort and predicting which design factors may bring better satisfaction to users.</p> <p>Section 6.2 presents design factors affecting user satisfaction based on literature review. Five office cases in the Netherlands with 579 office occupants were studied using questionnaires, and interviews with facility managers and architects (section 6.3). Different statistical analysis tests were conducted to summarise satisfaction factors (section 6.4). The relative importance of design factors is described in section 6.5, and a regression analysis was used to predict profound outcomes in section 6.6.</p> Minyoung Kwon Copyright (c) 2020 Minyoung Kwon 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 19 134 177 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4451 Evaluation of user’s thermal perception and satisfaction towards indoor environmental quality https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4450 <p>Chapter 3 compared the building characteristics of renovated offices such as façade types and the HVAC system and energy consumption with different units. These physical building characteristics do not only contribute to energy performance but also to the indoor environment. For user satisfaction studies, a comfortable indoor environment is one of the primary conditions of the working environment. Therefore, it is important to identify the impact of indoor climate on user satisfaction in different office buildings (technical attributes of renovated office buildings). The purpose of this chapter is to identify the impact of indoor climate on user satisfaction, comparing how much they are satisfied with the indoor climate to temperature and relative humidity and how much the users can adapt the certain temperature.</p> <p>Section 4.2 presents the data collection for 2 weeks in three seasons: summer, winter, and the intermediate season. Monitored indoor climate such as temperature, and relative humidity is compared in section 4.3. Section 4.4 compares the occupants’ thermal sensation, preference and satisfaction with physical measurements are compared in section 4.3. Lastly, the predicted optimal thermal conditions, and limitations are discussed in section 4.5.</p> Minyoung Kwon Copyright (c) 2020 Minyoung Kwon 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 19 90 111 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4450 Building characteristics and energy use of energy-efficient renovated offices https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4449 <p>Chapter 2 presented the physical and psychological satisfaction parameters for user-focused evaluation. In most renovation projects, the façade is a major consideration next to the HVAC system to optimise the performance of the building. Many studies reveal that façade renovation has a large impact on the energy efficiency. The aim of this chapter is to identify the characteristics of renovated offices, such as façade types, HVAC system, and sun shading, and compare the energy performance based on user typologies in renovated and non-renovated office buildings.</p> <p>Section 3.2 describes an overview of façade renovation strategies based on literature. The renovation strategies are classified into four strategies: passive add-in, replacement, climate skin, and active add-in. Section 3.3 presents the criteria to select case studies. Section 3.4 describes the characteristics of four renovated case studies and one non-renovated case located in the Netherlands. The building information was collected through interviews with architects, a review of project documents, and a field survey. Cross-analysis was used to compare the renovation plan, physical conditions. Energy consumption of each office building was compared by different energy metrics in section 3.5. Section 3.6 discusses the limitation of the renovation projects and suggestions for the future study. The finding from cross-evaluation of case studies are described in section 3.7.</p> Minyoung Kwon Copyright (c) 2020 Minyoung Kwon 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 19 72 89 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4449 Theoretical framework for user-focused evaluation in office design https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4447 <p>As was stated in the introduction, a user-focused renovation approach can enhance user satisfaction in offices and the functional quality of the offices while meeting energy performance goals. The first step for this renovation approach is to identify users’ needs and the physical and psychological factors affecting user satisfaction, as input to office renovation projects. The main aim is to identify the factors that are affecting the physical and psychological satisfaction of users, based on what previous research has found in that field. Therefore, this chapter highlights the main parameters currently applied to the evaluation of user satisfaction, including the definitions based on the literature review.</p> <p>The research approach for the literature review is discussed in section 2.2. Searching was limited to the main key terms of office, work environment, and user satisfaction and comfort. Section 2.3 explores the relationship between office renovation and user satisfaction. The terms user satisfaction and the user’s expectations in workplaces are defined in section 2.4. In section 2.5, the important factors were searched through empirical-based international literature mainly. Based hereupon, section 2.6 discusses the challenge of evaluating user satisfaction. In section 2.7, the findings present ten main parameters to increase user satisfaction in office renovation. The parameters were categorised into three levels based on needs theories to organise the hierarchy of priorities.</p> Minyoung Kwon Copyright (c) 2020 Minyoung Kwon 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 19 44 71 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4447 Introduction https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4446 <p>Energy-efficient office renovation is obviously required for the reasons mentioned in the previous section, and there is a great growth of energy renovation projects in practice. However, does a high energy performance office provide a comfortable working environment to its users? One of the reasons of office existence is to provide comfortable and healthy indoor environments (Ornetzeder et al., 2016). According to Klepeis et al. (2001), people spend over 80% of their time in enclosed spaces. Moreover, good indoor environments can lead to an increase of occupants’ productivity (Al-Horr et al., 2016). For these reasons, planning healthy and comfortable work environment can be as important as reducing energy use. The question is, how can we design healthy and comfortable work environments, with which the users are satisfied? The starting point to answer this question is to include building users’ requirements and satisfaction in workspaces in energy renovation schemes. A concern is that conventional renovation principles are mainly physical- and technical-oriented, whereas it does not focus on enhancing user satisfaction in the work environment. Moreover, as long as the renovated building does not offer sufficient quality or satisfaction, there will be less demand for renovated office buildings. When energy efficiency is considered as the only advantage of office renovation, it is difficult to convince developers, building owners, and investors that renovation is useful. From a managerial perspective, achieving better employee’s satisfaction should be a focal point to strengthen the market values of renovated offices, thereby achieving a higher demand from the market, preventing environmental degradation or vacancy of existing buildings. Therefore, office renovation also has to provide a high-level of comfortable work environment for the users’ well-being and satisfaction beside maximising energy reduction goals. Therefore, there is a significant need to investigate how to define the users’ satisfaction to contribute to better office renovations.</p> <p>The relationship between indoor climate and users’ physical health has been explored in extensive research (Al Horr et al., 2016; Bluyssen et al., 2016; Leder et al., 2016; Mandin et al., 2017). Followed by these studies, the framework of international green building rating systems such as Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) and Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) include a category of social sustainability as a means of providing a healthy and comfortable environment to users for both new and renovated buildings (Sarkis et al., 2012; Zuo &amp; Zhao, 2014). Although international green building rating systems address the significance of including user perspectives, there is a lack of guidelines and information that focus on user&nbsp;satisfaction in building renovation. Especially, the relationship between design factors and user satisfaction has rarely been investigated due to several reasons; user satisfaction is a subjective topic; design factors are closely related to energy efficiency and aesthetic aspects rather than user satisfaction. Therefore, the main problem is that in spite of the development of various renovation techniques, there is still a lack of renovation design principles considering user preferences and user satisfaction due to the indirect relationship with energy use.</p> <p>In any renovation project, the initiative is the most significant phase to ensure proper decisions and to optimise overall renovation values and results, that should be considered in the early renovation design stage. Jensen and Maslesa (2015) stated that the main barriers include lack of standard principles and a lacking overview of potential values in the initiative phase. To summarise all these aspects, it is required to develop an overview of potential values and standard design principles that not only focus on energy efficiency but also on the building users for office renovations.</p> Minyoung Kwon Copyright (c) 2020 Minyoung Kwon 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 19 30 43 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4446 Energy-Efficient Office Renovation https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4445 <p>This research aims to develop user-focused design principles for energy-efficient office renovations. The goal of this is to improve the quality and comfort of workspaces without compromising on energy-saving goals. Due to increasing sustainability requirements, new ways of working and changing office user preferences, there is a growing need for office renovations that not only deal with the energy performance and the replacement of building facilities, but also the occupants’ health and well-being. The renovation of office buildings can substantially reduce energy demand and improve building performance. For this reason, most studies regarding office renovations have focused on achieving better energy performance and indoor environmental quality. Also, several studies have investigated employee satisfaction in the work environment. However, the users are only considered after the buildings have been built and taken into use (e.g., postoccupancy evaluation), but not in the early stage of the design phase. Although there are building regulations and norms regarding indoor comfort, no clear design principles or guidelines considering users have been developed for office renovations. Therefore, it is necessary to explore how office users can be included in the early design stage of office renovations to improve their comfort and satisfaction. This led to the following main research question to be answered in this thesis:</p> <p><em>How can design principles for energy efficient office renovation be developed, based on the evaluation of user satisfaction?</em></p> <p>To answer to this question, field studies were conducted in 5 office buildings in the Netherlands. The cases consist of four renovated offices and one non-renovated office, originally built in 1960s to 70s. Before conducting empirical studies, a literature was conducted that is implemented in the theoretical framework. Ten parameters for satisfaction, such as thermal comfort, air quality, light, noise, personal control, privacy, concentration, communication, social contact, and territoriality, were defined and were classified based on the findings from 124 items of studies focussing on physical and psychological satisfaction in the work environment. Each chapter and several sub-research questions address these parameters. Based on the findings, a classification of user satisfaction parameters is proposed, including a discussion about an hierarchy of ten parameters. This hierarchy is structured based on theoretical definitions of parameters and its physical, functional, and psychological influences.</p> <p>&nbsp;For the empirical studies, a multidisciplinary methodology was applied to prioritise the important aspects of office renovations. The various methods for data collection and analyses included examining energy use and the quality of indoor climate after renovation, and investigating the impact of design factors on user satisfaction with thermal, visual, and psychological comfort. The design factors in this research are influential design factors on user satisfaction. These are office layout, orientation, window-to-wall ratio, and desk location. The empirical studies are structured in four parts.</p> <p><em>Energy consumption</em></p> <p>As a preliminary study, architects and facility managers were interviewed to identify the building characteristics of renovated offices and energy consumption. Henceforth, the five case studies were conducted. A cross-case-analysis was used to compare the building characteristics of the five case studies. The energy consumption of renovated and non-renovated offices were compared by different energy matrix. In addition, the limitations that hinder the achievement of better energy performance, were described.</p> <p><em>Indoor climate and users’ thermal comfort</em></p> <p>Indoor temperature and humidity were measured by using data loggers to identify the condition of the indoor climate for users’ thermal comfort after renovation. A questionnaire, including thermal sensation, preference, and satisfaction, was distributed among the building users. The monitored climate data of the thermal conditions were evaluated based on the Dutch building norms and users’ responses.</p> <p><em>Personal control</em></p> <p>This part aims to identify the relationship between the degree of personal control over indoor environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, ventilation, light) and user satisfaction with thermal and visual comfort. This study investigated the impact of personal control on user satisfaction through user surveys and statistical analyses. The results present that higher controllability leads to more satisfaction in terms of thermal and visual comfort. It also reveals the psychological impact of personal control on user satisfaction by showing differences in perceived satisfaction according to ‘no control’ and ‘do not have’. These findings provide support to workplace management and the design of personal environmental control systems.</p> <p><em>User satisfaction with thermal, visual, and psychological comfort</em></p> <p>Together with the indoor climate conditions of workspaces, 579 office users from the five cases were studied. The responses of the users were collected and analysed through statistical analyses. This study phase demonstrates the results of the impact of influential office design factors on user satisfaction with thermal, visual, and psychological comfort. It also contributes to predicting which design variables may bring better user satisfaction.</p> <p>After the empirical studies, the conceptual study was conducted through energy simulation to evaluate the impact of the combination of design factors on the energy demand. Twenty-four office model variants were created based on the combination of design factors, which are consisted of 3 or 4 variables. The energy demand is predicted according to the office model variants. As a next step, the design principles were developed by incorporating the previous findings and various perspectives of energy-efficient office renovation. An overview of the predicted user satisfaction and energy demand is graphically provided in this research.</p> <p>Based hereupon, a flow chart is created for applying the principles to the renovation process. First, the most influential design factors on thermal, visual, and psychological satisfaction are suggested in the design principles. Next, the values of predicted user satisfaction and energy demand can be evaluated by following the flow chart, to find the optimal renovation plan. In this step renovation alternatives are suggested in terms of office variants to create a balance between user satisfaction and energy efficiency. Last, if design limitations occur, the degree of personal control should be included to increase user satisfaction. The comprehensive design principles can help architects, designers, and facility managers to make design decisions in an early stage of office renovations.</p> <p>To summarise, this research demonstrates the relationship between design factors, indoor climate and user satisfaction, without neglecting the fundamental goal of office renovation: reducing the energy demand, upgrading facilities, and improving building performance. It also contributes to developing design principles for office renovations with integrated user perspectives, that improve users’ satisfaction and comfort, as well as energy efficiency. Although users’ individual control over the indoor environment has a significant impact on satisfaction, it needs to be explored further. In addition, it is important to mention that other variables such as building elements and various façade configurations need to be included in further research. In conclusion, design principles considering both energy efficiency and user satisfaction will not only contribute to an increase in the value of a building, but also serve as a stepping stone for user-focused office designs or user-related aspects of the built environment.</p> Minyoung KWON Copyright (c) 2020 Minyoung KWON 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 19 1 244 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4445 Territories -in- between https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4340 <p>There is an increasing body of literature suggesting that the conventional idea of a gradual transition in spatial structure from urban to rural does not properly reflect contemporary patterns of urban development and their potential for sustainable development. Furthermore, it is argued that large parts of the dispersed urban areas of Europe are neglected in urban and spatial planning policies. Such areas tend to be labelled simply as sprawl, though there is little evidence about whether such dispersed development is more or less sustainable than other forms of urban development. Moreover, evidence points in the direction that a large amount of dispersed urban development also asks for different planning approaches and instruments, which reflect the complexity and network structure of theses specific settlement patterns.</p> <p>The research introduces the concept of territories-in-between (TiB) to address the issues surrounding dispersed urban development and to contribute to the understanding of sustainable urbanisation. TiB is an umbrella term that avoids the simple dichotomy of spatial structure into ‘urban’ and ‘rural’. It also avoids the notion of an urban-rural continuum, and is not limited by cultural connotations that come with some other terms like Zwischenstadt, Città diffusa or Tussenland, because those terms belong to a specific place and are not generic.</p> <p>A cross-case comparison research design was chosen to avoid an approach that is too contextspecific and solution-oriented but which is able to develop methods and principles that can be transferred to other geographical contexts. Ten cases in five countries were studied with the aim to answer the following questions:</p> <p>–– What spatial structures characterise dispersed urban areas in Europe?</p> <p>–– Which morphological and functional structures of dispersed urban areas offer the potential for more sustainable development? If so, how can this potential be mapped and measured to inform regional planning and design?</p> <p>–– Are there similarities and dissimilarities concerning potentials of dispersed urban areas in different locations, planning cultures, topographies and histories?</p> <p>These questions were answered in detail in four papers, which are summarised below.</p> <p><strong>Beyond urban-rural classifications: characterising and mapping territories-in-between across Europe</strong></p> <p>Much of the physical territory of Europe does not fit classic ‘urban-rural’ typologies but can best be described as ‘territories-in-between’ (TiB). There is considerable agreement that TiB is pervasive and very significant. However, typologies of territory or spatial development continue to employ only degrees of either urban or rural. Similarly, spatial planning and territorial development policies rarely make use of the notion of in-between areas but tend instead to divide the territory into urban and rural zones. Questions have been raised therefore, about the lack of understanding of territories-in-between and the lack of attention given to them in planning policy. This paper contributes to a better understanding of TiB, by proposing a method for their characterisation and mapping. It asks if there can be a common definition of TiB that reflects consistent and distinctive&nbsp;characteristics across the great variety of spatial development contexts in Europe. It proposes spatial and demographic criteria for their definition, mapping and comparison. The comparison with widely used urban-rural classifications shows that the notion of TiB has three advantages: (i) it maps the complexity of the spatial structure of urbanised areas on a regional scale, and thereby helps to overcome the prevalent idea that urbanised regions are characterised by a spatial gradient from urban centre(s) to rural periphery; (ii) it emphasises the network structure of territories-in-between and the underlying connectivity of places with different functions; and (iii) it raises awareness that in some parts of Europe a settlement pattern has developed that cannot be understood as either urban or rural.</p> <p><strong>Towards sustainable territories-in-between: a multidimensional typology of open spaces in Europe</strong></p> <p>The improvement of ecosystem services provided by open spaces in dispersed urban areas is a crucial challenge for sustainable spatial development in Europe. The typology presented in this article illustrates the different potentials that open spaces in territories-in-between have across ten cases in Europe. Unlike other typologies, neither function nor form is used for the classification, but the potential interaction of open spaces with social, technical and ecological networks. Therefore, the typology informs regional spatial planning and design about the potential ecosystem services in networked urban regions. Consequently, the importance of territories-in-between, which are often neglected by mainstream spatial planning and design, for sustainable development is highlighted.</p> <p><strong>Comparing the landscape fragmentation and accessibility of green spaces in territories-in-between across Europe</strong></p> <p>The positive effects provided by green spaces on human well-being in dispersed urban areas is a potential advantage in urban development and a key challenge for sustainable spatial development in Europe. This article presents a methodology that allows for the comparison of the potential of green spaces in territories-in-between across Europe, in a way that crosses the fields of urban ecology and urbanism. The article adds to the existing knowledge and understanding of the relation between the spatial organisation of systems of green spaces and their accessibility to biodiversity and human wellbeing. First, it adapts a green space fragmentation index in a way that it can be applied to the specific spatial characteristics of territories-in-between. Second, it combines the fragmentation index with an indicator for the accessibility of green spaces in order to integrate aspects of ecology, human wellbeing and the spatial heterogeneity of the relation between them. The methodology is applied to ten areas across western Europe in order to inform decision and policy makers including urban planners, designers and environmental agencies. The approach enables assessment of the potential of the system of green spaces for biological diversity and human well-being in an integrated manner.</p> <p><strong>Territories-in-between: investigating forms of mixed-use in Europe’s dispersed urban areas</strong></p> <p>A large part of Europe’s population lives in dispersed urban settlements, much of it labelled as sprawl: monofunctional low-density urbanisation. There is increasing evidence though that this may be a too simplistic way of describing them, as some of these territories-in-between (TiB) urban and&nbsp;rural have undergone a process of densification and diversification. This paper investigates whether and how mixed-use appears in TiB. The paper uses data on the location of economic activities and the residential population at a 500 m by 500 m resolution. It concludes that in the eight cases in four European countries mixed-use is widespread and that more than 65 per cent of the area is mixed. Moreover, the paper demonstrates, by developing a multi-scalar typology of settlement characteristics including measures of grain, density, permeability and centrality, that local and regional settlement characteristics can explain the location and intensity of mixed-use areas. Although the building types and form of local urban tissue vary significantly in mixed-use areas, we conclude that across all four countries, the cross-scale settlement characteristics are similar.</p> <p><strong>Atlas of territories-in-between</strong></p> <p>The four papers are completed by an Atlas of Territories-in-between and a meta-analyses across all papers and cases. The Atlas presents a rich compendium of original maps illustrating the morphological, functional and relational properties of TiB, and the resulting potentials for present and future sustainability. The cross-case comparison of the ten dispersed urban areas across Europe uses 25 indicators to assess the current state and potentials for the future sustainability of these areas. The indicators cover the aspects of the provision of different ecosystem services, multifunctionality and mixed-use. The methods developed to assess the potential for future sustainable development combine both regional and systemic aspects with local and place-specific elements. It does so drawing on extensive modelling and spatial analyses of the settlement patterns, systems of built and unbuilt open spaces as well as on demographic and economic location patterns.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p> <p>Do dispersed urban areas have distinct characteristics? In sum, the findings show that dispersed urban areas in Europe are quite distinct from urban and rural areas and that they share characteristics from one place to another. The findings also show that the well-worn notion of a continuum from urban to rural does not stand up to the evidence, and is a crude simplification of the complexities and socio-ecological systemic relations which characterise TiB. It follows that effective spatial planning for such areas needs to be built on a more careful analysis of characteristics and potential for sustainable development.&nbsp;</p> <p>The research investigated three aspects of sustainable spatial development, the potential of multifunctionality, the provision of ecosystem services and the presence and potential for mixed-use. The potentials for multi-functionality in TiB go beyond the buildings. Especially grey open spaces provide a significant potential for multifunctionality. Greenspaces have an inherent potential through multifunctional use to not only lessen the negative impact of climate changes but also to provide a positive effect on the liveability of citizens.</p> <p>The maps presented in this study show that the most common green spaces, but also significant parts of grey spaces in TiB have the potential for multiple ecosystem services. The form of the potential is very distinct according to the spatial relation of a specific open space to its centrality as a resulting characteristic of the street network, accessibility to and connectivity of services as well as densities of services, production and consumption.</p> <p>Mixed-use, preferably integrated into a pedestrian-oriented environment, is a further aspect of sustainability. The research shows that TiB are more mixed than commonly referred to. The typology presented in this paper shows that mixed-use in TiB could be related to specific settlement characteristics. The characteristics investigated were: grain, density, permeability, centrality and closeness to transit stations and motorway entries.</p> <p>This leads to a generalised conclusion: the networks of small towns and cities form a robust spatial structure that can facilitate multi-functionality, mixed-use and ecosystem services, on both local and regional scales. But these qualities are under pressure by one-dimensional planning approaches which tend to focus on densification only. There is a significant potential to develop green and grey open spaces along with the network of grey infrastructures to provide ecosystem services and also facilitate multi-functionality.</p> Alexander Wandl Copyright (c) 2019 Alexander Wandl 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 19 1 392 10.7480/abe.2019.14.4340 From Dispersed Urban Areas to Territories- in-between https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4338 <p>The dissertation began with the observation that there is an increasing body of literature suggesting that the conventional idea of a gradual transition in spatial structure from urban to rural does not properly reflect contemporary patterns of urban development and their potential for sustainable development. Furthermore, it was argued that large parts of the urbanised areas of Europe are dispersed and that these are neglected in urban and spatial planning policies. Such areas tend to be labelled simply as sprawl, though there is little evidence about whether such dispersed development is more or less sustainable than other forms of urban development. Moreover, evidence points in the direction that large amounts of dispersed urban development ask for different planning instruments which reflect the complexity and network structure of theses specific settlement patterns.</p> <p>At the turn of the millennium and across Europe, concepts describing dispersed urban areas, like Zwischenstadt, città diffusa or tussenland gained some attention. They share an understanding of design and planning for the territory based on seeing the ‘urban landscape as a large interlocking system rather than as a set of discrete cities surrounded by countryside’ (Bruegmann, 2005). Nevertheless, none of the concepts influenced mainstream planning policy beyond a few individual plans and projects.</p> <p>To summarise, there is a limited understanding of the nature of dispersed urban development, uncertainty about how the sustainability of such areas can be assessed, and few policy instruments that would achieve any sustainability potential they offer.</p> <p>The dissertation sets out to contribute to an improved understanding of these issues by answering the following three research questions.</p> <p>1.&nbsp;What spatial structures characterise dispersed urban areas in Europe?</p> <p>2.&nbsp;Which morphological and functional structures of dispersed urban areas offer the potential for more sustainable development? If so, how can this potential be mapped and measured to inform regional planning and design?</p> <p>3.&nbsp;Are there similarities and dissimilarities concerning potentials of dispersed urban areas in different locations, planning cultures, topographies and histories?</p> Alexander Wandl Copyright (c) 2019 Alexander Wandl 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 19 251 364 10.7480/abe.2019.14.4338 Landscape Fragmentation and Accessibility of Green Spaces https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4337 <p>To improve the positive effects provided by green spaces on human well-being in dispersed urban areas is a key challenge for sustainable spatial development in Europe. This article presents a methodology that allows for the comparison of the potential of green spaces in territories-inbetween across Europe, in a way that crosses the fields of urban ecology and urbanism. The article adds to the existing knowledge and understanding of the relation between the spatial organisation of systems of green spaces and their accessibility to biodiversity and human well-being. Firstly, it adapts the fragmentation index in a way that it can be applied to the specific spatial characteristics of territories-in-between. Secondly, it combines the fragmentation index with an indicator for accessibility of green spaces, in order to integrate aspects of ecology, human well-being and the spatial heterogeneity of the relation between them. The methodology is applied to ten areas across western Europe in order to inform decision and policy makers including urban planners, designers and environmental agencies to be able to assess the potential of system of green spaces for biological diversity and human well-being in an integrated manner.</p> Alexander Wandl Copyright (c) 2019 Alexander Wandl 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 19 147 174 10.7480/abe.2019.14.4337 A Multidimensional Typology of Open Spaces in Europe https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4335 <p>To improve the ecosystem service provided by open spaces in dispersed urban areas is a key challenge for sustainable spatial development in Europe. The typology presented in this article illustrates the different potentials that open spaces in territories-in-between have across 10 cases in Europe. Unlike other typologies, neither function nor form is used for the classification, but the potential interaction of open spaces with social, technical and ecological networks. Therefore, the typology informs regional spatial planning and design about the potential ecosystem services in networked urban regions. Thereby the importance of territories-in-between, which are often neglected by mainstream spatial planning and design, for sustainable development is highlighted.</p> Alexander Wandl Remon Rooij Roberto Rocco Copyright (c) 2019 Alexander Wandl, Remon Rooij, Roberto Rocco 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 19 115 146 10.7480/abe.2019.14.4335 Characteristics of Territories-in-between https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4336 <p>Much of physical territory of the Europe does not fit classic ‘urban–rural’ typologies but can best be described as ‘territories-in-between’ (TiB). There is considerable agreement that TiB is pervasive and very significant. However, typologies of territory or spatial development continue to employ only degrees of either urban or rural. Similarly, spatial planning and territorial development policies rarely make use of the notion of in-between areas but tend instead to divide the territory into urban and rural zones. Questions have been raised therefore about the lack of understanding of territories-in-between and their negligence in planning policy. This paper contributes to a better understanding of TiB, by proposing a method for their characterisation and mapping. It asks if there can be a common definition of TiB that reflects consistent and distinctive characteristics across the great variety of spatial development contexts in Europe. It proposes spatial and demographic criteria for their definition, mapping and comparison. The comparison with widely used urban–rural classifications shows that the presented classification of TiB has three advantages: (i) it maps the complexity of the spatial structure of urbanised areas on a regional scale, and thereby helps to overcome the prevalent idea that urbanised regions are characterised by a spatial gradient from urban centre(s) to rural periphery; (ii) it emphasises the network structure of territories-in-between and the underlying connectivity of places with different functions and (iii) it raises awareness that in some parts of Europe a settlement pattern has developed that cannot be understood as either urban or rural.</p> Alexander Wandl Vincent Nadin Wil Zonneveld Remon Rooij Copyright (c) 2019 Alexander Wandl, Alexander Wandl 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 19 79 114 10.7480/abe.2019.14.4336 Research Design and Approach https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4334 <p>The following research questions are going to be answered to reveal the characteristics of TiB and their present state of sustainability and the potential for future sustainability to inform regional planning and design:</p> <p>What spatial structures characterise dispersed urban areas in Europe?</p> <p>Which morphological and functional structures of dispersed urban areas offer the potential for more sustainable development? If so, how can this potential be mapped and measured to inform regional planning and design?</p> <p>Are there similarities and dissimilarities concerning potentials of dispersed urban areas in different locations, planning cultures, topographies and histories?</p> <p>The core of the thesis at hand are four separate journal papers, see Figure 2.1. Therefore, this section presents the general approach of this research to bind the papers and their results together to provide the reader with a coherent story. Chapters three to six are predominantly composed of already published or accepted double-blind peer-reviewed journal papers. In all those papers, the specific research questions and methods and data used are explained. An atlas, complementing each chapter, presents additional maps, drawings and photos as well as statistical and analytical material and their interpretations. They were not used in the papers as such, but complete the comparative aspect of the research.</p> <p>Chapter 3 defines and characterises territories-in-between and thereby, what constitutes a case for the cross-case comparison. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 present methods to assess the potential and possibilities for sustainable development in territories-in-between. Chapter 7 present a meta-analysis of the earlier chapter to identify similarities among cases and outliers to be able to generalise findings. Chapter 8 summarises the key findings of the research and provide, recommendations for planning practice and research.</p> <p>A cross-case comparison as over aching approach was chosen in order to avoid what Geneletti et al. ( 2017) described as a setback of most studies dealing with sustainable development in peripheries, namely that they are often context-specific and solution-oriented and that it stays unclear whether the general ideas can be transferred to other geographical contexts. Therefore, after briefly introducing all chapters of the dissertation, section 2.6.1 provides a more detailed explanation of the advantages and disadvantages of a cross-case comparison. It also presents several cross-cutting methodological considerations, like the selection of the cases, data availability, reliability and limitations as well as general considerations on transferability.</p> <p>Section 2.7 introduces the atlas of territories-in-between. The aim of the atlas, which is spread out between the article based chapters of the dissertation, is to provide additional information and material, which was not included in the original papers but which either provides maps for those cases the papers did not focus on, or photographic material in order to support the quantitative data with qualitative information.</p> Alexander Wandl Copyright (c) 2019 Alexander Wandl 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 19 37 78 10.7480/abe.2019.14.4334 Introduction https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4333 <p>This dissertation aims to better understand the phenomenon of dispersed urbanisation across Europe. Although European countries have distinctive historical development patterns, a common phenomenon that occurred since the middle of the last century is that, 'most of Europe has been characterised by spreading of cities and increased population numbers, with people choosing to move out of inner cities to suburban and peri-urban areas (hybrid areas of fragmented urban and rural characteristics); this has resulted in the divide between urban and rural areas becoming increasingly blurred’ (EUROSTAT, 2016). This change has resulted in more than half of the European population to reside outside of densely populated cities.</p> Alexander Wandl Copyright (c) 2019 Alexander Wandl 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 19 23 36 10.7480/abe.2019.14.4333 Comparative Conclusions https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4295 <p>In the first section of this last chapter (7.1.) I will “comparatively” answer the main question related to each case before coming to broader discussion (7.2.) all of which contributes the the main question:</p> <p>In what way do landscape design strategies change how we understand and create architecture? (Q 1.1.1.)</p> <p>At first I differentiate the motives and objectives for landscape strategies in the specific context of each of the three study cases in chapters 4, 5 &amp; 6 to discuss the development of landscape design strategies in architecture:</p> <p>How do architects apply landscape design strategies in architecture? What are their motives and goals to do so and what do they accomplish? (Q. 1.1.3.)</p> <p>In terms of spatial contexts the projects are quite different. In particular, the dense urban situation with a long history dating back centuries in Paris; the implementation in a modern campus in Lausanne; and the placement outside Santiago with historical reference to the early medieval city are three completely different project contexts. In terms of surrounding landscapes, the riverside urban development of Paris; the large plateau above the lake Geneva; and Monte Gaiás across the valley from Santiago pose different landscape relations.</p> Daniel Jauslin Copyright (c) 2019 Daniel Jauslin 2019-12-13 2019-12-13 19 299 313 10.7480/abe.2019.13.4295 City of Culture of Galicia in Santiago de Compostela https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4294 <p>The choice of City of Culture of Galicia in Santiago de Compostela will be explained from its validity as a singular case (6.1.). I will explain the context of this project also in the religious world of the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela (6.2.). My impression from the two field-trips in 2014 will precede the analysis (6.3.) and again building this large and ambitious project posed a specific challenge to the merits of a few technical considerations (6.4.).</p> <p>As my documentation will show, this project is designed in a process of layering - not very different form our own analytical model in principle. However, our own layer model of ground form, spatial form, metaphorical form and programmatic form will alter the reading of the project (6.5.). Exactly these analogies between design architectonic process and landscape architectural analysis seem to be worth a specific method of design analysis. I will try to show composition strategies of shifting and shuffling of layers, altering and transforming of scales, stratification and even the inversion of layers as a specific method of this design (6.6.). Composition analysis should show that the specific landscape attitudes in this project are related to the idea of the palimpsest - multi-layered writing or ‘artificial excavation’ as Eisenman calls it in my interview (6.7., A1.31.).</p> <p>One can therefore find many entries in landscape architectonic attitudes but also a surprisingly contrasting position of the author’s denial of landscape influences in favour of what he calls the ‘excess of reason’ to understand this complex design (6.8.).</p> Daniel Jauslin Copyright (c) 2019 Daniel Jauslin 2019-12-13 2019-12-13 19 240 298 10.7480/abe.2019.13.4294 Rolex Learning Centre at EPFL, Lausanne https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4293 <p>The Rolex Learning Centre has been overly announced, published and praised as ‘landscape’ as architecture. Completed in 2010, it is the largest scale international building of Japanese Architects Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa (SANAA), and it quickly becomes clear the designer’s explicit aim was to solve a complex programmatic and spatial request with an artificial landscape.</p> <p>The commitment of the building to the creation of landscape explains the choice of the project for this study (5.1.). The context of the project in the EPFL campus of Lausanne and its insertion in the lake Geneva landscape deserve some explanation as well as the specific need for it and how that was answered by the design (5.2.). The impression from the field-trip will be described in the next section (5.3.). The challenging form led to a relatively long planning and building process in which quite unusual techniques and structural design were used for concrete reinforcements, formwork and even pouring at high local building standards (5.4.). My 4 layer analysis can be executed in a pure and complete manner (5.5.). The specific analytical method used for Rolex Learning Centre is a visual space analysis of this project with a 3D isovist software tool, a method I will introduce in the respective section (5.6).</p> <p>My exploration of the landscape architectural attitudes will also stress the important role of these spatial aspects among landscape architectural approaches (5.7.). My critique will engage the total picture to understand this creation of landscape as architecture and its extension of our conceptual understanding of landscape strategies (5.8.).</p> Daniel Jauslin Copyright (c) 2019 Daniel Jauslin 2019-12-13 2019-12-13 19 196 239 10.7480/abe.2019.13.4293 Two Libraries at Jussieu, Paris https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4292 <p>The lack of OMA’s Jussieu project in the reference literature could easily be interpreted as a sign of unimportance. However this design for a university library holds essential keys to our question how architecture is spatially composed using landscape strategies. This unbuilt design is an influential work at the turning point of the discipline, where new principles are explored. A whole series of projects by many architects in contemporary architecture could in some way or another relate to this project.</p> <p>In the first section of this chapter I will introduce the argumentation of our various reasons for the choice of the Jussieu project as en example of architecture designed as landscape in regard to existing research in reference literature (4.1). Then I will explain the project in its larger context (4.2). Although Jussieu is an unbuilt design, I will describe the building in a guided walk through from my reading of the design in the sources and the specific ‘pro-construction’ imagery (4.3). I will describe the steps that lead to this imagery later in the chapter. I keep a brief a paragraph about the design (4.4) to explain more about why this project was not built. To analyse the Jussieu project’s workings I display the account of the 4-layer method with all relevant drawings (4.5) and our interpretations of them. As a specific method for this project I chose virtual representations of the design that will be explained in 4.6.</p> <p>I will then test the concept of landscape in our framework of landscape architectural attitudes (4.7) to conclude with a theoretical framing of the essential contribution of proprietary design instruments of this project to architectures emerging landscape design strategies (4.8).</p> Daniel Jauslin Copyright (c) 2019 Daniel Jauslin 2019-12-13 2019-12-13 19 140 195 10.7480/abe.2019.13.4292 Architecture’s involvement with Landscape https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4291 <p>While nature is an important component of architectural theory, we must reevaluate how architecture deals with nature in theory in order to place landscape in this thesis in the disciplinary context of architecture.</p> <p>While revisiting 17 of architecture's crucial exponents throughout twenty centuries, I explore their dealings with landscape or nature and the concepts thereof. The beginning of this chapter (3.1) will touch on some crucial problems that lead to the polarity of 'wild' nature and human architecture, or more precisely, the divide between nature and humanity through architecture. Part of the theoretical problem elaborated in the beginning of the chapter is, that landscape and nature are oftentimes conflated if not confused, in particular by architects.</p> <p>Out of my critique of a thematic selection of common architectural theories and within the methodological differentiation (3.2), I will argue for the necessity of research through analyses of landscape spatial composition in architecture. This argument should lead to introduce my application of the a twofold analytical model. One side of the analysis is about the form of the landscape architectural composition (Steenbergen &amp; Reh 2003) with a method of drawing analysis of the formal composition of architectural projects in this thesis. The other side is evaluation of their strategies with the previously explained four attitudes. The introduction the twofold analytical methods will conclude with the research framework for our further investigation into Landscape Design Strategies drawing from the different theories of the conceptual landscape attitudes and the formal landscape composition, our research framework will merge these two theories into a complete picture of the phenomenon.</p> <p>In section 3.3, I will propose what has led to the selection and varied analytical techniques throughout this study and motivated the selection of key cases. I will treat the three cited cases in each individual chapters 4, 5 and 6.</p> Daniel Jauslin Copyright (c) 2019 Daniel Jauslin 2019-12-13 2019-12-13 19 70 139 10.7480/abe.2019.13.4291 Landscape Design Strategies https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4290 <p>In the second chapter we will set the thematic context more specifically and explore the terms of landscape and its design strategies as I will use them throughout this study. The whole chapter focuses on the exploration of the idea of landscape around the question:</p> <p>What landscape strategies are applicable in architectural design? (Q. 1.1.2)</p> <p>I refer to landscape from a number of selected standpoints and discuss the concepts of landscape space. There I encounter crucial ideas about the human experience of landscape that are generally applicable to understanding space (2.1.). This will lead to a specific and concise definition of the discipline of landscape architecture through its approach to landscape itself (2.2.). Of many strategies of landscape design, this thesis relies on a comprehensive definition of landscape architecture "attitudes" by Sebastien Marot (1999). I illustrate each of Marot's four attitudes of landscape design with specific examples and distribute key concepts to landscape (2.3.1. to .4.). To explain the application of landscape strategies, I also place the four attitudes of landscape in the theoretical context of architecture in each section and briefly summarise them in the last subchapter 2.3.4. The introduction of landscape attitudes in this chapter is different and more accurate than the idea of nature in architecture that I will discuss in the chapter three.</p> Daniel Jauslin Copyright (c) 2019 Daniel Jauslin 2019-12-13 2019-12-13 19 55 69 10.7480/abe.2019.13.4290 Context and Precedent Studies https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4289 <p>The first chapter introduces the central questions and purpose of the thesis and explores the ways in which landscape could again become relevant for architecture. I will establish the background to our spatial analysis by defining landscape and architecture in a theoretical elaboration of their crucial interrelations.</p> <p>I will give an outline of the the context of this research (1.1) and state the research questions (1.2). I will open the next section by stating the context of discussion: apparent distinction between architecture and landscape in exemplary theoretical and practical works (1.3).</p> <p>I will then review and reflect on the literature that touched on the subject of this thesis, buildings that have been designed like landscapes, focusing on the aspects that are particularly relevant to the thesis (1.4). These reflections will not only show an increasing interest in landscape as a phenomenon of contemporary architecture but also position the emerging landscape strategies in architecture that I will demonstrate as both critical and urgent towards architects in design practice.</p> <p>Section 1.5. will introduce the methodology in relation to these precedents.</p> Daniel Jauslin Copyright (c) 2019 Daniel Jauslin 2019-12-13 2019-12-13 19 27 54 10.7480/abe.2019.13.4289 Landscape Strategies in Architecture https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4288 <p>The central question and purpose of the thesis is to understand how landscape as a design concept is changing our understanding of architecture. It explores the ways in which landscape is relevant for design strategies in architecture.</p> <p>Buildings that have been designed like landscapes have become a topic in contemporary architecture and in the recent literature about it. The apparent distinction between architecture and landscape is questioned in exemplary theoretical works and building designs with increasing interest in landscape as a phenomenon of contemporary architecture.</p> <p>To understand this phenomenon this thesis first explores the term of landscape and its design. The introduction focuses on the exploration of the idea of landscape and how it is applicable in architectural design. Strategies of landscape design as they are discussed in contemporary landscape architecture are defined and illustrated with specific examples. This view is contrasted with the idea of nature in architecture.</p> <p>Architecture's concepts of nature reveal some crucial problems that lead to the polarity of 'wild' nature and 'human' architecture. With a critique of these common architectural theories and within the methodological differentiation the thesis reveals the necessity of research through analysis of landscape spatial composition in architecture.</p> <p>The core of this thesis is three case studies of architectural designs that approach a building like a landscape. A selection of analytical techniques is applied to key cases in three central chapters. The main analytical model for landscape architectural composition that Steenbergen and Reh (2003) developed for the European Gardens of the Renaissance, Baroque and Enlightenment is applied as a drawing analysis of the formal composition of three selected contemporary architectural projects in a period from 1992 to 2015. Each of the three building designs is studied with the same four-layer method of design analysis. In conjunction with this comparative analysis, a project specific method that reveals unique aspects of each design has been developed.</p> <p>The first case is OMA's unbuilt Jussieu design for two university libraries in Paris. In 1992 Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas and his collaborators at OMA proposed the Jussieu project at a turning point of the discipline, where new forms of architecture with landscape design strategies were being explored. Though this project has not been realised, this thesis makes it possible to describe the building in a guided walk-through. This visualisation of the design as it could have looked if built is also the specific analytical method chosen for this example.</p> <p>The second case, the Rolex Learning Centre at EPF Lausanne, has been clearly declared 'landscape' as architecture by its designers. This competition winning design from 2004 and opened in 2010 is the largest scale international building of Japanese Architects Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa (SANAA). The specific analytical method used for this case is a visual space analysis of the project using 3D-isovists.</p> <p>The third case is the City of Culture of Galicia in Santiago de Compostela by American architect Peter Eisenman. This project was initially designed in 1999 in a process of layering - in principle, similar to the layer model analysis of this thesis. However, the four tenets of the thesis layer model&nbsp;- ground form, spatial form, metaphorical form and programmatic form - will alter the reading of this project. This execution of the giant public project of "City of Culture" was interrupted half-way in 2015, with great political difficulties fo Galicia. The specific analytical method used for this case is an experiment that uses the ruins of unbuilt architecture as the base for a landscape architectural design. This design of a temporary garden mimics the design principles of architect Peter Eisenman. This experiment shows that landscape strategies developed for the design of a building can be applied in reverse for designed landscapes.</p> <p>In conclusion, this thesis will compare the three case studies of architectural designs with each other. While some design instruments, strategies and methods are specific, others are commonly applied in several or all of the projects.</p> <p>In a broader scope, the analysis is transposed into the greater societal and theoretical realm to explore whether landscape design strategies change architecture. For the discipline of architecture in general, the thesis explores how far landscape could lead the profession further as a new concept to build a sustainable human environment. Evoking potential applications and the reach of landscape in architecture in the perspective of future development, the thesis ultimately discusses unexplored potentials for landscape design strategies in the architectural discipline.</p> Daniel Jauslin Copyright (c) 2019 Daniel Jauslin 2019-12-13 2019-12-13 19 1 380 10.7480/abe.2019.13.4288 Output of part I: https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4161 <p>In part 1, a literature review was done to summarise and introduce the theoretical background knowledge of thermal comfort and passive cooling technology. The adaptive thermal comfort was explained because it is applicable to a free-running building which is the studied object of this research. The basic theory and design standards of adaptive thermal comfort were reviewed. A brief overview of passive cooling techniques was given. The techniques were then reviewed based on their relationships with urban morphology, building shape, layout, opening and “elements”.</p> <p>The study started with a Chinese vernacular building (chapter 4) because these always use the passive way to achieve a comfortable living environment under the limitations of technology at that time. Firstly, the spatial design strategies for passive cooling of a Chinese vernacular house were investigated in a field survey. The design of modern rural houses under free-running conditions compared with the Chinese vernacular house. It was found that the modern rural house did not achieve a satisfactory thermal summer environment under free-running conditions, while the vernacular house did. Furthermore, the vernacular house was deeply analysed by field measurements and dynamic thermal simulations. It was found that the particular spatial design of the vernacular house has its own building microclimate, which is important for the occupants’ thermal summer comfort. The concept of building microclimate&nbsp;was identified. In this study, the scale of “building microclimate” refers to a type of microclimate, involving the indoor space and the spaces around the indoor spaces of a particular building. It is the extension of the indoor climate. The spatial scale is smaller than the urban fabric. It rarely covers an area more than several hundred meters wide, but is bigger than an indoor space alone. It is limited to one particular building, whether a small house or a big stadium. The building microclimate is mainly defined by the spatial and the thermo-physical properties. Similar to the influence of urban morphology on urban microclimate, the spatial configuration influences the building microclimate significantly. To have a particular microclimate at the building scale, some key factors of spatial configuration such as spatial diversity, spatial arrangement and boundary conditions between spaces should be identified.</p> <p>The spatial design of modern house is different from the vernacular house due to the evolution of people’s lifestyle over a long period. Can a modern house have a good building microclimate? To answer this question, the spatial design and thermal environment of a modern house were analysed through field survey and simulation. It was found that a modern house can also have its own microclimate and that the microclimate of this particular building can provide considerable thermal comfort for the occupants in summer under local climate conditions.</p> <p>Adaptive actions, for example movement, can explain why occupants can achieve thermal comfort in a building microclimate with diverse spaces. To find the relationship between the occupants’ spatial perception and thermal perception, a questionnaire was put forward. It was found that the spatial openness of a particular space significantly affects the occupants’ visual perception, wind speed perception and thermal perception. It was revealed that the occupants’ spatial perception and thermal perception are associated. The strongest correlation is between spatial openness and visual perception and wind speed perception. That means spatial boundary conditions can strongly influence occupants’ comfort perception, and subsequently influence the occupants’ spatial choice and movement in a particular thermal environment, given the opportunity, as Humphreys (1997) pointed out: when people are free to choose their location, it helps if there is plenty of thermal variety, giving them the opportunity to choose the places they like. The fundamental assumption of the adaptive approach is expressed by the adaptive principle: “if a change occurs such as to produce discomfort, people react in ways which tend to restore their comfort”. Nicol et al. (2012) proposed that there are at least five basic types of adaptive actions. One important adaptive action is selecting a different thermal environment. Occupant movement in a particular building microclimate is significant for thermal comfort. Occupants can change their location for different activities. Movement is possible between buildings, between rooms, around rooms, out of the sun and into the breeze, and so on (Nicol et al., 2012).</p> Xiaoyu Du Copyright (c) 2019 Xiaoyu Du 2019-11-29 2019-11-29 19 201 204 10.7480/abe.2019.10.4161 Conclusion and recommendations https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4160 <p>This research provided insights into the comfort and energy-consuming behaviours of home occupants and into grouping these home occupants based on their individual differences. This was achieved by using a human-centered approach to an engineering challenge, by assuming comfort as a holistic experience of the home environment, and by treating the ‘occupant-environment’ interactions as a dynamic system.</p> <p>Such an approach drew methods typically used in design and ethnographic research, by gathering both qualitative and quantitative data from both the occupant and the building. The occupant data was collected quantitatively with the use of a questionnaire (self-reported) and qualitatively with interviews (procedural knowledge) and finally with generative techniques (interpretive knowledge). In such a way, different types of occupant knowledge were elicited and collected. The building data was gathered with checklists, monitoring, and energy readings.</p> <p>With the questionnaire data and a clustering technique -the TwoStep cluster analysis- five distinct types of occupant, or archetypes, were discovered and they were progressively enhanced and substantiated with the interview and generative techniques data. Additionally, data of building characteristics, indoor environmental factors, and actual energy consumption completed the details of the archetypes.</p> <p>The following paragraphs provide the conclusion and recommendations drawn from this research. First each of the key questions are answered followed by the answer to the main research question; in which the final description of the archetypes is presented. This is followed by the strengths and limitations of this work and recommendations for the future process. Then for each archetype, environmental design parameters are presented. This finishes with recommendations for future research and the implications of this work.</p> Marco Antonio ORTIZ SANCHEZ Copyright (c) 2019 Marco Antonio ORTIZ SANCHEZ 2019-11-29 2019-11-29 19 174 193 10.7480/abe.2019.13.4160 Using focus groups data to finalize the Archetypes https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4159 <p>A previous study clustered home occupants into archetypes with a questionnaire. This study uses qualitative methods to strengthen those previously-found archetypes with data pertaining to the participants’ home experiences. Focus groups were carried out where generative activities were conducted involving the generation of collages. The first activity dealt with the expression of ‘meaning of energy use at home’ and the second one with the ‘ideal home experience’. Analyses were done with content and thematic analysis. Codes were drawn from the data and were assimilated through an affinity diagram. The diagram produced two categories: building themes and human themes, along with five sub-categories (home, financial, energy, psychological, and behavioural aspects). The outcome shows that each archetype expresses needs and meanings of an ideal home experience and energy use differently from each other. The results provide evidence that generative techniques can be used in energy research. In this case, to validate and substantiate the quantitative archetypes previously produced with a questionnaire. Interpretive knowledge in energy research allows for a better understanding of occupants’ differing behavioural patterns in regards to energy use and comfort. It allows customizing interventions to the archetypes’ specific needs to decrease energy consumption while maintaining comfort.</p> Marco Antonio ORTIZ SANCHEZ Dong Hyun Kim Philomena M. Bluyssen Copyright (c) 2019 Marco Antonio ORTIZ SANCHEZ, Dong Hyun Kim, Philomena M. Bluyssen 2019-11-29 2019-11-29 19 146 173 10.7480/abe.2019.13.4159 Integrating qualitative and quantitative research to develop the final archetypes https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4158 <p>To better understand home energy consumption, it is important to study the behaviours of occupants in their homes, especially in relation to their comfort needs. A mixed methods study comprising of a questionnaire, interviews, indoor environmental parameters monitoring, and energy consumption readings was performed to group home occupants based on their behavioural patterns. The TwoStep cluster analysis produced five clusters of home occupant with the data from 761 questionnaire respondents. The clustering model comprised of 28 variables including constructs of emotions, comfort affordances, and locus of control. Then, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted and IEQ monitoring and energy readings were taken with 15 of the questionnaire respondents. The results of the field study were used to substantiate the findings of the questionnaire. The combination of the statistical clusters with the data from the field study resulted in five archetypes: five distinct types of home occupants, differing in their behavioural motivations towards achieving comfort, and their use of energy when doing so. This study shows that a mixed methods approach is valuable for better understanding energy consumption and implementing archetype-customized lines of action to reduce energy use and maintain comfort.</p> Marco Antonio ORTIZ SANCHEZ Philomena M. Bluysse Copyright (c) 2019 Marco Antonio ORTIZ SANCHEZ, Philomena M. Bluysse 2019-11-29 2019-11-29 19 114 147 10.7480/abe.2019.13.4158 Questionnaire testing, validating, and preliminary results https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4157 <p>Abstract This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the TwoStep cluster analysis and the development and first results of a new questionnaire for measuring comfort, health, and energy habits. The justification for the questionnaire is to consolidate questions of six specific domains about occupants' energy consumption patterns, from the behavioural and psychological perspectives into one instrument. The questionnaire was developed from a literature review, iterative conceptualization, and testing. The resulting instrument was administered to a sample of home occupants, comprising of bachelor students of Architecture of the Delft University of Technology. The objective of the study was to examine the effectiveness of the TwoStep cluster analysis to produce occupant profiles. 316 emails were sent out inviting participants to complete the questionnaire. With the TwoStep cluster analysis, it was possible to distinguish six different archetypes of occupants based on their behavioural characteristics. These were the Relaxed Optimists, Unconcerned Indifferents, Restrained Sensitives, Positive Absolutists, Incautious Negativistics, and Resigned Savers. The results provide promising evidence of the questionnaire's potential to distinguish different occupant energy-consumption profiles based on distinct psychosocial domains in a single and concise instrument, while also showing that the analysis method is appropriate for the type of variables gathered. The value of recognizing these profiles allows for a better understanding of occupants' differing energy consumption patterns in their homes and tailoring interventions to their specific needs.</p> Marco Antonio ORTIZ SANCHEZ Philomena M. Bluyssen Copyright (c) 2019 Marco Antonio ORTIZ SANCHEZ, Philomena M. Bluyssen 2019-11-29 2019-11-29 19 80 111 10.7480/abe.2019.13.4157 Introducing Comfort, Energy, and Behaviours https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4155 <p>There is a need for reducing dwellings’ energy consumption while maintaining a comfortable and healthy indoor environment. This review was performed to provide a steppingstone for identifying new methods for studying everyday home energy use and comfort. First, an overview of comfort is given as seen from different disciplines, depicting the subjective and multidimensional nature of comfort. This is followed by the biological component of comfort, reflected as an emotional, behavioural, and physiological reaction to environmental stimuli. Subsequently, links between comfort, health, and wellbeing are introduced. The second part of the review focuses on energy and buildings, with the connection between energy and behaviours-detailing possible explanations of performance gaps, and the pathways from energy to health. To conclude, human sensation of comfort is more complex than the perception of thermal, acoustical, visual stimuli, or air quality environment. Comfort is a reaction to the environment that is strongly influenced by cognitive and behavioural processes. Habits and controllability have been identified as paramount in the links between comfort and energy consumption. In this holistic view of comfort linked to health, comfort is referred to as ‘wellbeing’.&nbsp;he first steps for new directions of the study of comfort and energy are presented.</p> Marco Antonio ORTIZ SANCHEZ Copyright (c) 2019 Marco Antonio ORTIZ SANCHEZ 2019-11-29 2019-11-29 19 50 77 10.7480/abe.2019.13.4155 Introduction https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4153 <p>People spend about 60% of their time in their homes: environments in which the person should feel comfortable and be healthy on account of the technical services and systems in their building (Jia, Srinivasan, &amp; Raheem, 2017). The supply of a comfortable environment should be achieved in an energy efficient way, especially if we are to achieve the EU 2020 or 2030 targets of residential energy consumption. However, in spite of the technological advancements and energy efficient technologies that have already been developed to provide comfort, energy consumption is not decreasing at the rate it should (Tsemekidi Tzeiranaki et al., 2019). There are several complex factors affecting energy consumption of which occupant behaviours is one of them, and building systems, services, and products being some of the others. Moreover, the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) field seems to focus mainly on the thermal and other physiological aspects of comfort and energy expenditure. Yet, collaboration of the IEQ field with the fields of energy engineering and social sciences to combine knowledge to have a better grasp of both sides –building and occupant- of the issue of consumption, does not seem to occur (D’Oca, Hong, &amp; Langevin, 2018; Sovacool, 2014). Therefore, the problem that energy savings have not been achieved with the currently available technological developments could be related to the behavioural factors influencing energy consumption.</p> Marco Antonio ORTIZ SANCHEZ Copyright (c) 2019 Marco Antonio ORTIZ SANCHEZ 2019-11-29 2019-11-29 19 34 49 10.7480/abe.2019.13.4153 Home Occupant Archetypes https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4152 <p>This research is aimed at better understanding how occupants use energy in their homes from a comfort-driven perspective, in order to propose customized environmental characteristics that could improve the occupants’ comfort while reducing energy consumption. To propose such bespoke environmental features and feedback, occupant archetypes were produced based on the intentions and motivations behind comfort behaviours. Building upon the aim of this thesis, the following main research question was proposed:</p> <p><em>How can energy behaviours be studied from a comfort-driven perspective in order to facilitate the development of environmental features that support more efficient occupant behaviours and that provide the comfort needs of the person?</em></p> <p>A mixed-methods human-centered design approach was developed for which four steps were required to answer the main research question, reflecting also the four parts of this dissertation.</p> <p>1. An extensive and multidisciplinary literature review investigated behavioural theories and comfort theories to find out what the drivers behind behaviours are and to understand comfort from a holistic and integrative lens, including social and psychological comfort. Additionally, an overview of energy use in residential buildings was presented, along with the links between energy consumption and occupant behaviours, thus explaining the problems of performance gaps and the rebound effect. The review eventually proposes that energy consumption, behaviours, and comfort are elements of an interacting system, as many behavioural expressions exercised at home are comfort-driven and several of these comfortdriven behaviours result in energy use. This part was the platform on which a questionnaire was developed based on constructs that motivate behaviour: locus of control, attitudes towards energy, environmental needs, and emotions towards home, in addition to other variables such as health status, demographics, and energy consuming habitual actions. Thus, the questionnaire is a tool that consolidates in a single instrument a self-reported assessment of energy consumption patterns and comfort behaviours. The resulting questionnaire was composed of previously validated instruments that were adapted to the context to assess the corresponding constructs and was composed of 65 variables.</p> <p>2.&nbsp;The newly developed questionnaire was pilot tested with a population consisting of master students of the faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment of the TU Delft. The pilot was launched to make corrections and adjust the questionnaire and to validate the effectiveness of the analysis method to cluster respondents. The TwoStep cluster analysis was chosen as it is a method normally used in the segmentation of health behaviours and was originally developed to group customers in marketing. More recently, it has been used in studies assessing different types of behaviours, especially in the healthcare field. The pilot ensured that the segmentation method was appropriate for the types of variables involved. The cluster analysis produced a model of six clusters, which was successfully validated according to a process that ensures that the groups are both stable and reliable.</p> <p>Subsequently, the questionnaire was administered to the full sample of 761 respondents –mainly composed of students and employees- and was analysed accordingly with the method. The final model was also validated. The final model resulted in five distinct home occupant clusters, which differed on their comfort needs, attitudes towards energy, environmental control beliefs, and emotions towards their home environment. These clusters were the basis of the forthcoming archetypes.</p> <p>3.&nbsp;In order to better develop the archetypes, occupant-related qualitative data and environment-related quantitative data was needed. A field study was designed to interview occupiers in their homes and to gather building data. To gather building data, a comprehensive checklist inventoried building characteristics related to energy expenditure, such as type of glazing, type of ventilation, type of appliances, etc. Additionally, the indoor environmental parameters (relative humidity, carbon dioxide, and temperature) were monitored, and finally, actual energy consumption readings were taken for a month during the summer period. Parallelly, in-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted, which are techniques used to gather qualitative behavioural data from the home occupants. Questions related to their energy consuming habits and practices were asked, as well as about their environmental needs for comfort and energy attitudes. Interviews were analysed with a text mining technique: sentiment analysis, which allows assessing the sentiments associated with the topics discussed. Both qualitative and quantitative data were used to complete the previously found statistical clusters, in order to develop the five final archetypes that are the following: Archetype 1: Restrained Conventionals; Archetype 2: Incautious realists; Archetype 3: Positive savers; Archetype 4: Sensitive wasters; Archetype 5: Vulnerable pessimists.</p> <p>4.&nbsp;Self-reported data and interviews allow collecting explicit knowledge: a type of knowledge that is readily available and is related to facts and memories. When verbally expressed, these facts and memories tend to be processed through&nbsp;biases and conscious filters. As a result, to produce more accurate and complete archetypes, another type of knowledge is also needed: tacit knowledge. This is a type of knowledge is related to feelings, intuitions, and emotions, which tends to be difficult to express with verbalizations. To collect it, focus group sessions were designed to assess the home occupants’ tacit knowledge in terms of what it means to use energy in their homes and what the ideal home experience is. This was collected with the generation of collages that the participants produced with visual and tactile materials, after which they described the process and meanings of their creations. The data was analysed with the use of affinity diagrams that allows to group large amounts of qualitative data into manageable categories and to see the relations between the categories. The results showed two categories: building and occupant, with five sub-categories in total: behavioural aspects, psychological aspects, energy aspects, financial aspects, and home aspects. Each of these subcategories was composed of codes extracted from the collages produced and from the verbal explanations given by the participants. Finally, the data was related back to each of the archetypes, in order to produce final fully-fledged archetypes. The results show that each archetype has different needs, expectations, and experiences as to how they appraise energy and how they desire comfort in their own houses. Consequently, this gives insights into the fact that each of the archetypes is different, they each need differing environmental features to satisfy their comfort needs, to achieve that comfort, and to perceive the impact of their comfort behaviours on the energy outputs of their household.</p> <p>The differing characteristics that each archetype exhibited were translated into preliminary customized design parameters or bespoke environmental features for each of them. They are summed up as follows: the Restrained Conventional needs large windows for a view and a connection to the outside. Because they value personal space and social interaction at home, yet have low environmental control, the plan of the home needs to give a transition from private to social. They are conservative in the energy use and concerned about their finances: energy feedback can be given to them relating their practices to monetary consequences.</p> <p>The Incautious Realist places importance on having the right size and layout for particular purposes: therefore, they need modularity that they can manually control, due to their high external control. They also value safety and privacy, so the interactions with façade elements need to ensure them that their environment is safe and private. They have a high concern about finances, yet they have a high expenditure. To boost their consumption and their need for control, their home can be equipped with a control station from which they can control appliances, and see their consumption as a financial reflection.</p> <p>The Positive Saver places value on the cleanliness and orderliness of the place, thus they need surfaces and spaces that are easy to clean and reach. They are the biggest savers of all the archetypes and this seems to be due to their environmental concerns. To reduce even further their consumption, feedback can be given to them by translating their comfort actions –oven use, etc. - into environmental consequences.</p> <p>The Sensitive Waster needs softness and tactile sensations in their house. They also place importance on having high freedom of their practices in their house. They are the largest energy waster, and they do not worry about their finances, however, they do value the environment and the future. A smart feature can be designed for them to save more energy by equating their practices to ecological consequences to have a more conservative energy use.</p> <p>The Vulnerable Pessimist places emphasis on the aesthetics of the house, the technologies, and the gadgets. They also value a sense of community and connectedness to their neighbourhood. As result, they need homes that allow for these interactions, in small complexes or pavilions. They do not worry about financial aspects, however their expenditure is middle-range: to improve it; they can receive feedback from the consumption of their community as an awareness tool.</p> <p>The findings of this study can help to improve energy predictions, by making more accurate models with different types of occupants. Furthermore, for the existing housing stock, corporations can use the archetypes to tailor the indoor environmental features and interfaces to the future occupant; or, similarly, different occupants can be better allocated to better matching existing dwellings. As for the design of the future stock, architects and contractors can make use of the archetypes by having a more inclusive design process, by answering real needs of the future occupant and improving the decision making of architects. For policies and energy efficiency programs, knowing that there are different types of occupants can allow to bridge gaps between occupant and provider, by encouraging a participatory or inclusive research and design phase, for the design of devices, feedbacks, and interfaces tailored to the specific archetype.</p> Marco Antonio ORTIZ SANCHEZ Copyright (c) 2019 Marco Antonio ORTIZ SANCHEZ 2019-11-29 2019-11-29 19 1 264 10.7480/abe.2019.13.4152 Conclusions and recommendations https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4136 <p>Even though extensive research into existing CRE alignment models has provided us with valuable insights into the building blocks, components and variables that are needed in the alignment process, these models still fall short in two ways. Most models pay little to no attention to (1) the design of new CRE portfolios and (2) the selection of a new CRE portfolio that adds the most value to the organization. With the development of a new approach, the Preference-based Accommodation Strategy design and decision approach (PAS), I address the deficiencies of the previous alignment models that either place too much emphasis on financial measures or lack clarity in decision making due to the difficulties of quantifying the intangible and subjective. In this chapter the main research question will be answered and recommendations for further research are formulated.</p> <p>How can the Preference-based Accommodation Strategy design and decision approach (PAS) successfully be developed and tested on corporate real estate portfolio level in order to enhance CRE alignment?</p> Monique Arkesteijn Copyright (c) 2019 Monique Arkesteijn 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 359 376 10.7480/abe.2019.12.4136 Reflecting upon PAS https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4135 <p>By now, the PAS design decision method is familiar and it is known that:</p> <p>1 The Preference-Based Design procedure could be adapted and implemented into an accommodation strategy formation project so that it can be used at real estate portfolio level in CRE alignment process (see chapter 4);</p> <p>2 The stakeholders were able to perform all PAS design decision steps and accepted the outcome (see chapter 5 and 6);</p> <p>3 The facilitator and the systems engineers were able to represent the pilots in mathematical decision models (see chapter 7), and;</p> <p>4 The stakeholders evaluated PAS design decision method positively (see chapter 8).</p> <p>In paragraph 9.1 it is shown that the PAS design decision method can be used as add-on to current CRE alignment management models. However, using the PAS method as add-on in these models creates managerial and methodical difficulties. The structure of these models is often not congruent with the structure of the PAS method (see chapter 2). An add-on of the PAS method in an alignment model does not fit well. To avoid these difficulties in the pilot studies a specific CRE alignment management system is set up which is congruent with the PAS design decision system: the PAS design decision management system.</p> <p>The PAS design decision method has been structured from a decision making perspective around Kickert’s three rationalities (components) (in De Leeuw, 2002). To complete PAS, PAS is described solely as design method in paragraph 9.2. In paragraph 9.3 the PAS management system is structured from a systems’ management perspective. From this perspective the three components can be described from the organizations’ point of view as well as the CRE manager and facilitator that executes PAS. Management as such is seen as steering in this thesis as is explained in chapter 3. PAS management system is defined based on a systems perspective as following the chosen basic concepts and definitions as explained in paragraph 3.1.14 and 3.1.15.</p> Monique Arkesteijn Copyright (c) 2019 Monique Arkesteijn 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 327 358 10.7480/abe.2019.12.4135 PAS evaluation https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4134 <p>In this chapter the evaluation of PAS will be discussed. The use of PAS has been extensively reported in chapters 5 (steps), 6 (stakeholder &amp; activities) and 7 (mathematical model). The use of PAS has been successful, this means that stakeholders are able to use PAS. In this chapter the evaluation of the stakeholders of PAS is discussed. This answers the question if the stakeholders want to use PAS.</p> <p>Recall, that PAS comprises of steps, stakeholders &amp; activities, and mathematical models. The activities consist of a sequence of interviews and workshops and a simultaneous design and calibration of the mathematical model. The pilots resulted in a final design alternative and a final mathematical model.</p> <p>The evaluation is given per pilot study and this chapter has the following structure:</p> <p>–– TU Delft pilot for the food facilities in paragraph 8.1;</p> <p>–– TU Delft pilot for lecture halls in paragraph 8.2;</p> <p>–– Oracle’s pilot for office locations in paragraph 8.3;</p> <p>–– Pilot comparison and conclusion in paragraph 8.4.</p> <p>In each of these paragraphs, the four types of measurements that Joldersma and Roelofs (2004) use, will be addressed.</p> <p>In the first subparagraph the stakeholders’ evaluation is discussed. Here, the first three measurements were addressed: (1) experiences with PAS, (2) attractiveness of PAS and (3) participants’ observations on effectiveness of PAS. In general, it is not indicated which particular stakeholder gave feedback if their role in the organization was not relevant for the remark. Only in cases where the role and background of the stakeholder was relevant to their remarks, it is indicated which particular stakeholder gave these remarks. In the second subparagraph, the fourth measurement, namely the observers’ perceptions of the effectiveness of PAS is reported.</p> <p>In the text, the frequently mentioned positive aspects and areas of improvement are underlined and will be used in the conclusion and pilot comparison.</p> Monique Arkesteijn Copyright (c) 2019 Monique Arkesteijn 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 301 326 10.7480/abe.2019.12.4134 PAS mathematical models to achieve alignment https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4133 <p>The focus in this chapter is on the component mathematical models of PAS (see Figure 7.1 and Figure 7.2). PAS can only be performed if the system engineers are able to build a mathematical model of the problem situation for each of the pilot studies. In this chapter, I will show that the system engineers were able to do this for all three pilots.</p> <p>Typically, a subset of the alternative is infeasible. When the feasible set of alternatives can be characterized mathematically, the PFM algorithm can search an optimal alternative within this set (either by an exhaustive search or by sampling, depending on the size of the feasible set). Otherwise, if a characterization of the feasible set is not available to the algorithm, the group decision makers – the stakeholders - can propose possible feasible alternatives for consideration. The algorithm can then rate these alternatives.</p> <p>This chapter has the following structure:</p> <p>–– TU Delft pilot for the food facilities in paragraph 7.1;</p> <p>–– TU Delft pilot for lecture halls in paragraph 7.2;</p> <p>–– Oracle’s pilot for office locations in paragraph 7.3;</p> <p>–– Pilot comparison and conclusion in paragraph 7.4.</p> <p>The mathematical models are explained for each of the pilots as follows: the model structure (first subparagraph), the model formulas (second subparagraph) and the optimization tool (third subparagraph).</p> <p>Recall, that in step 5 alternatives are generated in two separate ways:</p> <p>A&nbsp;The group of decision makers self-designs alternatives, use the design constraints to test the feasibility of the design alternatives, and use the PFM algorithm to yield an overall preference score of these feasible design alternatives;</p> <p>B The system engineer generates feasible design alternatives and uses the PFM algorithm to find the feasible design alternative with the highest overall preference score.</p> <p>The decision makers are able to design alternatives (step 5a) with the model that is explained in the first and second subparagraphs. The system engineer is able to generate alternatives (step 5b) with the optimization tool is, as is explained in the third subparagraph.</p> <p>The mathematical models for the pilot studies have been built by the system engineer and the facilitator. The author had the role of the facilitator. The system engineer for the first pilot was Binnekamp, for the second pilot it was Valks with the aid of Barendse, and for the third pilot the system engineers were De Visser with the guidance of De Graaf. Valks and De Visser cooperated in this study as graduate students with the author as their main mentor and Binnekamp, Barendse and De Graaf as their second and/or third mentors.</p> Monique Arkesteijn Copyright (c) 2019 Monique Arkesteijn 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 277 300 10.7480/abe.2019.12.4133 PAS stakeholders & activities to achieve alignment https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4132 <p>PAS consists of three main components; steps, stakeholders &amp; activities, and mathematical models, as explained in chapter 4. In this chapter, the stakeholders &amp; activities are the focal point (see Figure 6.1). By explaining the interactive design process in detail, the reader understands how the stakeholders perform the activities to achieve alignment between the organization and the corporate real estate portfolio.</p> <p>The stakeholders &amp; activities are displayed in the left column of the flowchart in Figure 6.2. There, the stakeholders that are involved are divided in three types: the responsible management (RM), the stakeholders (S) and the facilitator and systems engineer (F &amp; SE). They need to perform two types of activities: interviews and workshops. In the activity interviews, the stakeholders perform steps 1 to 4. In the activity workshops, the stakeholders perform step 5. They design an alternative corporate real estate portfolio and continue designing other alternatives until they mutually agree that the best possible alternative has been made. The activities are finished when, in the last interview, each stakeholder individually confirms the selection of the best alternative.</p> <p>The results of the three pilots have been discussed in chapter 5 including the final input the stakeholders have given in the interviews for steps 1 to 4. The best alternative the stakeholders have chosen in step 6 was also presented. This alternative was designed interactively and iteratively in the workshops in step 5. However, how the stakeholders have designed this alterative has not yet been explained. Since, interactively and iteratively designing alternatives in the mathematical models is a major component of PAS this design process is explained in this chapter. This chapter shows the interfaces that the stakeholders can use when designing alternatives including instructions on how to navigate the model.</p> <p>This chapter presents the pilots as follows:</p> <p>–– Pilot study 1: TU Delft’s food facilities in paragraph 6.1;</p> <p>–– Pilot study 2: TU Delft’s lecture halls in paragraph 6.2;</p> <p>–– Pilot study 3: Oracle’s office locations in paragraph;</p> <p>–– And the pilot study comparison and conclusion in paragraph 6.4.</p> <p>For each pilot study, in the first subparagraph, the design interfaces that the stakeholders have at their disposal, are explained. In the second subparagraph, the stakeholders workshop set up is discussed in which they use the interface to design alternatives. Lastly, in the third subparagraph, the iterative process is discussed. The iteration takes place between step 5 (designiWng alternatives) and step 1 to 4 (variables, curves, weights and constraints).</p> Monique Arkesteijn Copyright (c) 2019 Monique Arkesteijn 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 233 276 10.7480/abe.2019.12.4132 PAS steps to achieve alignment https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4131 <p>The focus in this chapter is on the component steps of PAS (see Figure 5.1 and Figure 5.2). CRE alignment is achieved, as has been shown in chapter 4, if stakeholders can use PAS successfully. PAS is successful if the stakeholders are able to perform each step of PAS. I assume that the stakeholders can perform steps 1 (specifying decision variables), 3 (assigning weights) and 4 (determining design constraints) because these type of steps are part of other multi criteria decision analysis as well. However, it is not known if stakeholders are able to perform the new step 2 (determining preferences) and step 5a (design alternatives) and are willing to select the alternative with the highest overall preference score in step 6. Preferably, this new alternative has a higher overall preference score than the overall preference score in the current situation. However, if the boundary conditions are strict this is not always possible. PAS has been tested in three pilots.</p> <p>This chapter has the following structure:</p> <p>–– TU Delft pilot for the food facilities in paragraph 5.1;</p> <p>–– TU Delft pilot for lecture halls in paragraph 5.2;</p> <p>–– Oracle’s pilot for office locations in paragraph 5.3;</p> <p>–– Pilot study comparison and conclusion in paragraph 5.4.</p> Monique Arkesteijn Copyright (c) 2019 Monique Arkesteijn 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 181 232 10.7480/abe.2019.12.4131 Preference-based Accommodation Strategy design and decision approach https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4130 <p>One of the long-standing issues in CREM is the alignment of an organization’s real estate to its corporate strategy as I have shown in chapter 2. CRE alignment is even defined by some as the raison d’être of CREM, as the range of activities undertaken to attune corporate real estate optimally to corporate performance. Even though extensive research into existing CRE alignment models has provided us with valuable insights into the steps, components and variables that are needed in the alignment process, these models still fall short in two ways. Most models pay little to no attention to the design of a new portfolio and to the selection of a new portfolio that adds the most value to the organization.</p> <p>The Preference-based Accommodation Strategy approach is a design and decision support tool to remedy these shortcomings and thereby enhance CRE alignment. The basic concepts and definitions for PAS have been explained in chapter 3. In this chapter, PAS is presented in its main development phases.</p> <p>The research methods to develop, test and evaluate PAS are explained in paragraph 4.1. In paragraph 4.2 the main concepts and the three components of PAS are explained. Subsequently, these three components are discussed; the steps of PAS in paragraph 4.3, the stakeholders &amp; activities in paragraph 4.4 and the generic mathematical model in paragraph 4.5. In the last paragraph 4.6, the coherence between the three components is explained as well as the conclusion.</p> Monique Arkesteijn Copyright (c) 2019 Monique Arkesteijn 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 143 180 10.7480/abe.2019.12.4130 Basic concepts and definitions of the PAS design and decision system https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4129 <p>In this chapter, using basic concepts and definitions from management science, decision theory and design methodology, I shall outline the methodological aspects, characteristics and features of the Preference-based Accommodation Strategy (PAS) design and decision system, which I developed for the formation of a corporate accommodation strategy.</p> <p>This outline serves first and foremost as a simple way of representing and modeling the PAS design decision system. It also enables the methodological characteristics of PAS design and decision making to be set out in a way that allows analysis and evaluation of the suitability of the applications of this system in real life corporate accommodation strategy processes. Finally, it should be possible to incorporate past experience into the framework, and to generalize and summarize it in order to benefit the further development of the PAS design decision system. The PAS design decision system will be referred to as PAS.</p> <p>In chapter 2 the existing alignment models were assessed on eight different assessment criteria and it has become clear that decision making receives very little attention in the models. The two main problems were that (1) it remained unclear how alternative CRE strategies are made on portfolio and building level and (2) most problems occur when selecting an alternative; none of the models has an overall performance measure that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative criteria, and uses correct measurement. Although in paragraph 2.2 all assessment criteria have been introduced, some of the concepts will be explained in this chapter. In chapter 2.3 the models have been assessed on their use of correct measurement for instance. In paragraph 3.2 it will be explained what correct measurement is and why it is important.</p> <p>The chapter is structured as follows:</p> <p>–– Fifteen basic concepts underlying the PAS design system are explained in paragraph 3.1;</p> <p>–– Preference measurement as core concept is explained in more detail in paragraph 3.2;</p> <p>–– Preference-Based Design as other core concept is explained in more detail in paragraph 3.3;</p> <p>–– A comparison of the foundations in different scientific field in given in paragraph 3.4;</p> <p>–– The chapter ends with a conclusion and comparison in paragraph 3.5.</p> Monique Arkesteijn Copyright (c) 2019 Monique Arkesteijn 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 91 142 10.7480/abe.2019.12.4129 Introduction https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4128 <p><strong>Corporate Real Estate </strong></p> <p>Corporate real estate is real estate that is necessary for an organization to conduct its business. CRE can be owned or leased space and is different than commercial real estate. CoreNet Global (2015) describes that in commercial real estate, real estate is core business, and the goal is to provide a risk adjusted return to the investor; whereas, in corporate real estate, real estate supports the business function. Corporate real estate represents the demand side or user side of real estate, while commercial real estate focuses on the supply side to meet that demand.</p> <p><strong>CRE function lacks tools to deliver the most business impact </strong></p> <p>Sharp (2013) concluded based on 636 survey responses that CRE teams face barriers to meet present challenges. The barriers are “C-suite resistance to capital expenditure; the sometimes small and fragmented structure of the CRE function; inadequate access to deep data and analytics to measure value; and a fundamental skill and knowledge gap within CRE teams ... . Furthermore, many CRE departments lack the tools and training to effectively identify, shape and execute the broader business strategies that would ultimately deliver the most business impact. Only 28 percent regard themselves as ‘well equipped’ to meet the various tactical and strategic demands now being placed upon them” (Sharp, 2013, pp. 232-233).</p> <p>What if CRE departments were better equipped</p> <p>... with an approach that enables them to choose the best CRE strategy and portfolio design that adds most value to all stakeholders in the organization?</p> Monique Arkesteijn Copyright (c) 2019 Monique Arkesteijn 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 41 54 10.7480/abe.2019.12.4128 Corporate Real Estate Alignment https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4126 <p>This dissertation aims to enhance CRE alignment by approaching alignment as a design and decision process as is explained in chapter 1. The current state of the art in CRE alignment modeling is summarized in paragraph 2.1. This sets the context of this research and will show that CRE alignment is complex and multidimensional. Thereafter, an assessment of CRE alignment models from a design and decision perspective is made in paragraph 2.2. Based on this perspective I identified the scientific gap of this PhD research. Most of the work in this chapter has been published before in the last 10 years. Figure 2.1 shows the timeline of the important publications related to the two topics that this chapter addresses:</p> <p>1 State of the art of modelling CRE alignment processes;</p> <p>2 Assessment of structure models of CRE alignment from a design and decision perspective.</p> <p>As can be seen in the figure below, the different topics have evolved at the same time. I have chosen to structure the chapter around the two topics and not follow the order of publication. Because the topics have evolved over time this causes some redundancy in and between paragraph 2.1 and 2.2. In the last paragraph 2.3 conclusions, they are brought together.</p> <p>But before showing the state of the art, CRE and CREM are defined. Corporate real estate is a specific type of real estate. CoreNet Global (2015) describes it as the real estate necessary to conduct business—the bricks and mortar of office buildings, manufacturing plants and distribution centres, retail stores, and similar facilities. It can include owned or leased space, buildings, and infrastructure, such as power plants or even airport runways. Corporate real estate is closely related to commercial real estate, however, there is a distinct difference in business objectives. In the commercial real estate world, the business is the real estate. The goal for commercial real estate is to provide a risk adjusted return to the investor; whereas, in corporate real estate real estate supports the business function. In other words, corporate real estate represents the demand side or user side of real estate, while commercial real estate focuses on the supply side to meet that need.</p> <p>Corporate real estate is seen since 30 years by (Joroff, 1993) as the fifth resource of the business that needs to be managed besides capital, human resources, IT and communication. One of the big challenges in corporate real estate management is reducing the gap between the high speed of business and the slow speed of real estate, i.e. between the so-called dynamic real estate demand and the relatively static real estate supply. A decade later (Krumm et al., 2000, p. 32) described CREM as&nbsp;</p> <p>“The management of a corporation’s real estate portfolio by aligning the portfolio and services to the needs of the core business (processes), in order to obtain maximum added value for the business and to contribute optimally to the overall performance of the corporation”.</p> <p>One could say that the authors position CRE alignment in this definition as the raison d’être of CREM. Other authors (Heywood &amp; Arkesteijn, 2017) position CRE alignment as one of the activities that CREM needs to perform. In this research, CREM will be seen as a wide range of activities that must be performed by the corporate real estate manager, while the alignment of CRE with the business will be seen as one of CREM’s activities and is referred to as CRE alignment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Monique Arkesteijn Copyright (c) 2019 Monique Arkesteijn 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 55 90 10.7480/abe.2019.12.4126 Corporate Real Estate alignment https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4125 <p>One of the long-standing issues in the field of corporate real estate management is the alignment of an organization’s real estate to its corporate strategy. In the last thirty years, fourteen Corporate Real Estate (CRE) alignment models have been made. In some of these CRE alignment models it is indicated that they strive for maximum or optimum added value. Even though extensive research into these existing CRE alignment models has provided us with valuable insights into the steps, components, relationships and variables that are needed in the alignment process, these models still fall short in two ways. Most models pay little to no attention to&nbsp;</p> <p>1 The design of new CRE portfolios;</p> <p>2 The selection of a new CRE portfolio that adds most value to the organization.</p> <p>How a CRE manager is able to design and select an optimum alternative in an operational way remains a black box in many alignment models.&nbsp;</p> <p>In CRE alignment models, the authors generally use either the stakeholder or the shareholder approach. Both approaches received criticism in the past. Kaplan and Norton (2006) state that the shareholder approach with purely financial measures of performance are not sufficient to yield effective management decisions. Jensen (2010) criticizes the stakeholder approach and states that managers in an organization need to define what is better and what is worse which forms the basis of making decisions. In his view, putting them in opposite positions is not correct because both are of a different nature. In fact, Jensen (2010, p. 33) states “ ... whether firms should maximize value or not, we must separate two distinct issues;</p> <p>1 Should the firm [organization] have a single-valued objective?;</p> <p>2 And, if so, should that objective be value maximization or something else ...?"</p> <p>I agree with Jensen’s view that a single-valued objective function is needed, but argue that in our CREM domain a financial measure is not fully suitable. A financial measure is not suitable, because values (also referred to as qualities) of buildings fall in two general categories.</p> <p>These categories are often interrelated and overlap in practice as explained by Volker (2010, p. 17), the categories are:</p> <p>–– “technical, physical, hard, functional, objective or tangible qualities;</p> <p>––&nbsp;perceptual, soft, subjective, judgmental or intangible values.”</p> <p>These intangibles are vital to CRE management but often suppressed. Real estate decision making therefore needs to be able to include all of these values in order to be purposeful. If they are treated separately, the restriction is that one effect can be more difficult to monetize than the other effect, as shown by Mouter (2012) and if multiple measures are used as in the stakeholder approach ”if you take one set of quantifiable impacts and one set of non-quantifiable impacts in an appraisal, one set will dominate” (Mishan, in Mouter, 2012, p. 10).</p> <p>Research aim: The aim of this research is to enhance CRE alignment by improving CRE decision making in such a way that corporate real estate managers are able to determine the added value of a particular corporate real estate strategy quickly and iteratively design many alternative real estate portfolios.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions about developing the Preference-based Accommodation Strategy design and decision approach</strong></p> <p>This research successfully developed, tested and evaluated a new design and decision approach in corporate real estate alignment that makes it possible to design alternative CRE portfolios and then to select the portfolio that adds most value to the organization. The originality of this research to (1) define value as technically equivalent to preference and (2) use a design and decision approach for the alignment problem. This new approach is called the Preference-based Accommodation Strategy design and decision approach (PAS). PAS was developed and tested in accordance with the five stages of an operations research project. PAS is constructed upon fifteen basic concepts and definitions from management science, decision theory and design methodology.</p> <p>Preference Measurement and Preference-Based Design are the most important basic concepts. By using the overall preference (value) score as overall performance measure, based on a single-valued objective function, CRE managers are able to select a new CRE portfolio that adds the most value to the organization. Following Barzilai (2010), all tangible and intangible values are categorized either as physical or nonphysical properties of an object. To enable the application of mathematical operations to these non-physical properties, such as preference, Barzilai (2010) developed a theory of (preference) measurement as well as a practical evaluation methodology&nbsp;Preference Function Modeling for constructing proper preference scales. To enable the design of alternatives the Preference-based Design method (Binnekamp, 2011) is used as particular technique in the domain of design and decision systems. By adjusting this method it can be used on portfolio level.</p> <p>PAS is structured around three decision making rationalities (Kickert, in De Leeuw, 2002). The three components are; the steps (procedural rationality), the stakeholders &amp; activities (structural rationality) and the mathematical model (substantive rationality) as shown in Figure S.1. The substantive rationality enables the decision maker to choose an alternative based on the bounded rationality perspective. The procedural rationality enables the decision maker to take into account the time perspective when selecting an alternative and the structural rationality enables that more than one decision maker is involved. By using all concepts past experience has benefited the development of PAS. For PAS to be operational all components are connected coherently.</p> <p>The coherence between the components is shown in a flowchart in Figure S.2. In the steps, decision makers define decision variables representing accommodation aspects that make the accommocation stratgy tangible and iteratively test and adjust these variables by designing new alternative real estate portfolios. The alternative design that adds most value to the organization, i.e. has the highest overall preference score, is the portfolio that optimally aligns real estate to corporate strategy. The activities that the participants perform are a series of interviews and workshops, while the system engineer builds the accompanying mathematical models. The approach overcomes the problems inherent to the current models and uses explicit scales for measuring preference, i.e. value, defined by stakeholders themselves.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions about testing PAS </strong></p> <p>PAS is tested successfully in three pilot studies. All pilot studies show that the stakeholders were able to perform all the steps and activities, including the steps to determine preference curves (step 2) and the design alternatives themselves&nbsp;(step 5). The stakeholders were able to design an alternative CRE portfolio with a higher overall preference than in the current situation Table S.1. An added value of 54, 17 and 5 (out of a 100) was achieved either by the stakeholders (in step 5a) or the optimization tool (in step 5b). In the last step, all stakeholders accepted that alternative as the final outcome. Next to that, there is an indication, based on the third pilot study, that the use of the preference curves in PAS improved the representation of the stakeholders preferences than in their current scorecard system.</p> <p>In the first and third pilot, alternative CRE portfolios have been generated with an optimization tool (step 5b). Due to the nature of third pilot the brute force approach was used successfully in generating a global optimum (see Table S.1). In the first pilot, the algorithm (step 5b) was not able to generate a local optimum because a subset of the alternatives was infeasible. The feasible set of alternatives could not be characterized mathematically and was not available to the algorithm. The brute force approach is preferable to the search algorithm as it finds a global optimum instead of a local optimum but has as disadvantage that it often cannot be used when a pilot is too complex. In PAS, stakeholders design alternatives (step 5a), and use the PFM algorithm to rate them as has been done for the first two pilots.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions about evaluating PAS; iteration is the key</strong></p> <p>In all three pilots the stakeholders as well as the observers evaluated PAS very positively. According to the stakeholders, determining preferences and refining and adjusting them in collective workshops is the attractive part of PAS. The participants indicated that, whilst the method of determining preferences is easy, accurately determining which preference is related to a certain decision variable value is not.</p> <p>Assigning preference scores to decision variable values can be arbitrary at first. By repeating the cycle of determining preferences and making designs a number of times, the stakeholders see the effect of the decisions made in the design, and how their preferences affect those decisions. In all pilot studies the decision makers used the opportunity to either add or remove decision variables and change curves, weights or constraints. The use of such a learning process in the context of work practice and problem solving is described by Schön (1987) as reflection in action.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions about reflecting upon PAS</strong></p> <p>PAS as design and decision approach can be used as add-on to existing CRE alignment management models. However, using PAS as add-on in these models creates methodical difficulties. The structure of these models is often not congruent with the PAS structure. To avoid these difficulties, PAS is also described both from a systems’ management perspective (De Leeuw, 2002).</p> <p>The three pilot studies showed that PAS can be applied in different organizations, and for different types of problems with a different level of complexity. In comparison, the first two pilots were more complex because more stakeholders were involved and more interventions were possible. Applying this approach to multiple context-dependent cases has yielded more valuable results than just applying it to one case. Based on the results of this study, it is justified that PAS can be used for a wide range of real estate portfolio types.</p> Monique Arkesteijn Copyright (c) 2019 Monique Arkesteijn 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 1 414 10.7480/abe.2019.12.4125 Conclusies, aanbevelingen en discussie https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4123 <p>Investeringen in stedelijke vernieuwingswijken worden met het wegvallen van de rijksbijdragen na 2014 niet meer door de rijksoverheid gestimuleerd. Private partijen worden sindsdien geacht in deze achterblijvende wijken te investeren zonder ‘trigger money’ van het Rijk. Voor de continuïteit van stedelijke vernieuwing zijn met name investeringen door woningcorporaties van groot belang. De investeringsruimte van woningcorporaties is echter aanzienlijk verminderd, onder meer doordat zij sinds 2013 verhuurderheffing moeten betalen. Bovendien richten woningcorporaties zich als gevolg van de herziene Woningwet in 2015 meer op hun kerntaken, wat effect heeft op hun activiteiten en investeringen in stedelijke vernieuwingswijken. In de huidige realiteit is het investeringsgedrag van corporaties in stedelijke vernieuwing ingrijpend aan het veranderen en moeilijk te voorspellen.</p> <p>In dit proefschrift wordt inzicht gegeven in het investeringsgedrag van woningcorporaties in stedelijke vernieuwingswijken in samenwerking met andere actoren in de huidige context. Er is onderzoek gedaan naar de wijze waarop investeringsbeslissingen in stedelijke vernieuwing tot stand komen en naar de factoren die hierin een rol spelen. Omdat woningcorporaties minder investeringsruimte hebben en hun kernactiviteit is teruggebracht naar sociale huisvesting, komt het meer aan op samenwerking met andere actoren om investeringen in stedelijke vernieuwing van de grond te krijgen. Hierbij gaat het ten eerste om het samenspel tussen woningcorporaties en beleggers en ten tweede om het samenspel tussen woningcorporaties en bouwers (en in mindere mate ontwikkelaars). Ten derde gaat het om het samenspel tussen corporaties en gemeenten.</p> <p>In dit laatste hoofdstuk worden conclusies getrokken over het investeringsgedrag van woningcorporaties in stedelijke vernieuwing en over de factoren die hierop van invloed zijn. Daarnaast wordt gereflecteerd op de toegepaste onderzoeksmethode en het gekozen denkkader en worden aanbevelingen gedaan. In paragraaf 8.1&nbsp;wordt antwoord gegeven op de onderzoeksvragen. In paragraaf 8.2 wordt ingegaan op de betrouwbaarheid en validiteit van de toegepaste onderzoeksmethode en op de theoretische benadering en het denkkader van Ostrom. Vervolgens worden aanbevelingen gedaan voor nader onderzoek. In paragraaf 8.3 worden de verwachtingen van het onderzoek weergegeven en worden meer algemene uitspraken gedaan op grond van de bevindingen.</p> Nicole Plasschaert Copyright (c) 2019 Nicole Plasschaert 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 236 259 10.7480/abe.19.14.4123 Samenspel corporatie en gemeente https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4122 <p>In de twee voorgaande hoofdstukken werd ingegaan op het samenspel tussen woningcorporaties en respectievelijk beleggers en (ontwikkelende) bouwers. In dit hoofdstuk staat de samenwerking tussen woningcorporaties en gemeenten centraal, die als gevolg van de gewijzigde Woningwet en cyclus van prestatieafspraken is veranderd. Er wordt antwoord gegeven op de volgende onderzoeksvraag: “Op welke andere samenwerkingswijze kunnen woningcorporaties, gemeenten en huurdersorganisaties elkaar onder het regime van de nieuwe Woningwet door middel van samenwerkings- en prestatieafspraken stimuleren om te investeren in stedelijke vernieuwing en wijkontwikkeling?”</p> <p>Om inzicht te krijgen in deze deelvraag worden de volgende deelvragen onderscheiden.</p> <p>Hoe kunnen corporaties gestimuleerd worden om te investeren in stedelijke vernieuwingswijken door middel van samenwerkings- en prestatieafspraken?</p> <p>Hoe kunnen gemeenten bijdragen aan investeringen in stedelijke vernieuwingswijken door middel van samenwerkings- en prestatieafspraken met woningcorporaties?</p> <p>Op welke wijze kunnen huurdersorganisaties en marktpartijen hieraan bijdragen?</p> <p>Op basis van dezelfde methodiek als in de twee voorgaande hoofdstukken zijn vijf veronderstellingen geformuleerd in relatie tot deze vragen, gebaseerd op literatuuronderzoek en interviews. Deze veronderstellingen worden diepgaand onderzocht aan de hand van een gamesimulatie met de nadruk op het samenspel tussen corporaties en gemeente. De interviews zijn gehouden voorafgaand aan deze gamesimulatie, identiek aan hoofdstuk 5, omdat dit een goede volgorde is gebleken. Op basis van de bevindingen wordt de onderzoeksvraag van dit hoofdstuk beantwoord en worden conclusies getrokken.</p> <p>In de volgende paragraaf komt allereerst de achtergrond en het speelveld aan bod. In paragraaf 7.3 worden de interviews behandeld, waarna in paragraaf 7.4 en 7.5 de opzet en resultaten van de gamesimulatie uiteen worden gezet. Tot slot worden in paragraaf 7.6 conclusies getrokken.</p> Nicole Plasschaert Copyright (c) 2019 Nicole Plasschaert 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 200 235 10.7480/abe.19.14.4122 Samenspel corporatie en bouwer https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4121 <p>Dit hoofdstuk gaat primair over de samenwerking tussen woningcorporatie en bouwer. De focus van woningcorporaties is door de herziening van de Woningwet met name op het goedkope en betaalbare segment komen te liggen, wat vraagt om betaalbare oplossingen van bouwers met een lagere kostprijs. De bouwsector staat echter bekend om verspillingen van geld en materiaal, weinig innovatie en lange bouwprocessen (Vrijhoef, 2011). Eén van de oorzaken van deze inefficiëntie is de vaak problematische relatie tussen opdrachtgever en opdrachtnemer (Tazelaar en Snijders, 2010; Vrijhoef, 2011; Venselaar, 2017). Om samenwerking te verbeteren, verspillingen te reduceren en kwaliteit te verhogen wordt ketensamenwerking gezien als veelbelovend alternatief (Bygballe et al., 2010; Vrijhoef, 2011; Eriksson, 2015).</p> <p>Naast de samenwerking tussen corporatie en bouwer wordt ingegaan op de rol die ontwikkelaars zouden kunnen spelen. Als marktpartij kunnen zij een toegevoegde waarde hebben op inhoudelijk en financieel gebied, maar ook op het gebied van organisatie en marketing (Helleman, 2005; Kazemi et al, 2009; Gruis et al., 2009). Zij zouden de rol van intermediair tussen corporatie en bouwer op zich kunnen nemen en daarbij kennis en expertise kunnen inbrengen. Ontwikkelaars zouden bovendien de rol van gebiedsregisseur op zich kunnen nemen en grondposities kunnen inbrengen of ruilen met de corporatie.</p> Nicole Plasschaert Copyright (c) 2019 Nicole Plasschaert 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 160 199 10.7480/abe.19.14.4121 Samenspel corporatie en belegger https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4120 <p>In dit hoofdstuk wordt ingegaan op de samenwerking tussen woningcorporaties en beleggers waarbij middeldure huur, ofwel middenhuur, centraal staat. Er wordt antwoord gegeven op de volgende onderzoeksvraag: “Op welke andere samenwerkingswijze kunnen woningcorporaties, institutionele beleggers en gemeenten elkaar stimuleren om te investeren in nieuwe huurwoningen in het middensegment, teneinde daarmee bij te dragen aan gemengde wijken in stedelijke vernieuwing en een meer evenwichtige woningmarkt?” Met huurwoningen in het middensegment, ofwel middenhuur, wordt in dit onderzoek bedoeld middeldure huurwoningen met een maandhuur vanaf de tweede aftoppingsgrens. Deze grens geldt voor huishoudens van drie of meer personen en wordt jaarlijks verhoogd. De tweede aftoppingsgrens lag in 2016 op circa € 630 en is de afgelopen jaren opgetrokken naar circa € 650 (prijspeil 2019). De minimum- en maximumgrenzen van middenhuur verschillen regionaal. In het algemeen wordt € 1.000 als maximumgrens gehanteerd (VNG, 2017).</p> <p>Om inzicht te krijgen in deze vraag worden de volgende deelvragen onderscheiden.</p> <p>Onder welke voorwaarden zijn institutionele beleggers bereid om te investeren in het middensegment vanaf de tweede aftoppingsgrens?</p> <p>Hoe is het voor woningcorporaties acceptabel te maken om zich terug te trekken tot aan de tweede aftoppingsgrens voor drie- en meerpersoonshuishoudens?</p> <p>Draagt samenwerking tussen institutionele beleggers en corporaties bij aan meer investeringen in het middensegment in stedelijke vernieuwingswijken?</p> <p>Op welke wijze kan de gemeente hieraan bijdragen?</p> <p>In relatie tot deze deelvragen zijn vijf veronderstellingen geformuleerd op basis van literatuuronderzoek en interviews. Deze worden diepgaand onderzocht aan de hand van een gamesimulatie. De interviews en gamesimulatie hebben plaatsgevonden in de eerste helft van 2016. Op basis van de bevindingen van de gamesimulatie en de interviews wordt de onderzoeksvraag van dit hoofdstuk beantwoord en worden conclusies getrokken.</p> <p>In de volgende paragraaf wordt allereerst de achtergrond en het speelveld in beeld gebracht, waarna in paragraaf 5.3 de interviews worden behandeld. In paragraaf 5.4 en 5.5 komen de opzet en resultaten van de gamesimulatie aan bod. In paragraaf 5.6 worden tot slot conclusies getrokken.</p> <p>Dit hoofdstuk is tot stand gekomen in samenwerking met Inge Oortgiesen in het kader van haar masterthesis Huisvesting voor middeninkomens (Oortgiesen, 2016) waaruit enkele passages en tabellen zijn overgenomen of bewerkt.</p> Nicole Plasschaert Copyright (c) 2019 Nicole Plasschaert 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 126 159 10.7480/abe.19.14.4120 Verkennende casestudy https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4119 <p>In de voorgaande hoofdstukken werd ingegaan op de context en het theoretisch kader. Hierna volgt het empirische deel van het onderzoek met allereerst een verkennende casestudy in voorliggend hoofdstuk, gestructureerd op basis van het IAD framework van Ostrom (2011) zoals toegelicht in hoofdstuk 3. Deze enkelvoudige casestudy is uitgevoerd om grip te krijgen op beïnvloedende factoren bij investeringsbeslissingen in stedelijke vernieuwing. De resultaten en inzichten die volgen uit de casestudy vormen de basis voor het ontwerp van de gamesimulaties, die aan bod komen in de hoofdstukken 5, 6 en 7.</p> <p>In dit hoofdstuk wordt de casus Vernieuwingsplan Centrumgebied Kanaleneiland in Utrecht behandeld. Het betreft een stedelijke gebiedsontwikkeling met als hoofdstrategie sloop/nieuwbouw, aansluitend op de focus van dit onderzoek. Het gebied omvatte aan het begin van de vernieuwing significant corporatiebezit van twee woningcorporaties, gecombineerd met commerciële en maatschappelijke functies. Het gelijkwaardige bezit en positie van de woningcorporaties Portaal en Mitros in het gebied als vertrekpunt, maakt vergelijkende analyse en onderzoek naar wederzijdse beïnvloeding mogelijk. De vernieuwing wordt gekenmerkt door een complexe samenwerkingsvorm met publieke en private actoren en een lange looptijd, waarbinnen veel contextuele veranderingen hebben plaatsgevonden waaronder de economische crisis in 2008. De interacties tussen de actoren lijken veel invloed te hebben gehad op de investeringsbeslissingen en uitkomsten van de vernieuwing.</p> <p>De casestudy is uitgevoerd op basis van interviews met de betrokken actoren, ondersteund door inhoudsanalyse en studie van besluitdocumenten, overeenkomsten en het complete projectdossier dat beschikbaar was vanuit woningcorporatie Portaal.&nbsp;De geanalyseerde documenten zijn niet opgenomen in dit proefschrift, maar wel beschikbaar via de auteur. De casestudy heeft plaatsgevonden in het laatste kwartaal van 2015. Begin 2019 heeft een laatste update van de informatie plaatsgevonden in overleg met de actoren.</p> <p>In de volgende paragraaf wordt de opzet van de casestudy uiteengezet. Paragraaf 4.3 geeft een beschrijving van de casus in Kanaleneiland Centrum, de investeringsopgave en de samenwerkingsvorm. In paragraaf 4.4 worden de resultaten van de interviews behandeld. In paragraaf 4.5 worden de resultaten bediscussieerd en geabstraheerd naar een algemeen niveau, waarna deze in paragraaf 4.6 worden vertaald in aannames ten behoeve van de gamesimulaties. De conclusies zijn weergegeven in paragraaf 4.7.</p> Nicole Plasschaert Copyright (c) 2019 Nicole Plasschaert 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 90 125 10.7480/abe.19.14.4119 Theoretisch kader https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4118 <p>Dit hoofdstuk behandelt de theoretische perspectieven die in dit onderzoek centraal staan. In paragraaf 3.1 wordt de theoretische achtergrond geschetst. In paragraaf 3.2 wordt ingegaan op het perspectief van de institutioneel-economische benadering. De context van onderhavig onderzoek kent een hoge mate van institutionalisering: de sterk gereguleerde woningmarkt enerzijds en de stringente wet- en regelgeving voor woningcorporaties als maatschappelijke onderneming anderzijds. Als gevolg van deze institutionalisering zijn met name woningcorporaties en de overheid belangrijke actoren die in de huidige situatie veel invloed hebben op de woningmarkt en de stedelijke vernieuwing.</p> <p>In paragraaf 3.3 wordt ingegaan op het andere perspectief dat centraal staat in dit onderzoek: de benadering van de zogenoemde ‘common-pool resources’, ofwel publiek goed. Vanuit de bijzondere rol van woningcorporaties als maatschappelijke onderneming pakken zij het probleem op van kwetsbare wijken in bestaand stedelijk gebied, waarin voorheen publiek werd ingegrepen. In het gedachtengoed van Ostrom (1990) kan het maatschappelijke probleem van de leefbaarheid in stedelijke vernieuwingswijken beschouwd worden als een ‘urban commons’ probleem, waarvoor een interventie gewenst is. Vanuit deze theoretische perspectieven is gekozen voor het zogenoemde Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework van Elinor Ostrom als denkkader voor dit onderzoek, op basis waarvan de analyse van de onderzoeksresultaten plaatsvindt. In paragraaf 3.4 wordt het IAD framework nader toegelicht. Tot slot wordt in paragraaf 3.5 een korte samenvatting van het theoretische kader gegeven.</p> Nicole Plasschaert Copyright (c) 2019 Nicole Plasschaert 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 74 89 10.7480/abe.19.14.4118 Investeringen van corporaties in stedelijke vernieuwing https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4117 <p>Dit hoofdstuk geeft de context weer van woningcorporaties in relatie tot de woningmarkt, stedelijke vernieuwing en gebiedsontwikkeling. Paragraaf 2.1 beschrijft de woningmarkt in Nederland. Paragraaf 2.2 gaat in op de rol van woningcorporaties en in paragraaf 2.3 komt de Woningwet aan bod. In paragraaf 2.4 wordt het begrip stedelijke vernieuwing gedefinieerd en worden de ontwikkelingen in stedelijke vernieuwing en beleid beschreven vanaf het naoorlogse wijkenbeleid tot aan de huidige wijkvernieuwing. Paragraaf 2.5 gaat in op investeringsstrategieën van woningcorporaties in stedelijke vernieuwing, waarna in paragraaf 2.6 de relatie wordt gelegd met stedelijke gebiedsontwikkeling. Aan de hand daarvan wordt afgebakend waar dit onderzoek zich op richt. Tot slot geeft paragraaf 2.7 een korte samenvatting en conclusies.</p> Nicole Plasschaert Copyright (c) 2019 Nicole Plasschaert 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 40 73 10.7480/abe.19.14.4117 Inleding https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4116 <p>De afgelopen decennia heeft stedelijke vernieuwing in Nederland, met als doel fysieke en sociale verbetering van achterblijvende wijken, ingrijpende veranderingen doorgemaakt. In 2015 kwam een einde aan het rijksbeleid stedelijke vernieuwing en de rijksbijdrage vanuit het Investeringsfonds Stedelijke Vernieuwing (ISV). Woningcorporaties vormen een belangrijke speler in stedelijke vernieuwing, maar ook hun positie en rol is sterk in beweging. Met de herziening van de Woningwet in 2015 is een eind gekomen aan de verbreding van activiteiten die na de verzelfstandiging van woningcorporaties heeft plaatsgevonden. Woningcorporaties maken een terugtrekkende beweging richting hun kerntaak: het bouwen, verhuren en beheren van sociale huurwoningen. Deze ingrijpende veranderingen roepen verschillende vragen op. Komt de continuïteit van stedelijke vernieuwing in het gedrang door het wegvallen van de rijksbijdrage? Kunnen corporaties binnen de huidige Woningwet nog steeds het voortouw nemen in stedelijke vernieuwing? Onder welke voorwaarden zijn marktpartijen bereid om de stedelijke vernieuwingsopgave op te pakken? Op welke wijze kan de integrale aanpak met sloop/nieuwbouw door woningcorporaties worden doorgezet in samenwerking met gemeenten en marktpartijen?</p> Nicole Plasschaert Copyright (c) 2019 Nicole Plasschaert 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 12 39 10.7480/abe.19.11.4116 Conclusion https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4115 <p>The main objective of this dissertation is to find the main factors of building spatial configuration that affecting the thermal summer environment, the possibility of occupants to achieve thermal comfort there in, and to propose a spatial design method as the passive cooling strategy for summer thermal comfort. In accordance with the objective, the research questions were put forward in section 1.5 of chapter 1. For every sub-question, there is a respective chapter to answer it, see figure 1.3 in section 1.6 of chapter 1. In chapter 8, some conclusions of part I of this dissertation were summarised. In this chapter, the research questions are answered. In addition, the limitation of this research and recommendations for future practice and research will be mentioned as well.</p> Xiaoyu Du Copyright (c) 2019 Xiaoyu Du 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 301 316 10.7480/abe.19.10.4115 Coupling occupants’ behaviour and natural ventilation potential analysis in the design of a Chinese rural house https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4114 <p>In chapter 11, the VGA analysis method proposed by the author was used for the evaluation of the layout designs of Chinese rural houses proposed by the local government. Type 10 was selected as best design type, because it can most easily achieve thermal summer comfort for occupants in passive ways. The optimised layout has a high potential to achieve natural cross-ventilation, especially in the public spaces, which are important for the local occupants’ thermal summer comfort in hot and humid climates. Chapter 11 also shows occupants’ movement behaviour&nbsp;in the spaces. The public spaces in the house are the most attractive spaces for occupants. This is related to the occupants’ spatial perception. This helps the occupants to enjoy the natural ventilation in the public spaces because there is a high potential to achieve natural ventilation there.</p> <p>In this chapter, the optimised layout design of chapter 11 will be developed for a new rural house design in the studied area. The focus of the design is still on the occupants’ behaviour and natural ventilation potential with respect to the spatial configuration. This study will demonstrate how to use the VGA analysis method for the optimisation of spatial configuration, coupling occupants’ behaviour and natural ventilation analysis to design practice.</p> Xiaoyu Du Copyright (c) 2019 Xiaoyu Du 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 273 300 10.7480/abe.19.10.4114 Spatial configuration evaluation of Chinese rural houses through visual graph analysis for adaptive thermal comfort https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4113 <p>In chapter 9, it was found that the spatial indicators can reflect the airflow performance. There is a positive or linear correlation between the spatial indicators (connectivity, integration and depth) and the airflow indicator (airflow rate). The indicators that reflect the accessibility of the spatial configuration, i.e. connectivity,&nbsp;integration and depth, reflect the potential of achieving natural ventilation of a particular spatial configuration. In the other words, a high degree of connectivity, integration and low depth value mean a high accessibility of the spatial configuration and a high potential of obtaining natural ventilation. This result is useful for the architectural design practice, especially in the early design stage. In chapter 10, the extended space syntax methods in the program of Depthmap for natural ventilation potential analysis were proposed by the author. In this chapter 11, the proposed methods for spatial analysis will be used for design practice. The spatial configurations of a number of Chinese rural house designs in the area studied will be evaluated in terms of natural ventilation potential for thermal summer comfort by the proposed spatial analysis methods.</p> <p>The rural houses as a case study in this research is chosen because the Chinese rural houses normally using passive ways to achieve thermal comfort in summer, therefore the spatial configuration for natural ventilation is important, as the author concluded in part 1 in this thesis. In addition, the rural population in China accounts for 40% of the total population with a total amount of approximately 560 million at the end of 2018 (NBSC, 2018). At the end of 2014, there were more than 585,451 villages in China and the rural housing area is at present 22.6 billion m², within a total area of more than 40 billion m² of China’s urban and rural housing together. The amount of rural housing is constantly rising. According to 2010 data, the total floor space of newly built houses is 1.6 billion m², and half of them are rural residential buildings (NBSC, 2018). Therefore, improving the living environment for Chinese rural residential buildings is important for the sustainable development of China. Moreover, previous studies have been carried out on the sustainable development of Chinese rural residential building. However, many investigations and studies related to energy conservation and indoor thermal comfort have been proposed for northern China’s rural houses (Jin &amp; Zhou, 2008; Lai, Zhang, Wei, &amp; Zhang, 2011; Sun, 2003; Yang, Yang, Yan, &amp; Liu, 2011; Zhao &amp; Jin, 2007; Zheng, Li, &amp; Yang, 2008), focusing on winter comfort. Studies of the Chinese rural residential building in the hot humid climate regions are scarce (Han, Zhang, &amp; Zhou, 2009; Jin, Meng, Zhao, Zhang, &amp; Chen, 2013; Liu, Tan, Chen, Chu, &amp; Zhang, 2013; Xie &amp; Shi, 2012). Studies of spatial configuration for passive cooling of rural residential building design are very scarce.</p> Xiaoyu Du Copyright (c) 2019 Xiaoyu Du 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 249 272 10.7480/abe.19.10.4113 Methods of spatial analysis for natural ventilation potential https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4112 <p>The basic theory of space syntax was described in section 2 of chapter 9. Some methods have been developed from the theory of spatial analysis to explore the spatial structure of buildings and cities. The DepthmapX-one graph-based representations and measures program (Turner, 2001) is one of the most important platforms for space syntax analysis. Convex and axial analysis, isovist and VGA analysis, as well as segment analysis are the methods involved in this programme (Al_Sayed, Turner, Hillier, Iida, &amp; Penn, 2014). The axial and segment analysis are more suitable for the analysis at the urban scale. The convex analysis is suitable for the building scale and isovist and VGA analysis are suitable for both urban and building scale. Many cases have been studied to reveal the topological relationship between the spaces which is related to the social behaviour of human in building or urban scale via DepthmapX.</p> <p>In this chapter, the traditional space syntax methods for building spatial analysis used in the Depthmap were discussed firstly. Then, the author shows how to extended the traditional methods for natural ventilation potential analysis.&nbsp;</p> Xiaoyu Du Copyright (c) 2019 Xiaoyu Du 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 239 248 10.7480/abe.19.10.4112 Using spatial indicators to predict ventilation and energy performance https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4111 <p>In the early design stages, architects are in constant search of a design direction that can determine the success or failure of the final design. However, in real design practice, most of the prediction methods for building performances, in this paper energy and thermal comfort, are utilised in the later design stages. Spatial configuration is one of the most important issues for architectural design in the early design stage. This study investigates the correlations between the spatial indicators connected with architectural design and the building physics indicators ventilation performance and energy performance. The main objective is to explore the potential&nbsp;of applying spatial indicators using space syntax to predict ventilation performance and energy performance in order to support architects for the evaluation of their concept and schemes in early design stage. The layout of a high-rise apartment in China in five different cities is chosen as a case study. The results show that the selected three indicators: connectivity value, air change rate and annual cooling saving ratio are linearly correlated, not just at building level but also at room level. R2, the correlation coefficient of determination, is between 0.53 and 0.90 (except for the case of Chongqing at building level).</p> Xiaoyu Du Regina Bokel Andy van den Dobbelsteen Copyright (c) 2019 Xiaoyu Du, Regina Bokel, Andy van den Dobbelsteen 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 207 238 10.7480/abe.19.10.4111 Can thermal perception in a building be predicted by the perceived spatial openness of a building in a hot and humid climate? https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4108 <p>The authors wanted to prove that there is a large correlation between the concepts spatial openness and comfort (visual, wind speed and thermal) perception in people’s minds in a hot and humid climate in summer in order to be able to use&nbsp;spatial configuration parameters such as openness, connectivity and depth as a design tool for a comfortable an energy efficient building in the early design stages. 513 local Chinese college architecture students in 2015 were questioned about the relationship between spatial openness and comfort perception. The main findings for a hot and humid climate are: a. spatial openness of a particular space significantly effects occupants’ visual perception, wind speed perception and thermal perception in a particular space (p &lt; .05). b. There is a strong effect size between spatial openness and visual and wind perception (w = .50 and .54); the effect size of the thermal perception is weaker (w = .14). c. The comfort perception is strongly influenced by the time of day, therefore visual perception, wind perception and thermal perception can influence occupant movement between different spaces as is the advice of the adaptive thermal comfort.</p> Xiaoyu Du Copyright (c) 2019 Xiaoyu Du 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 187 200 10.7480/abe.19.10.4108 Spatial configuration, building microclimate and thermal comfort https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4107 <p>In this paper, the authors attempt to clarify the relationship&nbsp;between spatial configuration, building microclimate and thermal comfort through the investigation of a modern house in hot and humid climate with spatial diversity. First, the spatial configuration of the house was analysed in detail. The spatial geometric features, spatial boundary conditions, and human activities in the building were categorised. Secondly, field measurements were conducted to investigate the microclimate of the house. The air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity were monitored on typical summer days. Thirdly, a dynamic thermal simulation was performed to predict the thermal comfort performance of the building over the period of an entire summer. The simulated results were compared with the measurements, and the adaptive thermal comfort approach was used to evaluate the thermal comfort. The modern house studied was found to have a varied spatial configuration, similar to local vernacular buildings, which produces diverse thermal environments in the building. The microclimate of this specific building could provide considerable thermal comfort for the occupants in summer under the local climate conditions, although thermal comfort cannot be achieved through free-running model in the hottest days, mechanical cooling or mixed model are needed.</p> Xiaoyu Du Copyright (c) 2019 Xiaoyu Du 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 155 186 10.7480/abe.19.10.4107 Building microclimate and summer thermal comfort in free-running buildings with diverse spaces https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4106 <p>In this paper, the authors first clarify the definition of building microclimate in free-running buildings and the relationship with summer thermal comfort. Next, field measurements were conducted to investigate the microclimate in a Chinese traditional vernacular house. Subsequently, the results of measurements were compared with a dynamic thermal and a CFD simulation in order to determine the&nbsp;building microclimate and thermal comfort of the present vernacular house over the period of an entire summer. The field measurements show the present Chinese vernacular house has its own independent building microclimate in summer, which is in accordance with the main character of microclimate in terms of different distributions of solar gain, air temperature and wind velocity in different spaces. The simulation results of the vernacular house could be matched well with the field measurements. According to the simulations, at night, a comfortable temperature could be obtained throughout most of the summer period whereas in the daytime the operative temperature was higher than the comfortable temperature for one-third of the summer period. Wind velocity in the semi-outdoor and outdoor spaces however, improves the thermal comfort significantly. The thermal comfort environment can thus not only change in time but also in space. This example of the vernacular building shows that it is possible to create comfortable conditions for the inhabitants when not only the indoor climate is taken into account but the whole building microclimate as defined in this paper. This paper also shows that the simulations can predict the building microclimate.</p> Xiaoyu Du Regina Bokel Andy van den Dobbelsteen Copyright (c) 2019 Xiaoyu Du, Regina Bokel, Andy van den Dobbelsteen 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 121 154 10.7480/abe.19.10.4106 Architectural spatial design strategies for summer microclimate control in buildings https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4105 <p>The objective of this paper is to clarify the spatial design strategies used to control the microclimate of a Chinese vernacular house in summer by comparing the building with modern Chinese rural houses and presenting ideas for contemporary architectural design practice. For this goal the spatial configuration, the spatial boundary conditions, the vegetation in the space and the human activity in the space&nbsp;were analysed for the vernacular house and for modern rural houses. Also, field measurements were conducted to evaluate the summer thermal environment in the vernacular and a modern house. The results show that the vernacular house has a diverse spatial design and a better building microclimate, making it easier to obtain thermal comfort than the modern houses. Therefore, spatial design strategies of Chinese vernacular houses are still of great value to modern house design, especially when the free-running thermal comfort theory is applied.</p> Xiaoyu Du Regina Bokel Andy van den Dobbelsteen Copyright (c) 2019 Xiaoyu Du, Regina Bokel, Andy van den Dobbelsteen 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 101 120 10.7480/abe.19.10.4105 Passive cooling techniques https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4104 <p>Vernacular buildings are local buildings that have evolved overtime in one location to suit the local climate, culture and economy (Meir &amp; Roaf, 2003). The construction of vernacular buildings uses locally available resources to address local needs. These kinds of structures evolve over time to reflect the environmental, cultural and historical context in which they exist (Coch, 1998). The building knowledge of this type of architecture is always handed down traditions and is thus more based on the knowledge achieved by trial and error and in this way handed down through the generations (Singh et al., 2009). Vernacular buildings are most often residential buildings. People have traditional lifestyles in vernacular buildings in virtually every climate in the world, from the Arctic circle to the tropics, in temperatures from below zero to over 40°C, and historically without the benefit of gas or electrically driven mechanized heating and cooling systems (Meir &amp; Roaf, 2003).</p> <p>After the emergence of modernist architecture, aided by the industrial revolution, vernacular buildings are seen to be in a state of decline and are frequently looked down upon, abandoned, neglected or actively demolished. Associated, by many at least, with an out-dated past and poverty, they are steadily replaced by architectural models that favour more modern, inter-national technologies, materials and forms (Oliver, 1997). It is assumed, as in international standards such as CENASO 7730 or ASHRAE 55, that people suffer less discomfort in very closely controlled conditions, then such vernacular buildings, along with modern passive buildings, cannot provide their occupants with ‘comfortable’ indoor climates (Santamouris, 2007). But nowadays, by the more and more important issues of energy consumption in building construction sectors, the continuity of the vernacular traditions is emphasized in academic research and building practice because of its climate-response, passive&nbsp;model and low-energy consumption. The principles that were used in traditional buildings can very well be implemented in modern buildings so as to produce “energy saving” buildings. If these principles are sensibly adopted in modern buildings, it should be possible to build sustainable buildings for the future (Shanthi Priya, Sundarraja, Radhakrishnan, &amp; Vijayalakshmi, 2012). We can learn a lesson from the approach of the builders who acknowledged the interdependence of human beings, buildings and physical environment (Coch, 1998). A “new vernacular” can be developed, harnessing the types of low-tech solutions that are familiar to most of us from the vernacular, together with modern passive and active renewable energy technologies and strategies to reflect the new cultural, climatic and economic realities of the 21st century (Meir &amp; Roaf, 2003).</p> <p>Vernacular buildings have to adapt to the environment through low-tech methods. Changing building form and material is the most important technique to adapt to the environment to obtain the best comfortable living space, in another words, the environment deeply influenced building form design and material use. Fathy (1986) described the climate effect on building form generation in vernacular building as: “For example, the proportion of window to wall area becomes less as one moves toward the equator. In warm areas, people shun the glare and heat of the sun, as demonstrated by the decreasing size of the windows. In the subtropical and tropical zones, more distinctive changes in architectural form occur to meet the problems caused by excessive heat. In Egypt, Iraq, India, and Pakijstan, deep loggias, projecting balconies, and overhangs casting long shadows on the walls of buildings are found. Wooden or marble lattices fill large openings to subdue the glare of the sun while permitting the breeze to pass through. Such arrangements characterize the architecture of hot zones, and evoke comfort as well as aesthetic satisfaction with the visible endeavour of man to protect himself against the excessive heat”.</p> <p>In recent years, a significant amount of research has looked specifically at environmental performance issues of vernacular architecture, including its thermal properties, energy consumption and resources (Foruzanmehr &amp; Vellinga, 2011). Both qualitative and quantitative such as field measurements, field surveys, statistical methods, comparative study and computer simulation methods are used in the investigation of the performance of vernacular buildings. Professor Paul Oliver of Oxford University compiled the book “Dwellings: Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture” and published in 1997 with 4000 pages collection of research by over 750 authors from 80 countries. With two volumes categorized by climate and the ‘‘vernacular responses’’ of a plethora of cultures and another volume focused on materials, resources and production, it is the world’s foremost source for research in the area (Zhai &amp; Previtali, 2010). Zhai and Previtali (2010) introduced an approach to categorizing distinct vernacular regions and evaluate energy performance of&nbsp;ancient vernacular homes as well as identify optimal constructions using vernacular building techniques. Chandel, Sharma, and Marwah (2016) reviewed the vernacular architecture features affecting indoor thermal comfort conditions and energy efficiency for adaptation in modern architecture to suit present day lifestyles. Singh et al. (2009) carried out a qualitative analysis on the vernacular buildings in north-east India. And Shanthi Priya et al. (2012) have conducted the qualitative and quantitative analysis to investigate the indoor environmental condition of a vernacular residential building in coastal region of Nagapatinam, India. Cardinale, Rospi, and Stefanizzi (2013) performed one experimental research on two types of vernacular buildings which lie in Southern Italy. Nguyen, Tran, Tran, and Reiter (2011) carried out an investigation on climate responsive design strategies of vernacular housing in Vietnam by a new research methodology which is adapted to the natural and social context of Vietnam. Ng and Lin (2012) analysed the microclimate of two Minangkabau vernacular houses in villages of Balimbing of Bukittinggi, Sumatra, Indonesia. Ali-Toudert, Djenane, Bensalem, and Mayer (2005) addressed the issue of outdoor thermal comfort in a hot and dry climate in relation to urban geometry. Beccali, Strazzeri, Germanà, Melluso, and Galatioto (2017) reviewed some models evaluating thermal comfort in natural ventilated vernacular buildings, based on adaptive approaches.</p> <p>Borong et al. (2004) concluded that sun shading and insulation are of great importance while natural ventilation is just considered as an auxiliary approach for the design principles of the traditional Chinese vernacular dwellings, based on the field measurements of the thermal environment parameters and a long-term auto-recorder of the indoor and outdoor temperature at four typical traditional vernacular dwellings at Wannan area in summer. Bouillot (2008) studied six Chinese vernacular houses in different provinces and found that the value and the diversity of the Chinese housing stock is due to the combination of the specific structure of the Chinese eastern climates, which creates the contrast of cold-dry winters and hothumid summers, with the structure of the Ming t’ang, which contains the opposition of the yin and the yang. Liu et al. (2011)’s study interprets the characteristic of warm in winter and cool in summer in traditional Yaodong dwelling by measuring the indoor, outdoor and the wall’s temperatures in winter and summer. The results show that the Yaodong thick wall effectively damps the external temperature wave and keeps a steady inner surface temperature, are the chief causes of warm in winter and cool in summer in Yaodong. Gou et al. (2015) focused on a qualitative analysis of ancient dwellings located in the village of Xinye, in the hot summer and cold winter region of China. According to the analysis, the climate responsive strategies of the dwellings are mainly focused on natural ventilation, sun-shading and thermal insulation, illustrated by different building aspects such as the building location, building group layout and orientation, internal space arrangement, opening&nbsp;design, among other variables. Soflaei, Shokouhian, and Zhu (2017) investigated the potential of traditional courtyard houses in Iran and China in responding to environmental challenges alongside social norms over a long period of time. The social and environmental dimensions of the sustainability as well as the main elements of traditional courtyard houses in Iran and China were identified.</p> <p>Because of the advantage of vernacular building using passive ways to achieve thermal comfort and energy efficiency as mentioned above, this research will start with the investigation of a Chinese vernacular buildings in chapter 4. The next part of the literature review is an overview of passive cooling techniques.</p> Xiaoyu Du Copyright (c) 2019 Xiaoyu Du 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 60 100 10.7480/abe.19.10.4104 A review of thermal comfort https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4103 <p>Thermal comfort is defined as “that state of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment” (ANSI/ASHRAE, 2017). The definition of thermal comfort leaves open as to what is meant by condition of mind or satisfaction, but it correctly emphasizes that the judgment of comfort is a cognitive process involving many inputs related to physical, physiological, psychological, and other factors (Lin &amp; Deng, 2008). People are always in an internal or external thermal environment. The human body produces heat and exchanges heat with the external environment. During normal activities these processes result in an average core body temperature of approximately 37 °C (Prek, 2005). This stable core body temperature is essential for our health and well-being. Our thermal interaction with the environment is directed towards maintaining this stability in a process called “thermoregulation” (Nicol, Humphreys, &amp; Roaf, 2012).</p> <p>Thermal comfort plays an important role in the energy consumption of buildings. So, researchers spent decades to find the appropriate approaches and models which evaluate and predict thermal comfort. A literature review of the current knowledge on thermal comfort shows two different approaches for thermal comfort, each one with its potentialities and limits: the heat-balance model and the adaptive model (Doherty &amp; Arens, 1988). The heat-balance approach is based on analysis of the heat flows in and around the body and resulted in a model based on physics and physiology. Data from climate chamber studies was used to support this model. The best wellknown heat-balance models are the predicted mean vote (PMV) (Fanger, 1970) and the standard effective temperature (SET) (Gagge, Fobelets, &amp; Berglund, 1986). The PMV model is particularly important because it forms the basis for most national and international comfort standards. The adaptive approach is based on field surveys&nbsp;of people’s response to the environment, using statistical analysis and leads to an “empirical” model (Nicol et al., 2012).</p> Xiaoyu Du Copyright (c) 2019 Xiaoyu Du 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 49 68 10.7480/abe.19.10.4103 Introduction https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/4102 <p>In our current age, sustainability is a key issue in the development of society, economy and environment. It is widely discussed that it is necessary to achieve a balance between the needs of people, business and nature. To maintain and possibly improve the built-up world in an ecological sense is a worldwide challenge for the current and next generation of architects, designers, technicians, public servants and decisionmakers on every level (Kristinsson, 2012). Health nature and human delight are important factors in creating new manmade living environment-city, neighbourhood and building-but these form no common basis for design. The building sector plays a significant role in the overall energy consumption, consuming over one-third of the global final energy consumption. Most of the energy is for the provision of lighting, heating, cooling and air conditioning. As human society develops, the energy demand of buildings could continuously increase globally. Therefore, reducing the energy consumption in the building sector is an important research topic. After decades of effort, to improve the efficiency of energy systems and to develop clean and new energy, architects, engineers and researchers have also tried to develop passive ways to reduce the energy consumption of buildings and to provide a comfortable living environment for occupants. More attention is paid to vernacular buildings in order to get inspiration for passive cooling and heating techniques.</p> <p>Passive cooling for thermal comfort in summer is a big issue for low-energy building design, and has received more attention from designers and researchers in recent years. An important reason is global and local climate change, which increases the ambient temperature and the corresponding number of cooling degree days. In addition, because of the developing economy, improvement of people’s living&nbsp;standards, and globalisation of modernist architecture1, the energy needs of buildings have increased rapidly. In particular, cooling the building is challenge, especially in countries where few resources are available. Passive cooling techniques are based on the application of solar and heating control systems, dissipation of the excess heat into low-temperature natural sinks and the amortisation of the heat surplus through the use of additional thermal mass in the buildings (Santamouris &amp; Asimakopoulos, 1996). The passive mode for cooling of buildings largely depends on the design of urban and building forms. Designers have proposed many passive design strategies to improve the thermal environment for summer comfort. Urban morphology, building form (shape) and building components are normally the focuses in these studies. However, the significance of building spatial configuration for passive cooling and occupants’ thermal comfort in summer has not been studied sufficiently. Space is the empty part of the building, but its volume is important for the activities of occupants. It is the volume that people live in with various physical and psychological sensations. In his Taoist classics “Tao Te Ching”, the great Chinese thinker, Lao Tzu (571 BC - 471 BC) described building space as: “By cutting out the doors and windows we built a house and on that which is non-existent (on the empty space within) depends the house’s utility”. An architect usually thinks and designs in squares and cubic metres, lines, areas, volumes, luminance differences (Kristinsson, 2012). Architects define the general spatial structures of buildings mainly in the early design stages, and the spatial properties, the connection of the spaces and the boundary conditions of them are significant for the building performance and thermal sensation of occupants. What is the contribution of spatial design for passive cooling? Can we achieve more a comfortable living environment through the adjustment of the spatial configuration? In this dissertation, the objects studied for passive cooling will be spatially configured instead of the urban morphology, building form (shape) and building component. The relationship between spatial configuration and thermal summer comfort will be clarified and a potential design method will be proposed for the spatial analysis for passive cooling.</p> Xiaoyu Du Copyright (c) 2019 Xiaoyu Du 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 19 31 46 10.7480/abe.19.10.4102