A+BE | Architecture and the Built Environment https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe <p>Open access doctoral thesis&nbsp;series on Architecture and the Built Environment</p> en-US f.d.vanderhoeven@tudelft.nl (Frank van der Hoeven) f.tanis-1@tudelft.nl (Fatma Tanış) Mon, 05 Dec 2022 12:34:43 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Optimising the Use of National CORS Data in the Context of Thailand https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6829 <p>This dissertation concerns the optimisation of the use of spatial data from the National Continuously Operating Reference Stations (NCORS) in Thailand. Thailand, among many countries, has established NCORS to observe and process the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals into spatial data to improve the positional accuracy in spatially related activities. Despite many potential user groups, only some of them appeared actually to use NCORS data. In order to investigate and recommend policy venues to encourage the use of NCORS data, this research formulates an NCORS data ecosystem concept, applies the concept to identify the gaps in NCORS data use in Thailand, and examines the policies to address the identified gaps. The research shows that Open Data is a prerequisite to make data available to the maximum extent, but not a guarantee that the data also will be used. Next to Open Data, also users, including Open Data intermediaries, must be empowered. The facilitating conditions should be satisfied to enable users to use the data. These conditions require time to take effect. Only then will the spatial data not be kept away in hidden places but will become accessible and usable for as many users as possible in Thailand and deliver social and economic benefits reported in other countries.</p> Warakan Supinajaroen Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6829 Mon, 05 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Integrating High-speed Railway Stations and Urban Areas in China https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6828 <p>There is an increasing need for understanding the impacts of institutions on the integrated planning of transport and land use. High-speed railway (HSR) station areas, as nodes in transport networks and mixed-use areas, have become a focus in planning. The fast development of HSR station areas in China causes many problems, such as remote locations, oversized station areas, transfer difficulties, and unsustainable urban development. Facing these problems, this study aims to explore the influences of actors, decision-making processes, and institutions on the planning and development of HSR station areas in China. An analytical framework is built based on Transit-Oriented Development (TOD), Policy Network Theory, Institutional Analysis and Development Framework, and State Entrepreneurialism. Qualitative methods offer an effective way of investigating Chinese governance in the development of HSR station areas, including content analysis, case studies, and interviews. The findings show that HSR station areas are mainly used as a tool to promote urbanization. Both the Chinese national government and local governments have an important role to play in the planning of HSR station areas because they control different resources. Their interactions in the decision-making process, influenced by institutions, determine the location of HSR stations and the size of station areas, and lead to transfer difficulties and slow development of station areas. This dissertation reveals the causes of the development problems of Chinese HSR station areas, demonstrates the drawbacks of the current mechanism, and proposes strategies to promote the integration of transport and land use in China.</p> Biyue Wang Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6828 Mon, 05 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Architectural Photovoltaic Application https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6781 <p>The urgency to use renewable technologies within the built environment results in new interpretations of and approaches to Architecture. New building regulations, together with international pledges for addressing climate change, made the implications of photovoltaic systems (aka ‘solar panels’) in the buildings more crucial than ever. Moreover, the current mainstream of placing PV systems on the roof and façade of buildings is neither aesthetically appealing nor technically efficient and consequently not a sustainable, long-term, and reliable approach. In response to this issue, the concept of Integration is introduced as an alternative to this approach.</p> <p>This research suggests the notion of Architectural Photovoltaic Application (APA) in response to the various shortcomings of the Integration, with its current definitions, for being adapted to different architectural styles and approaches. APA can be defined as an approach in which PV technologies are meant to be sources of on-site renewable energy and considered a part of building services that is also incorporated to the building anatomy through the design process. Through APA, PV systems do not need to play a role in the building construction, instead these systems are fully accommodated by Architects in the design process as another element of the building service.</p> Zoheir Haghighi Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6781 Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Chinese Notions of Public Space https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6770 <p>This thesis investigates the understanding and implementation of public space in the reformed Chinese context, particularly from the perspectives of urban design and architecture, by referring to the complex process and result of transculturation (transculturación). It delineates how public space as a Greco-Roman originated concept traversed the urban and architectural cultures of post-reform China, merging and negotiating with the local conditions, and evolved into a new phenomenon in Chinese urban design and architecture. By analysing public space as a cultural phenomenon, carrying specific meaning, through specific concepts and designs, this doctoral research develops an interpretative framework within which the meanings and transculturation of public space in Chinese urban design and architecture can be understood and elucidates potential for future urban design and architectural practices. Theoretically, it moves beyond the conventional research on public space that is primarily based on Western thoughts, an Indo-European notion, and a Greco-Roman tradition. Practically, it paves the way for future development of the design of public space, highlighting the cultural, social, and spatial dynamics in Chinese cities vis-à-vis the related political, economic, and governmental conditions within the context of ongoing globalisation.</p> Wenwen Sun Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6770 Tue, 25 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Towards a future sustainable housing stock https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6768 <p>This thesis examines the energy performance of dwellings of Dutch non-profit housing associations towards a future sustainable housing stock. Improving the energy performance of dwellings aims to improve the quality of dwellings and therewith to lower the actual energy consumption. Lowering the actual energy consumption of dwellings contributes to the battle against climate change. This thesis addresses four studies. Study 1 assesses the energy performance progress of over two million dwellings of Dutch non-profit housing associations between 2017 and 2020. It gives insights into the development of the housing stock, the effect of changes of and within the stock, the effect of characteristics of housing associations and it relates the improvement of the energy performance to the sectoral goal. Study 2 assesses advanced models to improve estimations of actual energy consumption of dwellings and therewith to better estimate the effect of renovation measures on actual energy savings. Study 3 assesses the energy performance of dwellings with heat pumps. It gives insights into the energy performance of dwellings with heat pumps as a promising renovation measure towards a future sustainable housing stock. Study 4 assesses the process to create a model to benchmark the energy performance in a changing policy context. The four studies contribute to the understanding of the improvement of the energy performance of dwellings of non-profit housing associations towards a future sustainable housing stock.</p> Herman van der Bent Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6768 Mon, 24 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Regionale gebiedsontwikkeling https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6734 <p>Nationale opgaven zoals het woningbouwbeleid, de energietransitie en klimaatadaptatie zijn vraagstukken die door regionale instanties concreet moeten worden gemaakt in samenhang met de vraagstukken van de regio zelf. De regio, het niveau tussen de gemeenten en de provincie, heeft meestal geen duidelijke bestuurlijke grens en geen formele plaats in het Nederlandse bestuur. In dit proefschrift is gezocht naar de betekenis van de provincie als regionale gebiedsautoriteit in een situatie waarin diverse publieke en private partijen samenwerken en maatschappelijke organisaties hun stem laten horen. Het onderzoek is gericht op gebieden tussen grote steden waar een aanmerkelijke verstedelijking, ingebed in groen- en waterstructuren, was voorzien. Plannen en planprocessen zijn geanalyseerd, net als het handelen van de provincie in drie regio’s: de regio Rotterdam-Zoetermeer-Gouda, het gebied tussen Arnhem en Nijmegen en de regio Eindhoven-Helmond. <br>Het proefschrift laat onder meer zien dat planologische sturing een zwakker instrument is dan financiële sturing. Na de decentralisatie van ruimtelijke ordening en landinrichting is de invloed van de rijksoverheid op regionale gebiedsontwikkeling groot gebleven. Voorts blijkt uit het onderzoek dat planconcepten in de praktijk flexibel zijn. Als de uitvoering aan de orde komt neemt het risico toe dat het planconcept uit elkaar valt. Het onderzoek toont aan dat de provincie haar rol als regionale gebiedsregisseur actiever zou kunnen invullen. De Omgevingswet zou dat mogelijk moeten maken.&nbsp;</p> Guus van Steenbergen Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6734 Mon, 19 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Discomfort glare from daylight in classrooms https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6710 <p>Provision of daylight without the risk of discomfort glare is one of the aspects that determine the quality of the classroom environment. Although discomfort glare from daylight is under investigation for a long time, a knowledge gap concerning the applicability of the existing metrics to the spatial conditions of the classroom is identified in this work. An investigation on the applicability of existing metrics to the prediction of discomfort glare in classrooms has been carried out based on two experimental studies. The analysis shows that the existing metrics have poor predictive ability particularly in the sitting positions away from the window light source. A study is then carried out to investigate how can more appropriate predictive models of discomfort glare be developed, based on three different methods. A modification of the Daylight Glare Probability (DGP) equation produced a significantly better discomfort glare model than any of the metrics that have been studied in this work. Following this finding, a new metric, DGPlog(Ev)new, is proposed. The produced metric suggests that discomfort glare in the classroom is better identified based on a range of equations for different sitting positions or that new variables that account for sitting position need to be included in a predictive model of discomfort glare for these spaces. A set of architectural design guidelines towards a discomfort glare free classroom is then proposed, based on the newly produced model and on the collected data.</p> Raquel Viula Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6710 Tue, 06 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Cultural Visibility and Urban Justice in immigrant neighbourhoods of Amsterdam https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6679 <p>This study investigates transformation processes in the streets of immigrant neighbourhoods in Amsterdam. It approaches the issue through the visibility of immigrant amenities – such as shops, restaurants, places of worship – with distinctive cultural signs and practices, that are recognizable in public spaces. The study analyses cultural visibility on two streets with a concentration of immigrant amenities, in 2007 and 2016. It approaches cultural visibility from two aspects: the physical setting and the people’s activities in these streets. The findings reveal that the different architectural types and location of the neighbourhoods, and their different processes of urban renewal, have produced different outcomes in terms of cultural visibility.</p> Ceren Sezer, Ana Maria Fernandez Maldonado Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6679 Mon, 24 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Public Life, Immigrant Amenities and Socio-cultural Inclusion https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6678 <p>Immigrant amenities contribute to the public life of the street by supporting its diversity and vitality, which is crucial for the sociocultural inclusion of immigrants into mainstream society. However, immigrant amenities change within urban transformation processes, many times in the context of urban renewal. These changes influence their contribution to the public life of the street. How do these changes in immigrant amenities relate to the sociocultural inclusion of immigrants? This study focuses on the changes of Turkish amenities in Amsterdam at street and city levels. It concludes that the decline of immigrant amenities contradicts policy aimed at supporting the socio-cultural inclusion of immigrants.</p> Ceren Sezer Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6678 Mon, 24 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Visibility of Turkish amenities https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6677 <p>This chapter examines social and spatial characteristics immigrants’ commercial and communal amenities to understand the dynamics of their visibility on the street. It defines visibility as the observable physical features of immigrant amenities such as signs and practices, important for the integration of immigrant groups to the mainstream society. The research focuses on the visibility of Turkish immigrants in Amsterdam. For the social characteristics, it studies public and parochial realms that are established and maintained by these amenities. For spatial characteristics it examines these amenities at city level in terms of their location and at neighbourhood level in terms of their personalisation, permeability and robustness. The findings of this study indicate that visibility can be an operational concept to improve the amenities for the goals of integration.</p> Ceren Sezer Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6677 Mon, 24 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Urban policy and transformation of immigrant neighbourhoods in the Netherlands https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6676 <p>This paper reviews the relationship between immigrant integration and urban policies in the Netherlands in the period between the post-war until the 2010s. It shows how the gradual shift from a social democratic towards a liberal welfare regime since the 1980s has influenced urban policies, which in turn, have had a direct impact on the location and transformation of immigrant neighbourhoods. The review suggests that the outcomes of the urban transformation processes are detrimental for the social inclusion of the immigrant groups, which is the main objective of the integration policies.</p> Ceren Sezer Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6676 Mon, 24 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Visibility as a conceptual tool for the design and planning of democratic streets https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6675 <p>Democratic public spaces are open spaces - such as streets, parks, playgrounds and marketplaces - which are accessible to all and allow different cultural expressions for individuals and groups. They can be characterized by their vivid and active public life. This paper focuses on the visual features of public spaces at street level and understanding visibility as the condition of seeing and being seen in public space. It analyses how visibility can be useful to assess and promote democratic public spaces. This paper considers the visibility of immigrant amenities, such as shops, restaurants and communal places with distinctive signs, languages, and spatial practices. Describing the main features of democratic public spaces and democratic streets, this paper explains how the concept of visibility is associated with observable features of democratic streets. It claims that visibility can be used as a tool to analyse the democratic character of public space. This suggests that planners and designers need to be aware of the usefulness of taking into account visibility issues to promote inclusive public spaces and cities.</p> Ceren Sezer Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6675 Mon, 24 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Calibration of Energy Simulation Models on a Building Stock Level using Actual Energy Consumption Data https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6674 <p>Building energy simulation models are an important tool, not only in building design but also for policy making. Previous research has shown that there is a significant gap between actual energy consumption, and the energy consumption calculated by building energy simulation models. Many researchers, practitioners, and policymakers mainly impute this energy performance gap to occupant behaviour. One would expect this gap to be less at building stock level because occupant behaviour would be averaged. However, the performance gap is known to be high at a building stock level too, indicating a more structural problem in building energy simulation models. Being able to assess and predict correctly energy use in the building stock is essential to realize national and international energy saving targets. As actual energy consumption data at individual house level are becoming more often available or are registered by national bodies, this research introduces a method that uses actual energy consumption data and automatic calibration techniques to improve assumptions in building energy simulation models used to assess the whole building stock. Two types of models were tested; the first one being the steady state model used in NL in the framework of the EPBD, the other one being a dynamic model in EnergyPlus. The method was able to reduce the root mean square error of the energy performance gap by nearly 24% for the steady state simulation method, and by 27% for the dynamic simulation method, and, most important, the average energy performance gap in the sample (133 dwellings) as well as in the control group (180), disappeared almost completely. This method has the potential to make building simulation models a more reliable tool for policymakers.</p> Paula van den Brom, Laure Itard, Henk Visscher Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6674 Thu, 20 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Variances in Residential Heating Consumption https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6673 <p>It is commonly accepted that occupants have a significant influence on the variation in residential heating consumption. However, the scale of that influence lacks empirical investigation. The aim of this study was to distinguish which part of the variance in actual residential heating consumption can be attributed to the occupants, and which part to the building itself. This was achieved by applying and extending a method suggested by Sonderegger in 1978, using updated and significantly improved data from two different countries: the Netherlands and Denmark. These data contain different types of heating supply systems (district heating and natural gas) and different housing forms (multi and single-family social housing, and private detached single-family houses). For the studied databases, the results indicate that approximately 50% of the variance in heating consumption between houses can be explained by differences related to occupants. The other 50% can be explained by the characteristics of the building itself and other physical parameters, which are often not taken into account in simulation models of heat transmission within buildings. Additional analyses indicate that the relative influence of occupants on heating consumption differs depending on the building characteristics of the dwelling. For example, the influence of occupants is larger when the building is more energy efficient. Based on the research results, it can be concluded that it is unrealistic to aim for a building simulation model that perfectly projects residential heating consumption for individual cases. However, creating building simulation models and occupant consumption profiles that accurately represent average residential heating consumption should be possible.</p> Paula van den Brom, Anders Rhiger Hansen, Kirsten Gram-Hanssen, Arjen Meijer, Henk Visscher Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6673 Thu, 20 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Actual energy saving effects of thermal renovations in dwellings https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6672 <p>Energy renovations often result in lower energy savings than expected. Therefore, in this study we investigate nearly 90,000 renovated dwellings in the Netherlands with pre and post renovation data of actual and calculated energy consumption. One of the main additions of this paper, compared to previous studies on thermal renovation, is that it only takes dwellings into account with the same occupants before and after renovation, using a large longitudinal dataset. Overall this paper shows new insights towards the influence of the energy efficiency state of a building prior to energy renovation, the type of building, the number of occupants, the income level of the occupants and the occupancy time on the actual energy savings, the energy saving gap and on the probability of lower energy savings than expected. We also investigate if the influence is different per type of thermal renovation measure. Some of the findings are: It is impossible to conclude which single thermal renovation measure is the most effective because this is dependent on the energy efficiency of the building prior to the energy renovation, type of building, income level and occupancy; Occupants with a high income save more energy than occupants with low income; dwellings with employed occupants benefit more from improved building installations than dwellings occupied by unemployed occupants; The prebound and rebound effects are only part of the explanations for lower than expected energy savings; Deep renovations result more often in lower than expected energy savings than single renovation measures but nevertheless they result in the highest average energy saving compared to other thermal renovation measures. The results could be used for more realistic expectations of the energy reduction achieved by thermal renovations, which is important for (amongst others) policymakers, clients and contractors who make use of energy performance contracting, home owners, landlords and (social) housing associations and as a starting point to improve the energy calculation method.</p> Paula van den Brom, Arjen Meijer, Henk Visscher Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6672 Thu, 20 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Performance Gaps in Energy Consumption https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6671 <p>The difference between actual and calculated energy is called the ‘energy performance gap’. Possible explanations for this gap are: construction mistakes, improper adjusting of equipment, excessive simplification in simulation models and, occupant behaviour. Many researchers and governmental institutions think this gap is mainly caused by the occupant. However, only limited evidence exists. Therefore, an analysis is presented of actual and theoretical energy consumption, based on specific household types and building characteristics. Using a large dataset (1.4 million social housing households), the average actual and theoretical energy consumption (gas and electricity) of different household types and characteristics (income level, type of income, number of occupants and their age) were compared for each energy label. Additionally, the 10% highest and lowest energy consuming groups were analysed. It is shown that taking combinations of occupant characteristics into account instead of individual occupant characteristics provides new insights in the influence of the occupant on residential energy consumption. For example: In contradiction to previous studies, low-income households consume more gas per m2 (space heating and hot water) than households with a high income for all types of housing. Furthermore, the performance gap is not only caused by the occupant, but also by the assumed building characteristics.</p> Paula van den Brom, Arjen Meijer, Henk Visscher Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6671 Thu, 20 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 How to assess the success of the open data ecosystem? https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6664 <p>Open data are currently a hot topic and are associated with realising ambitions such as a more transparent and efficient government, solving societal problems and increasing economic value. To describe and monitor the state of open data in countries and organisations, several open data assessment frameworks were developed. Despite high scores in these assessment frameworks, the actual (re)use of open government data fails to live up to its expectations. Our review of existing open data assessment frameworks reveals that these only cover parts of the open data ecosystem. We have developed a framework, which assesses open data supply, open data governance and open data user characteristics holistically. This holistic open data framework assesses the maturity of the open data ecosystem and proves to be a useful tool to indicate which aspects of the open data ecosystem are successful and which aspects require attention. Our initial assessment in the Netherlands indicates that the traditional geographical data perform significantly better than non-geographical data, such as healthcare data. Therefore, open geographical data policies in the Netherlands may provide useful cues for other open government data strategies.</p> Frederika Welle Donker, Bastiaan van Loenen Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6664 Tue, 06 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Open data and beyond https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6663 <p>In recent years, there has been an increasing trend of releasing public sector information as open data. Governments worldwide see the potential benefits of opening up their data. The potential benefits are more transparency, increased governmental efficiency and effectiveness, and external benefits, including societal and economic benefits. The private sector also recognises potential benefits of making their datasets available as open data. One such company is Liander, an energy network administrator in the Netherlands. Liander views open data as a contributing factor to energy conservation. However, to date there has been little research done into the actual effects of open data. This research has developed a monitoring framework to assess the effects of open data, and has applied the framework to Liander’s small-scale energy consumption dataset.</p> Frederika Welle Donker, Bastiaan van Loenen, Arnold K. Bregt Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6663 Tue, 06 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Sustainable business models for public sector open data providers https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6662 <p>Since 2009, Open Government Data initiatives have been launched worldwide and the concept of open data is gaining momentum. Open data are often associated with realizing ambitions, such as a more transparent and efficient government, solving societal problems and increased economic value. However, between proposing an open data policy and successful implementation are some practicable obstacles, especially for government agencies required to generate sufficient revenue to cover their operating costs, so-called self-funding agencies. With lost revenue due to open data, there is a real risk that the update frequency and the quality of data may suffer or that the open data policy may even have to be reversed. This article has researched the financial effects of open data policies for self-funding agencies on their business model. The article provides some hands-on proposals for self-funding agencies having to implement an open data policy whilst ensuring their long-term sustainability.</p> Frederika Welle Donker, Bastiaan van Loenen Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6662 Tue, 06 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Public sector geo web services https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6661 <p>Geo-information (GI) is increasingly having a bigger impact on socio-economic benefits. Over the last decade, use of GI has shifted from a specialised GIS niche market to serving as a direct input to planning and decision-making, public policy, environmental management, readiness to deal with emergencies, creation of value added products, citizen mobility and participation, and community platforms. The emergence of Google Earth and Google Maps has created a geo-awareness and has catalysed a thirst for custom-made geo-information. Governments possess, often high-quality large-scale GI, primarily created, collected, developed and maintained to support their public tasks. This rich source of GI begs to be used and reused both within the public sector and by society. Both the INSPIRE Directive (2007/02/EC) and the Directive on re-use on Public Sector Information - the so-called PSI Directive - (2003/98/EC) underwrite the philosophy of “collect once, reuse many times”. Web services are an effective way to make public sector geo-information available. They allow information to be accessed directly at the source and to be combined from different sources. However, the costs of web services are high and revenues do not always cover the costs. Assuming that there is no such thing as a free lunch related to public sector GI (Longhorn and Blakemore, 2008), which business models and which financial models form the basis for public sector geo web services? This article explores the different models currently in use and illustrates them with examples.</p> Frederika Welle Donker Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6661 Tue, 06 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Update public sector information accessibility policies and open data licences in Europa https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6660 <p>Chapters 2, 3 and 5 of this dissertation were written between 2007 and 2009. Since then, there have been a number of developments in the field of public sector information re-use. One of these developments is the emergence of open data. In the previous chapters, legal and financial aspects of public sector information access regimes were discussed. This chapter starts with a description of the revised PSI Directive 2013/37/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 amending Directive 2003/98/EC on the re-use of public sector information. This Directive and Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE) provide the basis for implementing open data policies, as described in Chapters 6, 7 and 8. This chapter continues with an update of the licence framework discussed in Chapter 3. This update was written for the European Location Framework project. The chapter concludes with an analysis of the various open data licences currently in use in Europe.</p> Frederika Welle Donker Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6660 Tue, 06 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Geo Shared Licenses https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6659 <p>In a digital age public sector geoinformation (PSGI) is potentially a vital link in the added-value chain. Yet private sector value-added resellers (VARs) still face a number of barriers to using PSGI. Price is only one impediment. The complexity of licences and restrictive licence conditions of PSGI may be an even bigger obstacle. Especially when combining different datasets, VARs can face a quagmire of conflicting licence conditions. Batty (2006 Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 33 163 – 164) called for research that would stimulate value-added use of PSGI. However, inconsistent and intransparent licence conditions for PSGI are among the biggest obstacles of PSGI for VARs. This paper explores the current PSGI licences to assess the actual restrictions and how current obstacles can be levelled. The Creative Commons licensing concept was explored and adapted to make it suitable for licensing PSGI. The resulting concept of Geo Shared licences is a means to harmonise licence conditions for PSGI. Our research shows that the Geo Shared concept can be a valuable contribution to further harmonisation of PSGI licences and thus development of valueadded chains. Furthermore, development of geographic information infrastructures will also be stimulated. Similarly, the concept can be considered as a serious option within the Infrastructure of Spatial Information for Europe (INSPIRE), as a way towards transparent harmonised licences in Europe and beyond.</p> Frederika Welle Donker, Bastiaan van Loenen, Jaap Zevenbergen Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6659 Tue, 06 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Public sector information access policies in Europe https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6658 <p>In the digital age geo-information has become embedded in our daily lives, such as navigation systems, community platforms, real estate information and weather forecasts. Everybody uses geo-information for their day-to-day decision making. Therefore, access to geo-information is of vital importance to the economic and social development of the nation. Most geo-information, especially the more valuable large scale geo-information is owned by governments all over the world. Government bodies create, collect, develop and disseminate geo-datasets and geo-information to support their public tasks. Although this information is primarily created and collected for internal use, it forms a rich resource for other public sector bodies, citizens and the private sector.</p> <p>There have been a number of initiatives within the European Union (EU) to provide access to and reuse of this public sector information in order to create a free flow of information and services within the EU. Initially aimed at paper documents, these initiatives had little effect on geo-information. Geo-information existed as paper maps or geo-information systems requiring specialised software. But in the last decade improved computer processing capabilities, broadband internet and interoperability of systems have led to mass digitalisation and thus better availability of information in general. EU initiatives to improve access to information, especially the 2003 Directive on reuse of public sector information, the so-called PSI Directive (2003/98/EC), should have had a flow-on effect on geo-information. But five years after adoption, its impact has not quite lead to the expected surge of value added geo-information products and services as predicted by some (e.g. PIRA, 2000; RAVI, 2000). The private sector still faces legal, financial and organisational obstacles when trying to access public sector information (e.g. MICUS, 2003 and 2008; Groot et al., 2007).</p> <p>So, maybe access to public sector geo-information is still not as simple as EU legislation intended it to be. The level playing field as envisioned by EU legislation may not be apparent in the geo-sector. What impact has the EU framework had on access to public sector geo-information to date? This paper will provide a description of the current EU framework. A brief history of public sector geo-information availability will be presented, and a description of the current situation in a number of European countries. The paper will finish with some conclusions and recommendations.</p> Frederika Welle Donker Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6658 Tue, 06 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +0000 The policy instruments of European front-runners https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6653 <p>Existing dwellings receive frequent attention in climate change policy given the wealth of cost-effective, but un-exploited, energy saving potential within their walls. Policy attention also recognises the need for instruments that can navigate around barriers and maximise opportunities to achieve deep carbon reductions. However, there is a lack of evidence and knowledge about the instruments that can boast of success. In response to this knowledge gap, the instruments that form the main policy response to reduce energy consumed for space and water heating in existing dwellings in several front-runner European countries are assessed. Aims are to include, and to go beyond, an understanding of effectiveness based on reported reductions in CO2 emissions and/or monetary savings on energy bills. Effectiveness is also judged on the basis of how instruments reflect policy instrument and energy policy concepts drawn from literature. Results show that the instruments that define action of front-runners differ significantly. Front-runners fail to reconcile all the identified concepts in their main instruments but some feature strongly. In this regard, selected countries established their main instruments over two decades ago, reflecting the concept of long-term instrument development and support. However, few front-runners adequately monitor and evaluate instruments to illuminate cause and effect. Front-runners struggle to diversify their core instrument approaches to capture ‘hard to reach households’ such as the private rental sector and lower-income households. The divergence in the instruments that form the main policy response of front-runners allows for the characteristics of a range of instruments to be analysed including regulations, information tools, taxes and incentives.</p> Lorraine Colette Murphy Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6653 Mon, 14 Nov 2016 00:00:00 +0000 The influence of the Energy Performance Certificate https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6652 <p>All European Union Member States require an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) when buildings are constructed, sold and rented. At its introduction the EPC was considered a pioneering instrument, one that would help overcome an information deficit hindering consumer interest in energy efficient dwellings. Now that the EPC has been implemented for several years it is possible to examine its impact. This research draws on data from ex-ante and ex-post assessments of the EPC in a number of countries and presents the results of a survey of Dutch private dwelling purchasers. This survey was based on two sample populations, one received an EPC during property transaction and another did not. Differences were sought between the two samples in a number of areas relating to the adoption of energy efficiency measures. Results show that many projections about the impact of the EPC have fallen short. The EPC was found to have a weak influence, especially pre-purchase. The potential of the EPC in driving energy efficiency improvement in the existing stock is doubted especially if it continues to act independent from a mix of instruments designed to tackle multiple barriers. It is argued that the energy saving potential of existing dwellings, applauded in climate change policy, will remain unexploited if it continues to be assessed subjectively by householders.</p> Lorraine Colette Murphy Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6652 Mon, 14 Nov 2016 00:00:00 +0000 The influence of energy audits on the energy efficiency investments of private owner-occupied households in the Netherlands https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6651 <p>Energy audits are promoted as an effective tool to drive investment in energy efficiency measures in the residential sector. Despite operating in many countries for several decades details of the impact of audits are mixed. The aim of research presented here is to explore the role of audits on investment in energy efficiency measures by private owner-occupied householders in the Netherlands. Results showed that the main influence of the energy audit was to confirm information held by householders. A significant portion of audit recommendations was ignored, the main reason being that householders considered their dwellings to be adequately energy efficient. A comparison of audit recipients to non-recipients showed that audit recipients did not adopt, plan to adopt or invest in more energy efficiency measures than non-recipients. In fact, non-recipients adopted more and invested more in measures. It is concluded that energy based renovation is driven by householder perception of comfort and acceptable outlay on energy bills and not necessarily to expert technical tailored information on the potential to reduce CO2 emissions and environmental impact. Results support arguments for minimum energy efficiency standards and performance based incentives.</p> Lorraine Colette Murphy Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6651 Mon, 14 Nov 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Do energy performance policy instruments work on owner-occupiers? https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6650 <p>An urgency and necessity is associated with achieving the energy saving gains reported as languishing in the existing owner occupied housing stock. Success in this regard relies, in part, on the policy instruments in place. Many of the same instruments, including subsidies, audits and information tools, have been used for decades yet there is uncertainty and confusion about their impact. In response, bottom up data from a survey of owner-occupiers was used to evaluate the complete range of national instruments available in the Netherlands. Associations between adopting energy saving measures and using policy instruments were analysed. With the exception of the EPC, energy tax and energy saving loans, statistical tests found instruments to be associated with the adoption of energy saving measures. Information and financial instruments were described as the most influential. However, approximately 40% of respondents used instruments but did not consider them influential. While associations were found between instruments and adopting measures they were not at the transformative level that climate change policy demands.</p> Lorraine Colette Murphy Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6650 Mon, 14 Nov 2016 00:00:00 +0000 A qualitative evaluation of policy instruments used to improve energy performance of existing private dwellings in the Netherlands https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6649 <p>Climate change policies in the Netherlands recognise the importance of existing dwellings. Efforts to gain these energy savings are led at national level by policy instruments such as the Energy Performance Certificate, covenants, economic and information tools. These instruments reflect a policy style described as consensus based and incentivising. However, this approach has been subject to criticism with suggestions that alternatives are required. As a first step towards conceptualising alternatives previous evaluations and stakeholder interviews are used to assess instruments. Elements from the theory based evaluation method combined with concepts from policy instrument and energy policy literature form an evaluation framework. Results demonstrate weak impact of some key instruments. Underlying theories associated with instruments are often lost during implementation or remain unsubstantiated. Policy instrument and energy policy concepts are evident but are far from pervasive. Results show that current instruments are poorly equipped to forge a long-term energy saving strategy for existing dwellings. It is further demonstrated that complexity with existing dwellings is not only limited to frequently cited barriers but to the intricacies of designing and operating a well-orchestrated instrument mix.</p> Lorraine Colette Murphy, Frits Meijer, Henk Visscher Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6649 Mon, 14 Nov 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Designing for the urban (micro) climate https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6648 <p>In this chapter the results of all previous chapters are input for the development of three integrated urban development strategies.</p> <p>For climate adaptation measures to be part of the ‘standard’ design process, urban designers and policy makers need to have clear guidelines at their disposal (Pijpers- van Esch, 2015). A first assistance in selecting heat mitigation measures was presented in the previous chapter. Common neighbourhood typologies are classified in relation to heat accumulation and appropriate heat mitigation measures are presented for that specific typology. Using this guide for the pre-selection of adaptation measures does not require an extensive analyses of the urban microclimate and enables urban designers and policymakers to quickly scan the adaptation options for the area. Still, the choice for a particular measure is rather arbitrary.</p> <p>This chapter tests how heat mitigation measures can be integrated in a planning or design process for three different assignments in different neighbourhoods. The sub-question that will be answered is: How can the transformations proposed per neighbourhood typology be applied in an integrated design assignment, combining various heat mitigation measures, linking water adaptation measures and creating additional value in relation with energy, health, ecological, social and economic issues?</p> <p>The sub-questions answered in this and the preceding chapter are input for the research question: How can microclimate be integrated into a planning or design process?</p> Laura Kleerekoper Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6648 Thu, 07 Jul 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Typological design solutions in the path to climate resilience supported by urban surface analysis https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6647 <p>In the previous chapter the role of the urban microclimate in the design process is discussed. This chapter assists planners and designers to increase the role of the microclimate in their design. To merge microclimate solutions with urban design challeges, this chapter explores the spatial implication of climate adaptation measures in specific Dutch neighbourhood typologies. The research question adressed is: How can neighbourhoods become climate robust considering the morphology of Dutch neighbourhood typologies?</p> <p>The scale is a determining aspect in the decision-making process regarding climate adaptation measures. Usually the neighbourhood scale is chosen because this can be managed by municipalities or housing corporations. However, the effects of measures in the first place is on the local street scale. Because many neighbourhoods have a characteristic building typology and organisation of the public space it is possible to give a general statement of the most appropriate measures. For example, historic urban areas have a completely different starting point than garden cities.</p> <p>In this chapter a new categorisation of neighbourhoods is presented to combine microclimate indicators with traditional urban typologies. A qualitative method based on case studies is used to come to general climate adaptation measures or strategies per microclimate category. All neighbourhood case studies start with an analysis of the physical properties, followed by at least one design solution or strategy. The design solutions and strategies are input for the general conclusions per microclimate category. This part of the thesis can be described as ‘typological research’ according to the scheme made by de Jong &amp; Voordt (2002), presented in Figure 8.1. In the case studies the context is variable (different neighbourhoods) and the object is determined (different cases per microclimate category). Each separate case study is, however, a ‘design study’ in itself, with one specific neighbourhood and thus determined context and variable climate adaptation solutions (objects).&nbsp;</p> Laura Kleerekoper, Jeroen Kluck, Andy van den Dobbelsteen Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6647 Thu, 07 Jul 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Designing with microclimate https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6646 <p>In the second part of this thesis effects of climate adaptation measures on thermal comfort were studied. With a better understanding of the effectiveness the ‘best’ solution in relation to thermal comfort can be selected. Nevertheless, this might not be the most appropriate solution considering the site specific conditions. What considerations determine a particular design choice? This question frames the research by design studies in the third part of this thesis.</p> <p>It is particularly interesting for this research to know why a designer decides to apply, or not to apply, climate adaptation measures when is asked to develop an integrated design with the utmost account of thermal comfort at street level. With more insight in the approach of designers to the theme a design method can be developed that fits to the actual role of urban microclimate in the design and planning process. And gives an indication of what output from this research can be of importance to strengthen the role of the theme. In this chapter a group of designers and planners is asked to give insight in their way of thinking through a questionnaire and an in-depth-interview. The results enables answering the sub-question: What is the role of the urban microclimate in the design process according to urban designers and planners?</p> Laura Kleerekoper Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6646 Thu, 07 Jul 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Creating drafts in urban settings through coloured façades https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6645 <p>In the previous chapter the effect of numerous adaptation measures is described in relation to thermal comfort. The results show that increasing wind speed can be an effective cooling measure. However, the cold winter climate and the prevailing wind direction during heat and cold waves make it difficult to actually use this principle. Moreover, proven adaptation measures such as, more vegetation or water, are not always possible because of a lack of space or undesired aesthetic effects. This chapter answers the sub question: How can ventilation be utilized in hot weather situations without deterioration of the wind conditions in winter?</p> <p>An alternative option for more fresh and cool air in a street canyon is to make use of façade colours to accelerate wind speed. Differences in colour and materials already influence the air flow in street canyons, but in an uncontrolled manner. If we could employ this principle for the improvement of thermal comfort it potentially has a large impact on many cities in the world. This chapter gives the results of a first exploratory research based on measurements on scale models and at full scale. This pilot study shows that the principle works and advocates further research. For example, more research is required to examine if the cooling effect is significant in the perception of pedestrians.</p> Laura Kleerekoper, Andy van den Dobbelsteen, Eric van den Ham, Truus Hordijk, Craig Martin Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6645 Thu, 07 Jul 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Climate adaptation strategies https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6644 <p>The previous chapter is an almost theoretical approach to study thermal comfort effects. The increasing complexity from an open field to a single building and finally a combination of various vegetation types gives insight in the relative effects of changes in the urban environment on thermal comfort. This chapter aims to answer a part of the research question: What is the indication of general and/or location specific effects of heat mitigation measures on thermal comfort in The Netherlands? Here location specific effects of climate adaptation measures on the microclimate are studied for a specific urban type common for the Netherlands that can be characterised as low-rise open urban blocks of houses (Berghauser Pont &amp; Haupt 2009). Sub-research questions answered are: What are the effects on air temperature and human comfort for the temperate climate condition of the Netherlands? And: Is there a difference in effect in relation to scale (urban block, neighbourhood, city)? The results provide adaptation solutions for this specific neighbourhood and input for the generic design guidelines for the Netherlands at the end of part III.</p> Laura Kleerekoper Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6644 Thu, 07 Jul 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Urban measures for hot weather conditions in a temperate climate condition https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6643 <p>After the inventory of climate adaptation measures in the previous chapter, we now know which measures are available. To be able to make choices between adaptation measures, more insight is required in their relative effect, as well as in the effect of measures in a specific context and when combined with each other. In this chapter the effects on thermal comfort of various adaptation measures is studied with model calculations.</p> <p>This chapter discusses the effects of urban design and meteorological parameters on thermal comfort for pedestrians at street level, partly answering the research question: What is the indication of general and/or location specific effects of heat mitigation measures on thermal comfort in The Netherlands?</p> <p>And with a focus on simulation outcomes in the thermal comfort indicator it answers the sub question: What are the effects on air temperature and human comfort for the temperate climate condition of the Netherlands?</p> Laura Kleerekoper Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6643 Thu, 07 Jul 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Inventory of climate adaptation measures https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6642 <p>Following up the effects of climate change in urban areas in the previous chapter, this chapter gives an inventory of the possible measures to improve urban areas in relation to thermal comfort. Many adaptation measures to improve thermal comfort also adress other climate adaptation aspects such as water nuisance and draught. This inventory comprises the effects of the adaptation measures vegetation, water, urban geometry and materials and colour. Effects are given in various parameters such as air temperature, mean radiant temperature, energy reduction and range of influence. Described effects are based on literature studies and results from the Climate Proof Cities program. Each sub-section concludes with strategies for implementation in which the feasibility and applicatbility are described by examples from practise when available.</p> <p>This answers the following research question: <br>Which urban design measures can contribute to climate adaptation, especially in terms of heat?</p> Laura Kleerekoper, Marjolein van Esch, Tadeo Baldiri Salcedo Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6642 Thu, 07 Jul 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Urban climate and climate change https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6641 <p>The industrial revolution brought us wealth and growth. The higher standard of life is now concerned as ‘basic’ in the western world and gradually increased the society’s dependency on highly exergetic energy resources. The combustion of these energy resources results in exhaust of fumes containing dangerous pathogens such as carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, benzene and formaldehyde (Perry, 2015). The effect on people’s health and the depletion of fossil fuels resulted in innovations to increase the efficiency of combustion and reduce harmful fumes.</p> <p>Today’s concern is especially focussed on the exhaust of particulate matter and the emission of CO2. The awareness on mitigation, preventing CO2 emissions in the atmosphere, started with the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, which introduced the definition of sustainable development: “A development that meets the needs and aspirations of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs” (Brundtland, 1987). The emission of CO2 influences the global climate, so much is clear by now: consensus about the relationship between CO2 emissions and global warming is very strong (IPCC, 2014b). Emissions from the past century are expected to already have an irreversible global warming effect that will especially affect the generation of our children and grandchildren. Effects often manifest on another location in the world than the places where most of the CO2 is emitted. Moreover, places that contribute less to high CO2 levels often have less means to protect themselves against climate hazards. Therefore, Machiel van Dorst added the importance of place to the Brundtland definition of sustainable development: “A development that meets the needs of here and now without compromising the ability of others to meet their own needs there and then” (Dorst, 2010).</p> <p>This chapter outlines the context of this research and answers the following research question:</p> <p>What is the impact of climate change on the urban environment in the Netherlands?&nbsp;</p> Laura Kleerekoper Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6641 Thu, 07 Jul 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Actual heating energy savings in thermally renovated Dutch dwellings https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6632 <p>Since previous research has indicated large discrepancies between the theoretical and actual heating consumption in dwellings, it is important to know what savings renovations achieve in reality. The register of the Dutch social housing stock was analysed, containing dwelling thermal performance information of ca. 2 million dwellings between 2010 and 2013. Renovated dwellings were identified, providing insight into the performance gap before and after the renovation and the actual vs. the theoretical energy reduction of renovation measures. Improvements in efficiency of gas boilers (space heating and hot tap water) yield the highest energy reduction, followed by deep improvements of windows. Improving the ventilation yields a small reduction compared to other measures, however, it is still much larger than theoretically expected. High R and low U values of insulation are well predicted, as well as efficient heating systems whereas low R and high U values, local heating systems, changes from a non-condensing into a condensing boiler and upgrades from a natural ventilation system are not well predicted. The study therefore demonstrated that unrealistic theoretical efficiencies of heating systems and insulation values are causing a part of the performance gap.</p> Dasa Majcen Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6632 Tue, 12 Apr 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Statistical model of the heating prediction gap in Dutch dwellings https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6631 <p>The European Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) set the regulatory framework for a cost-effective improvement of the existing dwellings in 2002. The transformation of the stock towards higher efficiency is expected to be stimulated by labelling of the dwellings. The certificate itself is required to contain a list of potential cost-effective measures for the dwellings’ thermal retrofit. However, the theoretical heating consumption provided in the certificate is not a good baseline for the calculation of cost effectiveness, as it is based on normalised dwelling conditions. Normalised conditions include a constant occupancy, constant indoor temperature and normalisations of other parameters, which in reality differ in different types of dwellings. The discrepancies between the normalised theoretical and actual heating consumption are also referred to as the performance gap. In this paper, we examined these discrepancies using the example of The Netherlands. Using descriptive statistics and multiple regression, we investigated several parameters thought to have a different effect on actual and theoretical heating energy use – dwelling, household, occupant behaviour, as well as comfort – in order to propose improvements to the current theoretical consumption calculation. Aside from analysing the total sample, the data is regarded separately for overpredicted and underpredicted consumption records.</p> Dasa Majcen, Henk Visscher, Laure Itard Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6631 Tue, 12 Apr 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Actual and theoretical gas consumption in Dutch dwellings https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6630 <p>Energy labels in buildings are awarded based on theoretical gas and electricity consumption based on dwelling’s physical characteristics. Prior to this research, a large-scale study was conducted in The Netherlands comparing theoretical energy use with data on actual energy use revealing substantial discrepancies (Majcen et al., 2012). This study uses identical energy label data, supplemented with additional data sources in order to reveal how different parameters influence theoretical and actual consumptions gas and electricity. Analysis is conducted through descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Regression analysis explained far less of the variation in the actual consumption than in the theoretical and has shown that variables such as floor area, ownership type, salary and the value of the house, which predicted a high degree of change in actual gas consumption, were insignificant (ownership, salary, value) or had a minor impact on theoretical consumption (floor area). Since some possibly fundamental variables were unavailable for regression analysis, we also conducted a sensitivity study of theoretical gas consumption. It showed that average indoor temperature, ventilation rate and accuracy of U-value have a large influence on the theoretical gas consumption; whereas the number of occupants and internal heat load have a rather limited impact.</p> Dasa Majcen, Laure Itard, Henk Visscher Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6630 Tue, 12 Apr 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Theoretical vs. actual energy consumption of labelled dwellings in The Netherlands https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6629 <p>In Europe, the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) provides for compulsory energy performance certification (labelling) for all existing dwellings. In the Netherlands, a labelling scheme was introduced in 2008. Certificates contain the energy label of the dwelling and corresponding theoretical gas and electricity consumption, calculated based on the dwellings physical characteristics, its heating, ventilation and cooling systems and standard use characteristics. This paper reports on a large-scale study comparing labels and theoretical energy use with data on actual energy use. A database of around 200,000 labels was coupled with data from Statistics Netherlands on actual gas and electricity consumption provided by energy companies. The study shows that dwellings with a low energy label actually consume much less energy than predicted by the label, but on the other hand, energy-efficient dwellings consume more than predicted. In practice, policy targets are set according to the theoretical rather than the actual consumptions of the building stock. In line with identified discrepancies, the study shows that whereas most energy reduction targets can be met according to the theoretical energy consumption of the dwelling stock, the future actual energy reduction potential is much lower and fails to meet most of the current energy reduction targets.</p> Dasa Majcen, Laure Itard, Henk Visscher Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6629 Tue, 12 Apr 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Will the Participation Society succeed? https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6626 <p>Inspired by the Big Society agenda in the UK, the Dutch government has introduced an ambitious programme to devolve responsibility for welfare services to local authorities. This devolution is accompanied by substantial budget reductions, based on the assumption that local actors are able to deliver more efficient, tailor-made and effective services. Central to this new policy paradigm is the more active involvement of citizens in the co-production of solutions to complex societal problems through the development and sustaining of intermediary arrangements between individuals and public sector agencies such as housing associations. This chapter aims to increase our current limited understanding of the conditions under which connections between public sector professionals and citizens are able to solve place-related and people-related problems. This chapter is based on Dutch and English neighbourhood regeneration case studies. A theoretical framework connecting governance network theory with Habermas’s concepts of ‘system’ and ‘lifeworld’ guides this exploration.</p> Gerard van Bortel Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6626 Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Neighbourhood regeneration and place leadership https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6625 <p>The concept of place leadership is new and relatively untheorised in England (but see Gibney &amp; Murie, 2008; Gibney, Copeland &amp; Murie, 2009; Mabey &amp; Freeman, 2010), and has not been explicitly formulated in the Netherlands. However, a related stream of practice and analysis around partnerships (Sullivan &amp; Skelcher, 2002) and network governance (Kickert, Klijn &amp; Koppenjan, 1997; Rhodes, 1997; Koppenjan &amp; Klijn, 2004) is already well-established in both countries and has framed our earlier work on neighbourhood regeneration and housing (Mullins &amp; Rhodes, 2007; Van Bortel and Mullins, 2009; Van Bortel, Mullins &amp; Rhodes, 2009).</p> <p>This article explores connections between place leadership and network governance concepts to identify a set of themes that are then used to explore research evidence on neighbourhood regeneration and the role played by third- sector housing organisations in two cities: Groningen in the north of the Netherlands and Birmingham in the English Midlands. While our research has a particular focus on the housing sector and the role of housing associations (HAs), the regeneration task that our case study organisations set themselves has taken them well beyond ‘bricks-and-mortar’. This requires them to collaborate with municipal authorities and a wide range of partners who contribute to the wellbeing of places and people. We explore the role played by HAs in regeneration partnerships and the implications of place-shaping and network governance.</p> Gerard van Bortel, David Mullins Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6625 Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Network governance in action https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6624 <p>Theories on network governance constitute a promising approach to a better understanding of complex decision-making and problem-solving. Network theories are increasingly used in housing research. In this paper we present case-study findings on urban regeneration decision-making in Groningen, a medium-sized city in the North of the Netherlands. We used a network governance approach as an analytical framework. Social landlords and local government in Groningen have been collaborating in urban regeneration processes for many years. In 2006 negotiations between these actors on a renewal of the Local Urban Regeneration Covenant ran into difficulties and encountered seemingly insurmountable differences of opinion. These difficulties were largely caused by the increased complexity of the decision-making process, the large number of actors involved and a shift in focus from ‘bricks-and-mortar’ investments to a more balanced approach including social and economic aspects of urban regeneration. In this paper we analyse decision-making on urban regeneration policy in Groningen over the past 10 years. The outcomes of the case study demonstrate the usefulness of the network approach as a framework to analyse decision-making processes. The paper also identifies strategies used by actors in the field to successfully deal with complexities and uncertainties in networks.</p> Gerard van Bortel Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6624 Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0000 A network perspective on the organisation of social housing in the Netherlands https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6623 <p>In the past 15 years Dutch housing associations have undergone a transformation from strictly regulated and heavily subsidized organisations to financially and administratively independent enterprises. This transformation has sparked a lively debate on regulation and the role of the government in social housing. There is a broad consensus that something needs to be done about the operations of housing associations in the Netherlands. Hence, their position and performance are a current topic of discussion in the Dutch Parliament. In this paper we examine public management from a network perspective. We envisage the policy environment as a network of players and explore three key concepts: ‘‘multiformity’’, ‘‘closedness’’ and ‘‘interdependence’’. The government is not the dominant party in this scenario, but one of several players with their own specific goals and resources. To be sure of a good performance, instruments of governance need to be in tune with the characteristics of the network. This paper discusses the instruments applied in the Dutch social housing network and uses the results of a case study in The Hague to illustrate the efficacy of the network perspective in social housing analyses and to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the current governance structure.</p> Gerard van Bortel, Marja Elsinga Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6623 Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0000 ‘Change for the Better?’ https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6622 <p>Mergers among housing associations have become a frequent phenomenon in both the Netherlands and England. The general literature on mergers highlights the need for research to consider the wider political and business environment, managerial motives and strategic choices, to adopt a process perspective and to evaluate outcomes in relation to competing definitions of goals and success criteria. This article applies these perspectives to consider drivers for and experience of housing association mergers in the Netherlands and England, competing motivations such as efficiency savings in relation to borrowing and procurement costs, improved professionalism and organisational capacity and external influence. We discuss the pace and motivations of mergers, the expected positive and negative effects, and actual outcomes. We focus on the impact of mergers on stakeholder satisfaction, housing production and operational costs. Based on our findings we discuss the implications for policies and practice in both countries. Our main conclusion is that the relationship between the size of housing associations and their performance is not straightforward. This is partly because large and small associations are generally trying to do different things in different ways and have contrasting strengths and weaknesses; thus judgements about whether mergers and concentration of ownership in third sector housing is a change for the better are dependent upon considerations of underlying purposes and success criteria.</p> Gerard van Bortel, David Mullins, Vincent Gruis Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6622 Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Critical perspectives on network governance in urban regeneration, community, involvement and integration https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6621 <p>Significant claims have been made about the benefits of network governance and management in securing community involvement and assisting social integration in complex urban regeneration programmes. The move from vertical to horizontal forms of coordination, and the assumption of a more equal power distribution between participants, have been combined with an emphasis on mutuality and trust to present networks as a promising mechanism for pluriform involvement and collective decisionmaking. Often this promise runs ahead of the evidence of how network governance functions in practice, the opportunities for different actors to influence the process and the often disappointing outcomes of joint decision-making. This special issue contributes to the ‘second generation of research on governance networks’ by tackling key questions relating to the sources of governance network failure and success. Building on the articles in this special issue, we explore these questions in relation to urban regeneration, community involvement and the integration of minority groups in The Netherlands, Sweden and England. This article reviews the articles in this special issue from the perspective of Klijn and Skelcher’s (2007) four conjectures on democracy and governance networks and Sørensen and Torfing’s (2007) four conditions for democratic anchorage. It also suggests ways in which the research agenda on networks in urban regeneration, community involvement and integration might be developed.</p> Gerard van Bortel, David Mullins Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6621 Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Key theoretical components https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6620 <p>This chapter introduces the two key theoretical components underpinning this research. Each component consists of various sub-components.&nbsp;</p> Gerard van Bortel Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6620 Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating WikiPLACE https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6619 <p>This chapter describes the new WikiPLACE urban design decision support tool that was developed as an outgrowth of this research. It applies the prototype to “back-cast” the GHG emissions of a range of known examples of urban systems. It compares the resulting predictions with known measurements to provide an initial evaluation of the efficacy of the tool.</p> Michael West Mehaffy, Ward Cunningham Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6619 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Decision Support Tool Structure https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6618 <p>This chapter describes a distinct new class of scenario-modelling urban design tools, and it discusses a specific prototype tool generated as part of this research.</p> Michael West Mehaffy Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6618 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Modelling Methodologies https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6617 <p>This chapter describes in detail the methodologies of modelling and their limits, as a preparation for exploring the specific model to be proposed and evaluated.</p> Michael West Mehaffy Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6617 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Avoiding Negative Impacts from Urban Morphology https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6616 <p>A design decision support model must not only account for elements of urban form that help to reduce per-capita GHG emissions, it must also account for elements of urban form that work to increase those emissions. This chapter examines the case study of a very prevalent urban design model, the so-called “neighbourhood unit”, and evaluates its impact on urban form as well as emissions.</p> Michael West Mehaffy, Sergio Porta, Ombretta Romice Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6616 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Varying Neighbourhood “Choice Architecture” https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6615 <p>When evaluating the factors of urban form that contribute to emissions, we must also consider the difficult but critical subject of human behaviour and choices of consumption. There is indeed a body of research findings that gives us guidance on the “choice architecture” of neighbourhood design. This chapter examines the evidence and draws conclusions for the decision support tool.</p> Michael West Mehaffy Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6615 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Unpacking density https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6614 <p>The last chapter identified a range of factors that contribute, individually and in common, to increased GHG emissions per capita. These factors are typically associated with comparatively denser urban forms. This chapter moves beyond density to identify the more particular variables of urban form, and urban design, that can achieve the identified reductions. The chapter examines those factors and their translation into three key urban design variables.</p> Michael West Mehaffy, Andy van den Dobbelsteen Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6614 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Counting Urban Carbon https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6613 <p>This chapter describes the baseline of findings from current research and identifies relevant boundaries. Particular attention is given to the inherent complexity and uncertainty of urban systems. Nonetheless, consistent factors are identified for further refinement and incorporation into a decision support tool.</p> Michael West Mehaffy Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6613 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0000 The role of the architect using integrated contracts for social housing renovation projects https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6608 <p>The use of integrated contracts in the Dutch construction sector has increased in recent years. Integrated contracts presume facilitating a much more effective process than traditional delivery methods, saving money and time, as well as improving quality. Formally this type of contracts was only used for large and complex infrastructure projects and new buildings. In the last five years, however, they have been used also in the social housing sector for renovation projects, and have led to positive project outcomes. In this kind of projects, the supply-side actors work together in a team formed by an architect, consultants and construction companies; commonly referred to as a consortium. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge about the formal and informal links between the members of a consortium and their specific roles. This research helps to understand the tendering procedures and organisational typologies of consortia working with integrated contracts and especially the inherent changes in the role of the architect, e.g. type and amount of work, and relations with the client and consortium members. The study is based on a series of interviews with architects working with integrated contracts in social housing renovation projects. The findings indicate that in the majority of these projects, the architect is contracted by the main contractor rather than by the social housing organisation. The new contractual relationship has no significant effect on the relationship of the architect with the social housing organisation and improves the relationship of the architect with the main contractor, consultants and advisors, and other specialist contractors involved. The architect switches from the role of designer to that of technical and aesthetic advisor, compared to traditional Design-Bid-Build projects.</p> Tadeo Baldiri Salcedo Rahola , Ad Straub Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6608 Tue, 17 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Competitive tenders for integrated contracts for social housing renovation projects https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6607 <p>In recent years European Social Housing Organisations and European authorities have devoted particular attention to the renovation of the European social housing stock. The reasons are twofold: first, the stock is aging, and secondly, it offers potential for energy savings. Recently, in the Netherlands, where social housing accounts for 32% of the total building stock, the national government and the social housing organisations signed an energy-saving covenant in which the social housing organisations agreed to upgrade the entire social housing stock to an average energy performance certificate rating of B. The terms of the covenant have forced social housing organisations to embrace integrated contracts and competitive tender procedures in an effort to find ways to improve the efficiency of renovation processes and increase the outputs. These contracts focus particularly on energy savings. In this research project eight competitive tenders for integrated contracts for social housing renovation projects were studied via a tender document analysis and in-depth interviews with the social housing property managers. Tender procedures were analysed by comparing the schedule, the preconditions for the candidates, the minimum requirements, and the award criteria. Characterisation of the tender elements enabled the researchers to identify the mechanisms applied by the social housing organisations to influence the ambition, collaboration and long-term view of the companies concerned. The ambition was sharpened by the competitive nature of the tender but the potential for minimum requirements and award criteria in this regard was not fully exploited. The collaboration was clearly promoted by setting a short deadline for developing the design proposals. Other strategies, involving, for example, the number and type of meetings with the social housing organisation, and conditions for the nature and composition of the consortia were applied by only some social housing organisations. The long-term view was broached by the inclusion of an optional maintenance contract in some cases, but the elective character of the contract stood in the way of any influence it may have exerted.</p> Tadeo Baldiri Salcedo Rahola , Ad Straub Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6607 Tue, 17 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Energy efficiency in French social housing renovations via Design-Build-Maintain https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6606 <p>The renovation of existing building stock is seen as one the most practical ways to achieve the high energy savings targets for the built environment defined by European authorities. In France, the Grenelle environmental legislation addresses the need to renovate the building stock and specifically stresses the key role of social housing organisations. In recent years, French procurement rules have been modified in order to allow social housing organisations to make use of integrated contracts such as Design- Build-Maintain. These contracts have a greater potential to deliver energy savings in renovation projects than do traditional project delivery methods, like Design-Bid-Build. This is because they facilitate collaboration between the various actors and boost their commitment to the achievement of project goals. In order to evaluate the estimated potential of such contracts to achieve energy savings, two renovation projects (carried out by two French social housing organisations) were analysed from their inception until the end of construction work. The analysis is based on written tender documents, technical evaluation reports, observations of the negotiation phase (in one of the cases) and interviews with the main actors involved. Findings show that Design-Build- Maintain contracts do indeed offer substantial energy savings. Both projects achieved higher energy targets than those initially required. Furthermore, the energy results are guaranteed by the contractor, through a system of bonuses and penalties. Other results demonstrate that, compared to previous Design-bid-Build renovation projects, these projects were completed in less time (from project inception to completion of the work) and at virtually the same cost. There has also been a substantial improvement in cooperation between the actors involved.</p> Tadeo Baldiri Salcedo Rahola , Ad Straub, Alberto Ruiz Lázaro, Yvesy Galiègue Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6606 Tue, 17 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Project delivery methods in European social housing energy renovations https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6605 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The aim of the present study was to characterize the main project delivery methods that are used for the renovation of social housing, and to analyse the advantages and disadvantages of their application for energy renovations in order to assist social housing organisations making an informed decision on the choice of a project delivery method that suit their organizational context. <br><strong>Design/methodologies/approach:</strong> The study is based on a literature review, five case studies of renovation processes by five social housing organizations in four EU countries, a questionnaire completed by 36 social housing organizations from eight EU countries, and a series of 14 interviews with energy renovation experts from 10 EU countries. <br><strong>Findings:</strong> Four main project delivery methods were identified: Step-by-Step, Design- Bid-Build, Design-Build and Design-Build-Maintain. Design-Build-Maintain has the maximum potential to deliver energy savings because it facilitates collaboration between the various actors and promotes their commitment to achieving project goals. <br><strong>Research limitations:</strong> The presented data is not meant to be representative for a country or the sector as a whole, but aims to indicate the main characteristics of the current energy renovations carried out by European social housing organizations. <br><strong>Practical implications:</strong> Social housing organizations are provided with useful information about the advantages and disadvantages of different project delivery methods for energy renovation projects assisting them to choose for the option that suit their organizational context. <br><strong>Originality/value:</strong> This study fills a knowledge gap about the project delivery methods currently used in social housing energy renovations and their potential for energy renovations.&nbsp;</p> Tadeo Baldiri Salcedo Rahola , Ad Straub Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6605 Tue, 17 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Construction management methods https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6604 <p>For some time now, the construction industry has been accused of limited cooperation between actors, low levels of trust and ineffective communication. This, it is argued, results in low levels of process performance. In fact, how to improve the performance of construction processes remains one of the key issues in the construction sector, including projects for social housing. Reports by the Construction Industry Institute (1991) in the US, and Latham (1994) and Egan (1998) in the UK have been much publicised wake-up calls to the need for different working practices in the construction sector, and others, too, have made similar claims. For example, in Australia the ‘Building for Growth’ Report (Industry Science Resources 1999) identified the need for integration in the construction supply chain in order to achieve the technical and financial capacity that will lead to international levels of competitiveness. In Hong Kong the ‘Construct for Excellence’ Report (Construction Industry Review Committee, 2001) highlighted that fragmentation within the sector and the low levels of cooperation is preventing improvements in buildability, safety and life cycle costs. And in the Netherlands, the ‘Van raad naar daad’ (From Advice to Action) Report (Regieraad Bouw, 2004) describes similar fragmentation within the construction sector and proposes learning the lessons from best practice in other countries and renewing processes and systems to achieve higher levels of innovation, creativity and quality.</p> Tadeo Baldiri Salcedo Rahola Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6604 Tue, 17 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Residential segregation and interethnic contact in the Netherlands https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6599 <p>Dutch policymakers perceive high shares of ethnic minorities in neighbourhoods as a problem; it might generate fewer opportunities for minorities to have contact with the native Dutch population and thereby hinder integration. The question, however, is whether the ethnic composition of neighbourhoods influences interethnic contact. In this paper the focus is on leisure contact of people from ethnic minorities aged 15 to 65 with native Dutch people. Binary logistic multilevel analysis shows that contact with native Dutch people is mainly explained by individual characteristics. In addition, living in one of the four largest cities, cities with high shares of minorities on city level, leads to less contact with native Dutch people. The ethnic composition of the neighbourhood has no effect on contact, therefore segregation on neighbourhood level does not necessarily hinder integration.</p> Sanne Boschman Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6599 Thu, 12 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Mixed Neighbourhoods https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6598 <p>Many European countries use mixed housing policies to decrease the spatial concentration of low-income households. Also in the Netherlands, social housing in deprived neighbourhoods is demolished and replaced by more expensive dwellings. The idea is that these new dwellings attract higher-income groups to urban restructuring neighbourhoods. At the same time, however, also large numbers of relatively expensive dwellings have been built at greenfield locations. This leads to a dilemma: will higher-income households choose for housing in deprived neighbourhoods, while also attractive new housing on greenfield locations is available? This study shows that urban restructuring attracts higher-income households to mixed tenure developments in deprived neighbourhoods, even when competing with greenfield development. Nevertheless, another process is also taking place: especially in urban regions with extensive greenfield development, there is a significant outflow of higher-income households from deprived neighbourhoods. The net result is an increasing concentration of low-income households in deprived neighbourhoods.</p> Sanne Boschman, Gideon Bolt, Ronald van Kempen, Frank van Dam Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6598 Thu, 12 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Neighbourhood selection of non-western ethnic minorities https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6597 <p>The selective inflow and outflow of residents by ethnicity is the main mechanism behind ethnic residential segregation. Many studies have found that ethnic minorities are more likely than others to move to ethnic minority concentration neighbourhoods. An important question which remains largely unanswered is whether this can be explained by own group effects, including own group preferences, or by other neighbourhood factors. We use unique longitudinal register data from the Netherlands, which allows us to distinguish between different ethnic minority groups and to simultaneously take into account multiple neighbourhood characteristics. This allows us to test own group effects; the effect of the share of the own ethnic group on neighbourhood selection, while also taking into account other neighbourhood characteristics such as the housing market composition. Using a conditional logit model we find that housing market constraints can partly explain the moves of ethnic minorities to minority concentration neighbourhoods. Also own-group effects are found to be important in explaining neighbourhood selection. There are, however, important differences between ethnic minority groups. While these effects together explain why Surinamese and Antilleans move to minority concentration neighbourhoods, Turks and Moroccans are still found to move to concentration neighbourhoods of minorities other than their own ethnic group.</p> Sanne Boschman, Maarten van Ham Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6597 Thu, 12 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Ethnic differences in realising desires to leave the neighbourhood https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6596 <p>Selective mobility into and out of neighbourhoods is one of the driving forces of segregation. Empirical research has revealed who wants to leave certain types of neighbourhoods or who leaves certain neighbourhoods. A factor which has received little attention so far is that some residents will have a desire to leave their neighbourhood, but are unable to do so. The residential mobility literature shows that the discrepancy between moving desires and actual mobility is larger for ethnic minorities than for natives. This paper uses a unique combination of register data and survey data. We combine data from a large housing survey in the Netherlands (WoON) with longitudinal register data from the Netherlands (SSD), which contains individual level information on residential mobility histories. This allows us to study which households with a wish to leave their neighbourhood are actually successful, and to which neighbourhoods they move. A more thorough insight in who wants to leave which neighbourhoods but is unable to do so will contribute to a better understanding of selective mobility and segregation. We find that ethnic minority groups are less likely than natives to realise a desire to leave their neighbourhood and that if they succeed in moving from an ethnic minority concentration or poverty neighbourhood, they are more likely to end up in another minority concentration or poverty neighbourhood than native residents.</p> Sanne Boschman, Reinout Kleinhans, Maarten van Ham Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6596 Thu, 12 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Who cares? Individual differences in the determinants of residential satisfaction https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6595 <p>Residential satisfaction is a key variable in understanding residential mobility. Many researchers have studied the individual level and neighbourhood level determinants of satisfaction, however, very few have studied which neighbourhood characteristics will affect satisfaction for whom. In this paper, a series of ordered logit models is estimated, explaining satisfaction from neighbourhood characteristics, personal characteristics and interactions. These interaction effects test whether neighbourhood characteristics have similar effects on all individuals, or whether individual characteristics affect the size and direction of these effects. Ethnic minorities are found to be less affected than natives by the share of ethnic minorities in the neighbourhood, because they prefer to live close to their own ethnic group. Satisfaction is found to be more dependent on neighbourhood characteristics for owner-occupiers and households with children than for other households. However, the impact of the neighbourhood ethnic composition on satisfaction does not differ with tenure or household type.</p> Sanne Boschman Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6595 Thu, 12 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of the likelihood of implementation strategies for climate change adaptation measures in Dutch social housing https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6594 <p>Housing providers have to keep adapting their building stock to keep pace with the dynamic changes in the urban environment. One of the main drivers of adaptation is climate change, caused primarily by man-made greenhouse gases. Climate change is impacting on urban areas largely through drought, flooding from extreme precipitation, and heat stress. Climate change not only threatens the building stock, but also the quality of life of people living and working in urban environments. In the Netherlands, housing associations have strong interests in and responsibilities for managing the social housing stock and maintaining quality of life, but they seem scarcely aware of the challenge that lies ahead in terms of adapting their stock to the impacts of climate change. This paper focuses on physical adaptations to the housing stock and discusses the likelihood of the adoption of five implementation strategies for climate adaptation measures as assessed by decision-makers in Dutch housing associations in an online survey. The strategies combine conceptual approaches in policymaking, involvement of external players, and the execution of construction projects in a partnering approach, with the addition of one extra strategy that assigns a central position to the tenants. There was no strategy that stood out clearly as the one most likely to guide the implementation of measures. Many housing associations do, however, see opportunities in this area and might be persuaded to take action if they were provided with a wide palette of implementation strategies from which they could select the most suitable combination.</p> Martin Roders, Ad Straub Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6594 Thu, 18 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Implementation strategies for climate change adaptation measures in Dutch social housing https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6593 <p>Housing managers are constantly confronted with the changing demands and requirements that their building stock must meet. One aspect of this is the changing climate, which is caused primarily by greenhouse gases produced by human activities. Even if the emissions of all these gases could now somehow be put on hold, the process of climate change could not be, and the effects of climate change would most probably continue to be felt for many more years. In urban areas, these effects include drought, flooding caused by extreme precipitation and heat stress caused by the urban heat island effect. In addition to threatening the building stock, climate change is also threatening the quality of life of people in urban environments. In the Netherlands, housing associations are responsible for managing the social housing stock and maintaining the quality of life of those that live there. However, research has shown that they are not yet sufficiently aware of the challenge that lies ahead in adapting their dwellings to a changing climate. In view of the focus on the physical adaptations of the building stock, it was chosen to discuss in this paper the effectiveness of three types of conceptual approaches for governance that housing associations could apply directly in their maintenance processes. The conceptual approaches are hypothesised based on the results of earlier research on the implementation of climate change adaptations in social housing. The conceptual approaches are: CA1) incorporate climate adaptation into the policy that guides the overall management of their stock; CA2) involve actors that traditionally do not play a role in the construction process, such as insurance companies and water boards; CA3) emphasise performance-based procurement to encourage the execution of projects using a partnering approach. The effectiveness of these conceptual approaches was tested using a SWOT analysis for each approach, which was discussed with practitioners. The results are five implementation strategies, based on the combinations of conceptual approaches that are potentially feasible for the implementation of climate change adaptation measures in the Dutch social housing stock. One crucial factor in these implementation strategies is collaboration, because these days no housing association is financially able to assume responsibility for climate-proofing its housing stock on its own.</p> Martin Roders, Ad Straub Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6593 Thu, 18 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Innovation in housing refurbishment through adopting a partnering approach https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6592 <p>Housing associations own 32 % of housing stock in the Netherlands, making them major actors in maintaining and improving the quality of life in the urban environment. The building stock requires effective innovation to keep pace with the needs of today’s tenants. Moreover, the current financial circumstances and political environment have pushed housing associations to innovate in their (re)construction processes, for example by adopting a partnering approach. Several studies indicate that the implementation of innovations could benefit from partnering approaches in the construction supply chain. <br>An evaluation of refurbishment projects that have been carried out using a partnering approach, however, indicates that the innovation process itself was seen as the major innovation and may (initially) even hamper innovations that aim to upgrade the dwelling to current standards. This effect should be taken into account when developing innovations in dwellings.</p> Martin Roders, Ad Straub, Vincent Gruis Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6592 Thu, 18 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Towards successful partnering in housing refurbishment - an assessment of six Dutch dyads https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6590 <p>Supply chain partnering is seen as one method of handling the need for more efficient and transparent building processes. Although it has received considerable attention from practitioners and researchers, supply chain partnering is still in its formative phase within the construction industry. There have been a number of studies that focus on ‘success factors’ in partnering, but relatively few studies have focused on whether and how these factors are applied in practice. Moreover, almost no studies have been completed into supply chain partnering in housing refurbishment projects. An assessment was made of the partnerships between six Dutch housing associations and general contractors, on the basis of the success factors identified in literature: trust, leadership, partner capabilities, commitment, conflict resolution, coordination and communication. The conclusion is that most of these factors play a role, although there are considerable differences in the way in which the dyads used these factors in their partnering process. Conflict resolution techniques and coordination measures have not yet been developed. This may be due to the experimental stage of the dyads and/or the level of trust within the dyads, but it also implies a risk for the further development of the partnering process, should conflicts arise.</p> Martin Roders, Vincent Gruis, Ad Straub Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6590 Thu, 18 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of climate change adaptation measures by Dutch housing associations https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6589 <p><strong>Purpose</strong> – Research into climate change adaptation measures has resulted in the identification of 155 such adaptation measures that contribute to making the built environment more climate resilient. These measures mainly focus on new construction. This paper assesses the feasibility of the measures for the existing social housing stock in the Netherlands. <br><strong>Design/methodology/approach</strong> – Interviews were conducted with 12 property managers and policy staff members from Dutch housing associations. The interviewees judged 21 measures that were designed to adapt dwellings to heat-related problems caused by climate change, and they also answered questions regarding their awareness of climate change and regarding the feasibility of the measures. <br><strong>Findings</strong> – Low awareness of climate change adaptations, the financing of the measures and the technical complexity of adaptation measures are perceived barriers to implementation. Several possibilities to remove these barriers are discussed. Research limitations/implications – The sample of 12 interviewees provides valuable insight into the opinions of a select group of policymakers from housing associations. The judgments were made based on the personal experiences and expectations of the interviewees. <br><strong>Originality/value</strong> – This paper provides valuable insight into the opinions of policymakers and decision-makers in Dutch housing associations on climate change adaptation measures in the existing building stock. These insights will be of use for policymaking at the local and national levels directed towards creating a resilient building stock.&nbsp;</p> Martin Roders, Ad Straub, Henk Visscher Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6589 Thu, 18 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness of climate change adaptations among Dutch housing associations https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6588 <p>Climate change: the question is not anymore if it happens, but what the impact is of its effects such as drought, heat waves and increased precipitation on the quality of our lives in cities, offices and houses. A significant share of the Northern European housing stock is owned and maintained by large stock owners, such as housing associations. It is their responsibility to be aware of changes and risks that might challenge the quality of life of their tenants. Moreover, in order to provide housing with a good market value in the future, adaptation to climate change can no longer be overlooked. With the aim to discover the level of awareness of climate change adaptation among Dutch housing associations, a content analysis was undertaken on the policy plans and the annual reports of the 25 largest housing associations. Subsequently they were classified according to their level of awareness. The analysis returned no topics that directly referred to climate change adaptation, which implies that all housing associations are categorised as being ‘unaware’. Therefore, in order to reach higher levels of awareness and to incentivize the implementation of adaptation measures, appropriate governance strategies need to be developed. Future research will define the characteristics of these strategies in relation to the level of awareness of the housing associations. Adoption of the measures could be easier if adaptation measures are combined with maintenance activities, as this has been the case with mitigation measures.</p> Martin Roders, Ad Straub, Henk Visscher Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6588 Thu, 18 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Partnering in construction as governance tool https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6587 <p>Climate change can no longer be ignored. It is globally recognised that the evidence for climate change is unequivocal (IPCC, 2014) and action needs to be taken to address its negative consequences (UNFCCC, 2011). The challenge of stimulating this action is taken up by this thesis - albeit at the level of individual buildings rather than at the global level - by engaging the construction sector in the implementation of adaptation measures in the social housing stock. To achieve this, the research fields of climate change adaptation, governance and partnering in construction are brought together. The effects of climate change in the Netherlands were briefly explained in the introduction and will be further elaborated in Chapter 3.&nbsp;</p> Martin Roders Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6587 Thu, 18 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Heat mitigation strategies on courtyard buildings in winter https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6584 <p>Natural elements such as vegetation and water bodies may help reduce heat in urban spaces in summer or in hot climates. This effect, however, has rarely been studied during cold seasons. This paper briefly studies the effect of vegetation and water in summer and more comprehensively in winter. Both studies are done in courtyards on two university campuses in temperate climates. A scale model experiment with similar materials supports the previous studies. The summer study is done in Portland (OR), USA, and the winter study (along with the scale model) in Delft, the Netherlands. The summer study shows that a green courtyard at most has a 4.7°C lower air temperature in the afternoon in comparison with a bare one. The winter study indicates that the air temperature above a green roof is higher than above a white gravel roof. It also shows that, although a ‘black’ courtyard has higher air temperatures for a few hours on sunny winter days, a courtyard with a water pond and with high amounts of thermal mass on the ground has a warmer and more constant air temperature in general. Both the summer and winter studies show that parks in cities have a lower and more constant air temperature compared to suburbs, both in summer and winter. The scale model also demonstrates that although grass has a lower albedo than the used gravel, it can provide a cooler environment in comparison with gravels and black roof.</p> Mohammad Taleghani, Martin Tenpierik, Andy van den Dobbelsteen, David Sailor Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6584 Wed, 03 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Heat mitigation strategies on courtyard buildings in summer https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6583 <p>Courtyard vegetation, high albedo surfaces, and courtyard ponds were investigated as potential heat mitigation strategies using field measurements and simulations in a university campus environment. The investigation was performed during a summer period in the temperate climate of Portland, Oregon, USA. In a comparison of seven locations on the campus, the maximum park cooling island effect recorded was 5.8°C between the heavily treed campus park and a nearby parking lot with asphalt pavement. Simulations of courtyards with vegetation and a water pond showed 1.6°C and 1.1°C air temperature reduction, respectively. Changing the albedo of the pavement in a bare courtyard from 0.37 (black) to 0.91 (white) led to 2.9°C increase of mean radiant temperature and 1.3°C decrease of air temperature.</p> Mohammad Taleghani, David Sailor, Martin Tenpierik, Andy van den Dobbelsteen Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6583 Wed, 03 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Outdoor thermal comfort within different courtyard buildings https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6582 <p>Outdoor thermal comfort in urban spaces is an important contributor to pedestrians’ health. A parametric study into different geometries and orientations of urban courtyard blocks in the Netherlands was therefore conducted for the hottest day in the Dutch reference year (19th June 2000 with the maximum 33°C air temperature). The study also considered the most severe climate scenario for the Netherlands for the year 2050. Three urban heat mitigation strategies that moderate the microclimate of the courtyards were investigated: changing the albedo of the facades of the urban blocks, including water ponds and including urban vegetation. The results showed that a northsouth canyon orientation provides the shortest and the east-west direction the longest duration of direct sun at the centre of the courtyards. Moreover, increasing the albedo of the facades actually increased the mean radiant temperature in a closed urban layout such as a courtyard. In contrast, using a water pool and urban vegetation cooled the microclimates; providing further evidence of their promise as strategies for cooling cities. The results are validated through a field measurement and calibration.</p> Mohammad Taleghani, Martin Tenpierik, Andy van den Dobbelsteen, David Sailor Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6582 Wed, 03 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Outdoor thermal comfort within different building blocks https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6581 <p>Outdoor thermal comfort in urban spaces is known as an important contributor to pedestrians’ health. The urban microclimate is also important more generally through its influence on urban air quality and the energy use of buildings. These issues are likely to become more acute as increased urbanisation and climate change exacerbate the urban heat island effect. Careful urban planning, however, may be able to provide for cooler urban environments. Different urban forms provide different microclimates with different comfort situations for pedestrians. In this paper, singular East-West and North-South, linear East-West and North-South, and a courtyard form were analysed for the hottest day so far in the temperate climate of the Netherlands (19th June 2000 with the maximum 33°C air temperature). ENVI-met was used for simulating outdoor air temperature, mean radiant temperature, wind speed and relative humidity whereas RayMan was used for converting these data into Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET). The models with different compactness provided different thermal environments. The results demonstrate that duration of direct sun and mean radiant temperature, which are influenced by urban form, play the most important role in thermal comfort. This paper also shows that the courtyard provides the most comfortable microclimate in the Netherlands in June compared to the other studied urban forms. The results are validated through a field measurement and calibration.</p> Mohammad Taleghani, Laura Kleerekoper, Martin Tenpierik, Andy van den Dobbelsteen Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6581 Wed, 03 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Indoor thermal comfort in a courtyard/atrium dwelling https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6580 <p>With increased global concerns on climate change, the need for innovative spaces which can provide thermal comfort and energy ef ficiency is also increasing. This paper analyses the effects of transitional spaces on energy performance and indoor thermal comfort of low-rise dwellings in the Netherlands, at present and projected in 2050. For this analysis the four climate scenarios for 2050 from the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute (KNMI) were used. Including a courtyard within a Dutch terraced dwelling on the one hand showed an increase in annual heating energy demand but on the other hand a decrease in the number of summer discomfort hours. An atrium integrated into a Dutch terraced dwelling reduced the heating demand but increased the number of discomfort hours in summer. Analysing the monthly energy performance, comfort hours and the climate scenarios indicated that using an open courtyard May through October and an atrium, i.e. a covered courtyard, in the rest of the year establishes an optimum balance between energy use and summer comfort for the severest climate scenario.</p> Mohammad Taleghani, Martin Tenpierik, Andy van den Dobbelsteen Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6580 Wed, 03 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Indoor thermal comfort in courtyard buildings https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6579 <p>Global warming and elevated temperatures in the Netherlands will increase the energy demand for cooling. Studying passive strategies to cope with the consequences of climate change is inevitable. This paper investigates the thermal performance of courtyard dwellings in the Netherlands. The effects of different orientations and elongations, cool roofs and pavements on indoor thermal comfort are studied through simulations and field measurements. The results show that North-South and East-West orientations provide the least and most comfortable indoor environments. Regarding materials, the use of green on roofs and as courtyard pavement is the most effective heat mitigation strategy. It was observed that the effects of wet cool roofs are much higher than of dry roofs. Cool roofs did not show a specific negative effect (heat loss) as compared to conventional asphalt roofs in winter. Some simulation results were validated through field measurement with a 0.91°C root mean square deviation.</p> Mohammad Taleghani, Martin Tenpierik, Andy van den Dobbelsteen Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6579 Wed, 03 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Indoor thermal comfort in different building blocks https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6578 <p>This paper discusses the energy and comfort impact of three types of urban block configuration in the Netherlands. The annual heating and lighting energy demand, and summer thermal comfort hours are compared. In total, 102 thermal zones forming single, linear and courtyard building combinations are simulated within the Netherlands’ temperate climate. The results demonstrate the importance of the surfaceto- volume ratio in achieving both annual energy ef ficiency and summer thermal comfort. Considering different types with 1-, 2- and 3-storey heights, the courtyard model has the lowest energy demand for heating and the highest number of summer thermal comfort hours.</p> Mohammad Taleghani, Martin Tenpierik, Andy van den Dobbelsteen Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6578 Wed, 03 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction into thermal comfort in buildings https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6577 <p>Thermal comfort has been discussed since 1930s. There have been two main approaches to thermal comfort: the steady-state model and the adaptive model. The adaptive model is mainly based on the theory of the human body’s adapting to its outdoor and indoor climate. In this paper, besides the steady-state model, three adaptive thermal comfort standards are comprehensively reviewed: the American ASHRAE 55-2010 standard, the European EN15251 standard, and the Dutch ATG guideline. Through a case study from the Netherlands, these standards are compared. The main differences discussed between the standards are the equations for upper and lower limits, reference temperatures, acceptable temperature ranges and databases.</p> Mohammad Taleghani, Martin Tenpierik, Stanley Kurvers, Andy van den Dobbelsteen Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6577 Wed, 03 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction into courtyard buildings in different climates https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6576 <p>This chapter tries to clarify the environmental impacts of a traditional building form which was developed more than 5000 years ago, under the force of harsh hot climates: courtyard building. A courtyard is an outdoor space which is entirely surrounded by buildings or walls. The main purpose is to show if this building form can reduce the energy demand of low- rise residential buildings in order to reduce CO2 emission which generally considered is the main root of climate change. From a literature review on courtyard buildings several climatic aspects of this building form can be extracted. In this step, the paper focuses on the climatic impact(s) in the context of hot-arid, snow, temperate and tropical climates. Results for different configuration of courtyard building, natural elements used in it and situation of openings in different facades are the most important findings of this review paper.</p> <p>The research is limited to considering residential courtyard buildings in four climates; hot- arid, snow, temperate and tropical (based on Koppen-Geiger climate classification). Practical implications—The results of the paper are general climatic characteristics of courtyard buildings. These characteristics can be used for designing new courtyard dwellings. Although the background information of the chapter is based on literature, the innovation is the comprehensive consideration and comparison of environmental characteristics in different climates which has never been done before.</p> Mohammad Taleghani, Martin Tenpierik, Andy van den Dobbelsteen Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6576 Wed, 03 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The Making of the Modern Iranian Capital https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6574 <p>This dissertation puts together planning documents and multiple archival sources to demonstrate how urban planning and the role of planners have evolved in an ever-changing transnational context of Iran. It challenges the prevailing approach in the literature of Tehran urban studies that simply flattens the complexity of local-foreign collaboration and labels transnational planning of Tehran a top-down “Westernization” project. To depict a more nuanced picture of Tehran master planning at the time of transnational exchange and rapid urban growth, this dissertation introduces a new engaging and argumentative periodization with four distinct phases which brings transnational planning of Tehran to the fore, while reflecting on diverse political and socio-economic upheavals between 1930-2010. Dissection of Tehran master plans in each period through the lens of multiple actors offers a unique opportunity for a renewed interpretation of transnational planning of Tehran and the way Iranian planners steered Tehran urban developments while engaging with foreign experts and their planning systems. It presents a detailed analysis of overarching ‘ideas’ behind each plan, their translation to urban ‘policies’ and later on their broader (un)wanted ‘impact’ on the city and its regions. By recognizing a great diversity in transnational approach in Tehran planning practices, the dissertation concludes with how transnationalism first gave rise to the formation of the modern planning system and how later on led to contestations against it which revolutionized the role of urban planners and the political agenda for Tehran urban growth.</p> Elmira Jafari Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6574 Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding the decision-making process in homeowner energy retrofits https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6573 <p>In 2020, owner-occupied housing accounted for 57% of the housing stock in the Netherlands. Homeowners are fully responsible for the implementation of energy retrofits. Moreover, the processes of energy retrofitting are complex and homeowners face problems such as finding financial support, reliable information and contractors. The complexity of implementing energy retrofits may discourage homeowners from continuing the process and achieving the expected benefits. Behavioural aspects and transaction costs (TC) are among the most important factors influencing consumer decision-making processes. Behavioural factors primarily illustrate a range of personal, contextual, and external factors that influence the decision-making process of homeowners. These include cognitive awareness and biases, attitudes and beliefs, experience and skills, homeowner characteristics, sociodemographic characteristics, property characteristics, and the behaviour of others. TC are any hidden costs that influence decision making but are not included in the direct physical costs of renovation services and products. This dissertation developed an integrated framework of behavioural factors and TC that impede the decisionmaking process for energy retrofits. Key findings include (1) the significant importance of behavioural factors and TC barriers. (2) the behavioural factors are particularly important in the early stages of energy retrofits and the TC barriers after the final decision. (3) the importance of behavioural factors and TC barriers differs according to the type of energy retrofit and non-energy retrofit. (4) Accounting for cognitive biases significantly improves the prediction of households' actual decisions about energy retrofits. This modelling is more accurate than the model that assumes households make rational decisions.</p> Shima Ebrahimigharehbaghi Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6573 Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Het handschrift van L.P. Roodbaard https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6557 <p>Het oeuvre van de tuin- en landschapsarchitect Lucas Pieters Roodbaard (1782-1851) is toonaangevend voor de Noord-Nederlandse landschapsparken uit de eerste helft van de 19de eeuw. Zijn oeuvre is te verdelen in drie categorieën: openbare wandelparken, landschapsparken bij buitenplaatsen en landschapstuinen bij (stads) villa’s. Aan de hand van ruimtelijk architectonisch onderzoek is een schat aan oorspronkelijke plantekeningen uitgebreid gedocumenteerd en geanalyseerd om zo tot de kern van de ontwerpmethode van Roodbaard te komen. Daarmee is zijn vorminstrumentarium, ook wel de ‘meetkundige gereedschapskist’ ontrafeld. Het heeft geresulteerd in zes compositorische ontwerpprincipes. Dankzij dit onderzoek en de nieuwe inzichten in Roodbaards handschrift kan een aantal landschapsparken worden geïdentificeerd en aan zijn oeuvre worden toegevoegd. Het gaat daarbij niet alleen om Roodbaards collectie van landschapsparken, maar ook om de samenhang van deze collectie met het omliggende historische cultuurlandschap. Dit overzicht biedt handvatten om het oeuvre van Roodbaard aan te duiden als een buitenplaatsenlandschap dat een samenhangend tuinen landschapsarchitectonisch ensemble vormt in het Noord-Nederlandse cultuurlandschap. Dit ‘parkachtige’ landschap, ook bekend als de Noordelijke Lustwarande, is grotendeels gelegen in het kustlandschap dat grenst aan het Unesco Werelderfgoed Waddenzee. In de epiloog is een proeve van een reconstructie van een ontbrekende ontwerptekening gemaakt voor het landschapspark De Braak te Paterswolde. Het vormt de opmaat voor de integrale reconstructie van deze bijzondere collectie groen erfgoed.</p> Els van der Laan-Meijer Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6557 Thu, 07 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 nD-PointCloud Data Management https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6536 <p>In the Geomatics domain, a point cloud refers to a data set that records the coordinates and other attributes of a huge number of points. Conceptually, each of the attributes can be regarded as a dimension to represent a specific type of information, such as time and Level of Importance (LoI). Drastically increasing collection of high dimensional point clouds raises essential demand for smart and highly efficient data management solutions. However, effective tools are missing. File-based solutions require substantial development of data structures and algorithms. Also, with such solutions, enormous effort has to be made to integrate different data types, formats and libraries. By contrast, state-of-the-art DataBase Management Systems (DBMSs) avoid these issues, because they are initially devised for generic use of data. However, DBMSs still present limitations on efficiently indexing non-uniformly distributed points, supporting continuous LoI, and operating high dimensional data. These problems motivate the PhD research which focuses on developing a new DBMS solution. It is aimed at efficiently managing and querying massive nD point clouds to support different types of applications.&nbsp;</p> Haicheng Liu Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6536 Tue, 28 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Towards Self-Sufficient High-Rises https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6535 <p>Population growth and urbanisation trends bring many consequences related to the increase in global energy consumption, CO2 emissions and a decrease in arable land per person. High‑rises have been one of the inevitable buildings of metropoles to provide extra floor space since the early examples in the 19th century. Therefore, optimisation of high-rise buildings has been the focus of researchers because of significant performance enhancement, mainly in energy consumption and generation. Based on the facts of the 21st century, optimising high-rise buildings for multiple vital resources (such as energy, food, and water) is necessary for a sustainable future.</p> <p>This research suggests “<em>self-sufficient high-rise buildings</em>” that can generate and efficiently consume vital resources in addition to dense habitation for sustainable living in metropoles. The complexity of self-sufficient high-rise building optimisation is more challenging than optimising regular high-rises that have not been addressed in the literature. The main challenge behind the research is the integration of multiple performance aspects of self-sufficiency related to the vital resources of human beings (energy, food, and water) and consideration of large numbers of design parameters related to these multiple performance aspects. Therefore, the dissertation presents a framework for performance optimisation of self-sufficient high-rise buildings using artificial intelligence focusing on the conceptual phase of the design process. The output of this dissertation supports decision-makers to suggest well-performing high-rise buildings involving the aspects of self-sufficiency in a reasonable timeframe.</p> Berk Ekici Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6535 Tue, 28 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Urban Scenes of a Port City https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6483 <p>This dissertation is an invitation to the reader to explore Güzel İzmir / Beautiful İzmir in Turkey. Through three different semi-fictional narratives, it aims to draw attention to specific and singular spaces as they were recorded and remembered through old postcards, black and white photographs, stories, and written travelogues in the past centuries and decades. Thus, it wants to discuss the specificity of an eastern Mediterranean port city by addressing it on eye-level through the experiences of a wanderer. By acknowledging the important role of narratives in building an image of the city, this doctoral research proposes that developing a particular narrative writing method may help to re-establish emotional connections between present-day inhabitants of port cities and their environments. It offers an alternative way of writing and an unconventional reading of the urban and architectural history of İzmir to revive socio-spatial practices by writing narratives of Beautiful İzmir.</p> Fatma Tanış Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6483 Mon, 30 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Advancing Transparency https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6481 <p>Glass is transparent and that differentiates it from most other building materials. As a result it has played a significant role in the development of architecture, given that its use is not only driven by its functionality as a protective layer, but by its ability to transmit light and hence define spaces. The use of glass has typically brought designers, engineers and builders to the limits of their abilities, whether this was driven by the processing and handling of the material, or the limitationin the understanding of its design capacity. The transparency of the material is of incredible value but it also poses challenges when working with glass; The way it is connected is always visible. As a result, the connections and connectivity of glass are one of the most important considerations when designing with it, both technically and architecturally and in particular for structural applications. In the past century, glass has increasingly been used as a structural component. However its inherent brittleness typically still requires opaque metal connections to transfer load. These connections define contemporary glass architecture – firstly, because they are immediately apparent in a transparent structure and, secondly, as they are part of the engineering design language. However, designers and architects are still aiming to increase the transparency of glass enclosures and structures, leading to a demand to further reduce the visibility of structural connections within the glass. This research aims to address the connectivity of glass through experimental testing of heat bonded glass-glass connections that form a fully transparent atomic bond. Applications for transparent connections are addressed through case studies that explore various novel transparent bonding techniques.</p> Lisa Rammig Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6481 Mon, 30 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Physiomimetic Façade Design https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6479 <p>Adaptive façades are designed to actively regulate the exchange of material and energy flows and thus improve the balance between comfort and energy consumption. However, their technical complexity leads to higher development efforts, maintenance and costs, and ultimatelyfewer implementations. Embedded adaptive functions could be an opportunity to reduce these drawbacks. If embedded adaptivity is to work within a design, the particularities of geometry and material arrangements must be considered. Nature offers fascinating models for this approach, which frames the objectives of this doctoral dissertation. The dissertation examines both adaptive façades and biology criteria that support a function-oriented transfer of thermo-adaptive principles in the early design stage. The research work discusses whether the technical complexity can be reduced by biomimetic designs and which role geometric design strategies play for thermo-adaptive processes. The research work is divided into three phases, following the top-down process in the discipline biomimetics, supplemented by methods from product design and semantic databases. The first phase is dedicated to the analysis of the contextual framework and criteria of façades aiming at thermal adaptation. Further, transfer systematics are developed that guide the analysis and selection process. In the second phase, analogies in biology are collected that appear suitable. Selected examples are examined to identify and systematically describe their functional principle. Two exemplary descriptions herald the third phase, in which functional façade models are created and evaluated. The result of this research work provides a conceptual approach to generate function-imitating biomimetic façade designs, so-called physio-mimetic façade designs.</p> Susanne Gosztonyi Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6479 Mon, 30 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Improving the performance of hospitals https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6428 <p>Nowadays, we are faced with serious challenges in public health worldwide. However, the challenges cannot be solved only in the domain of architecture, medical science or management. A successful hospital building is more than a nice building or an efficient healing machine. Patient journey is such a concept that tries to explore the possibility to solve the problems in hospitals in the domain of hospital architecture and hospital management. In this context, the research proposes a study of patient journey in hospitals from the perspective of architecture on basis of the outcomes achieved in management. Patient journeys are transferred from both clinical and administrative processes to special patterns. Moreover, in such a visual way, both the efficiency and effectiveness of hospitals and patients’ satisfaction during the journeys in hospitals are analyzed with case studies of China and the Netherlands. The system of spatialized patient journeys helps architects and hospital managers broaden their understanding of hospital. And the comparison results from case studies are useful for hospitals in China to improve performance and patients’ satisfaction.</p> Dejian Peng Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6428 Thu, 12 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Integration of LADM and IndoorGML to Support the Indoor Navigation Based on the User Access Rights https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6314 <p>Indoor navigation applications are actively investigated and developed due to their capacity to provide users with essential information in the modern extensive building complexes. Therefore, many researchers have developed a range of indoor navigation applications, which have focused on aspects such as localization, indoor route computation, and human spatial cognition. Unfortunately, current indoor navigation systems do not consider the user's access rights when it comes to navigating safely and effectively. This thesis delivers several contributions, which are based on international standards, to provide Indoor navigation aware of the user’s access rights. The thesis proposes: 1) a combined model of ISO’s LADM and OGC’s IndoorGML; 2) an enhancement of the UML class diagram of the conceptual model of IndoorGML; 3) a 2D LADM country profile of the Saudi Arabia; 4) a 3D LADM country profile of Saudi Arabia; 5) a conversion of the combined LADM and IndoorGML conceptual model to a technical model; 6) definitions of access rights for users of indoor environments during crisis based on the integrated model of LADM and IndoorGML; 7) a 3D web-based prototype application for indoor navigation making use of user access rights. The developed concepts and implementation have been acknowledged by the standardization organization ISO and OGC and considered for amending IndoorGML and LADM.</p> Abdullah Alattas Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6314 Wed, 09 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Design and Fabrication of Shell Structures https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6269 <p>Shell structures carry loads with their thin yet curved shapes. Being thin means shells require little material, which is desirable for minimizing embodied carbon footprints. However, the feature of being curved implies shells require immense effort to design and fabricate. To address the challenges, this dissertation consists of three parts: developing a design algorithm based on radial basis functions (RBFs), inventing a fabrication technique based on reconfigurable mechanisms, and producing prototypes based on the new algorithm and mechanism.</p> <p>The first part of this dissertation introduces a new algorithm based on RBFs for designing smooth membrane shells, which is more versatile than existing methods. The algorithm can generate membranes with both tensile and compressive stresses. It can also tweak an initial shape to meet free-edge conditions. It can also incorporate horizontal loads in the form-finding process.</p> <p>The second part of the dissertation presents a new system of flat-to-curved mechanisms, which allows a shell to be fabricated in a flat configuration and deployed into a double-curved state. Such a mechanism consists of panels connected by tilted hinges. The mechanism can contract non-homogeneously and change its Gaussian curvature.</p> <p>The last part of this dissertation demonstrates the integral application of the RBFs form-finding algorithm and the flat-to-curved mechanisms. The prototypes designed and produced deliver form-found shapes that have spans ranging from 0.2 to 4 meters.</p> <p>This dissertation contributes to the development and distribution of shell structures by developing computer algorithms and digital fabrication techniques to minimize the hurdles of designing and fabricating shell structures.</p> Yu-Chou Chiang Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6269 Wed, 16 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Oil is Dying? Long Live its "Heritage"! https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6263 <p>Oil is a dangerous product. Its transport, storage and refining present numerous environmental and health challenges. Local, national and European regulators have taken steps to locate it in space since the beginning of industrial oil drilling in the 1860s. But key leaders of the oil industry in Northwest Europe, and beyond, have also served as policy makers and aimed to keep legal constraints (decrees, laws, taxes) as limited as possible to prevent the emergence of obstacles in the development of their industry. This process led to a cruel lack of anticipation in the design of rules and urban spaces when dealing with safety. Public authorities continuously established limited frames upon the oil industry and wrote rules in general terms to protect this strategic industry. Today, the pollution and the risks oil companies generated restrict opportunities for the future re-use of industrial sites, and there has been little done on the law-making scale to guide the transformation of oil spaces. Using the case of port cities like Dunkirk, in France, that have emerged as oil ports for their respective countries over the last 150 years, this thesis examines the emergence and application of spatial and environmental regulations along with oil industrial expansion. The objective is to highlight the need to shift from the current reactive process of improving legal frames after a disaster to one that anticipate and deal with the visible and invisible oil heritage.</p> Stephan Hauser Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6263 Wed, 19 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Rules, Power and Trust https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6262 <p>The aim of this PhD project was to explore the multi-level interplay between the interorganizational structures and interpersonal relations in building project organizations. In the first two studies, quantitative approaches were used to validate assumptions about how interorganizational structures are shaped by actors and how interpersonal relationships affect the effectiveness of project teams in the construction industry. These two studies were integrated in a third qualitative case study that explored the interplay between inter-organizational structures and interpersonal relationships in long-term partnerships. The third study sampled three cases of strategic partnerships which are characterized as longterm, highly integrated and collaborative relationships. To gain theoretical sensitivity in this thirdstudy, a conceptual framework was developed using the concepts from the first two studies. The major finding across the three studies is that the way integration in the supply chain develops is highly dependent on the interaction between project actors. The way actors use the interorganizational rules of a project organization, influences the level of trust and no-blame culture that emerges through interaction. In turn, the level of trust can influence the rules of actors. More specifically, dominant actors seem to able to change the rules of the system. When a dominant actor uses his power position to change the rules of the social system, it can make other actors lose their commitment to the partnership. This research shows that successful long-term and close collaboration between firms continuously requires careful consideration of how the organizational structures are designed and used and their effect on relationships between actors. One should not assume that integrated contracts and integrative practices that have been shown to work in one project, will automatically lead to close and long-lasting relationships between actors in another project.</p> Jelle Koolwijk Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6262 Wed, 19 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Mitigating the Risks in Energy Retrofits of Residential Buildings in China https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6195 <p>To speed up residential energy retrofitting in the Hot Summer and Cold Winter(HSCW) zone, the barriers to retrofitting projects need elimination. Energy retrofitting contributes to improving building quality and living comfort, but has not been accepted by the public. It stems from poor project performance in quality, time, costs, etc. The risk is an essential factor hindering such project objectives and project success. Residential energy retrofitting in China is exposed to various risks due to uncertainties regarding finance, organization, coordination, technology, etc. This thesis thus aims to deepen the understanding of risks in the whole process of residential energy retrofitting to smoothen its implementation and develop risk mitigation strategies for the HSCW climate zone of China. The thesis adopts Transaction Costs Theory (TCT) to identify the risks in the whole process of project implementation and assesses the importance of these risks in both objective and subjective aspects. Given the importance of homeowners-related risks and the key role of the government in retrofitting projects, this research develops s series of develop strategies for risk mitigation from the viewpoints of both homeowners and the government. The thesis contributes to the body of knowledge by conducting a systematic exploration of risks in retrofitting projects. In terms of the practical contributions, it does not only enable project managers to recognize the priority of project risks, but also help the government tackle these issues at its source for promotion of residential energy retrofitting.</p> Ling Jia Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6195 Thu, 16 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Green Climate Control https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6194 <p>Several studies have demonstrated the potential of botanical biofiltration and phytoremediation to remove indoor pollutants and improve overall comfort. However, there is a lack of evidence on how indoor greenery affects the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), particularly on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The main goal of this research project was to explore and evaluate the efficacy of an active plant-based system in terms of IAQ and being able to answer the main research question: “Can an active plant-based system improve the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)?” This was achieved through laboratory studies of several plant-based systems, including chemical, physical and sensorial evaluations as well as qualitative and quantitative assessments. Some of the outcomes of this research are described below:</p> <p>– To develop an effective plant-based system the proper selection of its components is essential.</p> <p>– In real settings, the concentration of the gaseous pollutants is present in lower levels and current equipment are not able to detect them. Therefore, it is clear and confirmed that physical, chemical and sensory assessments are crucial to evaluate the real impact of plant‑based system in the IAQ.</p> <p>– In this project, different substrates and plants were tested and it became clear that the substrate is an important ally in reducing gaseous pollutants, such as formaldehyde.</p> <p>– The polluted air needs to be transported to the vicinity of the plant-based system to be able to uptake the gaseous pollutant. Therefore, an active plant-based system is needed to potentialize the impact of such systems in the IAQ since the air has to be forced to go through the system to achieve the biofiltration process.</p> <p>– An indoor forest is required to meet the minimum standards for ventilation rates in breathing zones just with plants without any extra mechanical ventilation.</p> Tatiana Armijos Moya Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6194 Thu, 16 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Ronda https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6192 <p>This dissertation focuses on architectural education and practice as a collective experience, examining the particular case of the PUCV School of Architecture and Design and Ciudad Abierta in Chile. The study asks whether the culture of collectivity that characterises the school has served as a supporting structure for its artistic and pedagogical project and if so, which elements configure the collective ways of studying and practising at this school. The dissertation delves into these questions by following the trail of a concept that crystallises the school’s collective ethos: The Ronda. This notion refers to a collective working format practised by the members of the school and Ciudad Abierta, through which they carry out their fundamental proposals and projects. As a result, the school set the conditions for the formative experience by constructing a creative milieu in common, understood as a specific environment shaped by commonality across the spheres of life, work, and study. By comprehending a school as an expanded network of communities, this dissertation provides insights on how architectural training can diversify its practices, spaces, and frameworks in new configurations beyond the academic realm and complementary to university institutions. Furthermore, proposing the school as a constellation of communities offers a perspective on alternative modes of and articulations between architectural pedagogy, practice, and research.</p> Óscar Andrade Castro Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6192 Thu, 16 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Immediate Systems in Architecture https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6187 <p>The presented research on Immediate Systems in Architecture (IS-A) is an attempt to afford a better human-technology match in architecture, pursuing a state where humans can simultaneously use and design, apply and amend the technical system they engage with.</p> <p>The thesis contains both theoretical and experimental contributions on IS-A. Initially, the notion of Immediate Systems (IS) is introduced and framed. IS offer interaction in the style of direct manipulation, embed design and implementation in situations of use, and overcome limitations of remote design. IS are related to psychological concepts and described through the lens of Gibson’s Theory of Affordances. Characteristics and conditions of IS are distilled from the presentation and discussion of a series of examples.</p> <p>The application of IS in architecture is approached from three angles. First, from the lived perspective of a user-designer, as adhocist mode of action. Second, from the methodology and technology, as accelerated design transfer. Third, in an ecological perspective, as humanarchitecture symbiosis.</p> <p>Following the method of research by design, prototypes were developed in a series of experiments. The experiments result in multiple tools for real-time multi-directional volumetric design exploration that allows users to interactively model and ad-hoc reconceptualize parametric geometry, topology and components of architectural assemblies. A combination of these tools with digital fabrication and interactive building components lead to the most encompassing IS-A prototype, an attempt to realize an open-ended building system that joins simultaneous design, adaptation, construction and reconfiguration as interaction possibilities embedded in the built environment.</p> Christian Friedrich Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6187 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Challenges of prefabricated housing in China https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6185 <p>Recently, the implementation of prefabricated housing (PH) has become prevalent in China to achieve sustainability while ensuring green construction, innovative products, and higher quality. However, numerous challenges arise, such as the overrun costs, inexperienced workers, and the inefficient management process. High transaction costs (TCs) occur in the PH project supply chain since additional efforts are consumed for overcoming these challenges. This study aims to seek insights into TCs of PH and investigate strategies for minimizing the TCs thus smooth the development process of PH projects. Three key elements have been addressed throughout the thesis: supply chain, stakeholders, and transaction costs. Four-step research is employed to uncover the TCs in the PH supply chain, collect the stakeholders’ perceptions, investigates the causes of TCs, and explore decisions for reducing TCs. This thesis identifies three types of TCs in Chinese PH projects by their nature: due diligence costs, negotiation costs, monitoring and enforcement costs. Private stakeholders in China’s PH industry put more of their attention on TCs related to the specificity of prefabrication. The simple and joint strategies are provided for reducing their benefits lost from the unexpected TCs. Additionally, the value of the governmental TCs has been revealed for reducing the TCs of PH, which inspires and supports the policymakers to develop a healthy policy environment.</p> Hongjuan Wu Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6185 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 How Heritage Learns https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6184 <p>How Heritage Learns explores the dynamics that come into play when public housing becomes valourised as heritage in the Netherlands and how that, in turn modulates the evolution of this protected housing. It builds on the foundation set by the thesis of Steward Brand, that buildings learn through the adaptation of their fabric to external forces: changing fashion, technologies and economy. This dissertation investigates different key drivers for change: Energy, Economy and Comfort (2E+Co).</p> <p>To understand how and why the housing heritage evolved over time, an ecology of ideas is developed that sees buildings as organisms evolving and learning in their environments, providing a multi-sided theoretic model for analysis.</p> <p>Three case studies are extensively explored: the Justus van Effen Quarter in Rotterdam (1921–22) and the King’s Wives of Landlust (1937–38) and Jeruzalem public housing complexes (1949–52), both in Amsterdam. These are all exemplary monuments of Dutch public housing and all three have undergone repeat renovations since their construction. The research not only highlighted their various learning cycles, but also uncovered exciting new information on their origins and histories.</p> <p>What sets public housing heritage apart is the presence of a Story. However, the case studies reveal that the Stones were modulated by dominant 2E+Co ambitions common to all public housing. Above all, How Heritage Learns shows that past promises of increased performance and efficiency were never fulfilled. Without structured reflective observation we are doomed to repeat the same mistakes. Such lessons are all the more important at a time when the built environment stands at the cusp of another revolution driven by environmental imperatives.</p> Nicholas J Clarke Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6184 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Smart Campus Tools https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6146 <p>In recent years, the density on the Dutch university campus has increased substantially due to a continued growth of student populations. Campus managers face the challenge of accommodating the university’s students and employees mainly in the existing buildings, which are used ineffectively and inefficiently. In order to improve the space use on campus, campus managers need better information about space use. Therefore, this PhD dissertation proposes the use of Smart campus tools: a service or product with which information on space use is collected real-time to improve utilization of the current campus on the one hand, and to improve decision‑making about the future campus on the other hand. The main research question is: How can smart campus tools optimally contribute to the match between demand for and supply of space, both on the current campus and on the future campus?</p> <p>To answer the research question, this PhD dissertation explores the use of Smart campus tools in Dutch and international contexts, at universities and other organisations. Then, it researches how information from Smart campus tools can be properly connected to campus decision‑making processes. The results from this research are used to inform existing theories and draw lessons for practice.</p> Bart Valks Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/6146 Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000