Individually controlled noise reducing devices to improve IEQ in classrooms of primary schools

  • Dadi Zhang TU Delft, Architecture and the Built Environment

Abstract

In recent decades, many indoor environmental quality (IEQ) related problems (such as noise, odour, overheating, glare…) in classrooms have been identified. The impact of IEQ in classrooms on school children has been thoroughly researched. Consequently, many studies have been carried out to attempt to improve the IEQ in classrooms. However, most of the IEQ-improvements were developed based on general requirements and ignored individual differences. No matter how advanced these improvements are, always some children keep being unsatisfied with the IEQ in their classrooms. Given the fact that different children have different IEQ perceptions, preferences, and needs, it makes more sense to control the IEQ in classrooms on the level of the individual rather than of the room. Only by doing this can the comfort, health, and ultimately performance of school children be improved. For this reason, this research explored the possibility of customizing IEQ in classrooms of primary schools in the Netherlands. This thesis addressed the following topics:

–Current ways of controlling IEQ in classrooms and their effect on school children’s IEQ perception;

– Individual preferences and needs of primary school children related to IEQ in classrooms;

– Impact of the main IEQ problem on school children’s perception and performance;

– Use of individually controlled devices to cope with the main IEQ problem in classrooms;

– Children’s feedback on an individually controlled noise-reducing device.

Several approaches were used to address these topics, including a field study, lab studies, computer simulations and a prototype study.

In the spring of 2017, the indoor environment group conducted the field study in 54 classrooms of 21 primary schools in the Netherlands. 54 teachers’ questionnaire and 1145 children’s questionnaire were collected and analysed. The results of the field study provided insight into the current ways to control IEQ in classrooms, as well as the preferences and needs of children with respect to IEQ in their classrooms.

Through a series of correlation analyses, the current ways to control IEQ, namely teachers’ IEQ-improving actions, were shown to be inefficient in improving children’s IEQ perceptions in classrooms, even though these actions were conducted based on children’s requests. Two possible explanations can be put forward. First, a teacher could only take one action to respond to one child at a time, therefore, another child’s request might have been ignored. Second, the options that teachers had to change the IEQ in classrooms were quite limited (for example, in most classrooms, opening windows was the only thing the teacher could do if children felt too hot in summer). It was, therefore, concluded that a more effective method to control the IEQ in classrooms is needed.

To create a good learning environment for school children, it is important to know their perceptions, preferences, and needs concerning IEQ in their classrooms. The analyses of the 1145 children’s responses showed that different children within the same classroom could have different IEQ perceptions, preferences, and needs. Based on their IEQ perceptions, preferences, and needs and with the use of a twostep cluster analysis method, the children were grouped into six clusters (‘Sound concerned’, ‘Smell and Sound concerned’, ‘Thermal and Draught concerned’, ‘Light concerned’, ‘All concerned’ and ‘Nothing concerned’), with each a different profile was established.

The analysis of the children’s responses also showed that 87% of the children were bothered by noise (mainly caused by themselves) in their classrooms. Therefore, noise was identified as the main problem in the classrooms studied. To get more insight in this main problem, a lab study was conducted in the spring of 2018 in which children were invited to participate in a listening task with different background sounds. The experiment was conducted in two chambers (acoustically treated chamber and untreated chamber) with different reverberation times (RTs) at the same time. Results of the two-way ANOVA analysis showed a significant interaction between the impact of sound type and sound pressure level (SPL) on children’s performance in the untreated chamber (RT = 0.3 s). Additionally, the t-test results showed that children performed significantly better in the untreated chamber than in the treated chamber (RT = 0.07 s). This indicated that a shorter RT is not always better, and it was recommended to also introduce a lower limit for the RT in classrooms to prevent over-damping.

After the establishment of the main IEQ problem, namely noise, the next step of this research was searching for an effective way to address this problem. Because the use of individually controlled devices in offices has shown to be able to improve both the IEQ and the workers’ satisfaction rates, it was assumed that these devices can have a similar effect on children in classrooms. To get a preliminary understanding of this assumption, a series of computer simulations was therefore conducted to test the effect of an individually controlled device on noise reduction. By comparing the simulation results of these individually controlled devices with the conventional ways to reduce noise (namely acoustic ceiling tiles), it was seen that the individually controlled devices have the ability to provide better acoustics in terms of providing shorter RTs and higher speech transmission indices.

Subsequently, a real individually controlled noise-reducing device (ICND) was prototyped and tested in a lab study during the summer and autumn vacation of 2019. This prototype was similar to the stimulated device. It looks like a large umbrella that hung above every child’s head. In this research, two identical prototypes were tested with more than 200 school children, whose feedback was collected through questionnaires. Children could control the device using a remote controller. The descriptive analysis of children’s answers indicated that most of them liked this device and wanted to have one in their classrooms. The content analysis elucidated the reasons for their choices: children liked this device mainly because of its appearance (they thought it looked funny/cool/nice), and they wanted to have it mainly because of its functionality (they thought it worked/helped/reduced noise). Additionally, the device’s noise reducing effect was confirmed by simulations and measurements. This study showed the potential of the ICND to create better acoustics for every school child, and resulted in clear recommendations to improve the prototype.

To sum up, this research showed that school children differ in their IEQ preferences and needs and, based on that, classified them into six clusters. It also indicated that teachers’ actions could not effectively improve IEQ in classrooms, which paves the way for the need for individual control of IEQ in classrooms of primary schools. Then, an ICND was designed and tested to address the main IEQ problem in classrooms, namely noise. The results obtained from the simulations, measurements, and children’s feedback on the prototype of the ICND, indicated the feasibility of such devices in classrooms at primary schools. More research in real classrooms, however, is needed.

References

Allen, V.L. and D.B. Greenberger, Destruction and perceived control. Advances in Environmental Psychology, 1980. 2: p. 85-109.

Auliciems, A., Thermal requirements of secondary schoolchildren in winter. Journal of Hygiene, 1969. 67(01): p. 59-65.

Bakó-Biró, Z., D. Clements-Croome, N. Kochhar, H. Awbi, and M. Williams, Ventilation rates in schools and pupils’ performance. Building and Environment, 2012. 48: p. 215-223.

Bauman, F., A. Baughman, G. Carter, and E.A. Arens, A field study of PEM (Personal Environmental Module) performance in Bank of America’s San Francisco office buildings. 1997.

Bauman, F., A. Baughman, G. Carter, and E.A. Arens, A field study of PEM (Personal Environmental Module) performance in Bank of America’s San Francisco office buildings. 1997.

Bauman, F.S., T.G. Carter, A.V. Baughman, and E.A. Arens, Field study of the impact of a desktop task/ambient conditioning system in office buildings. ASHRAE Transactions, 1998. 104: p. 1153.

Bembridge, M.L., G.F. Watson, O.E. Pena, and S.L. Marzano, Luminaire combining ambient light and task light. 2016, Google Patents.

Bernardo, H., C.H. Antunes, A. Gaspar, L.D. Pereira, and M.G. da Silva, An approach for energy performance and indoor climate assessment in a Portuguese school building. Sustainable cities and society, 2017. 30: p. 184-194.

Bistafa, S.R. and J.S. Bradley, Reverberation time and maximum background-noise level for classrooms from a comparative study of speech intelligibility metrics. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2000. 107(2): p. 861-875.

Bluyssen, P.M., All you need to know about indoor air: a simple guide for educating yourself to improve your indoor environment. 2015: Delft Academic Press.

Bluyssen, P.M., D. Zhang, S. Kurvers, M. Overtoom, and M. Ortiz-Sanchez, Self-reported health and comfort of school children in 54 classrooms of 21 Dutch school buildings. Building and Environment, 2018. 138: p. 106-123.

Bluyssen, P.M., D. Zhang, S. Kurvers, M. Overtoom, and M. Ortiz-Sanchez, Self-reported health and comfort of school children in 54 classrooms of 21 Dutch school buildings. Building and Environment, 2018. 138: p. 106-123.

Bluyssen, P.M., D. Zhang, S. Kurvers, M. Overtoom, and M. Ortiz-Sanchez, Self-reported health and comfort of school children in 54 classrooms of 21 Dutch school buildings. Building and Environment, 2018. 138: p. 106-123.

Bluyssen, P.M., F. van Zeist, S. Kurvers, M. Tenpierik, S. Pont, B. Wolters, L. van Hulst, and D. Meertins, The creation of SenseLab: a laboratory for testing and experiencing single and combinations of indoor environmental conditions. Intelligent Buildings International, 2018. 10(1): p. 5-18.

Bluyssen, P.M., Health, comfort and performance of children in classrooms–new directions for research. Indoor and Built Environment, 2017. 26(8): p. 1040-1050.

Bluyssen, P.M., Health, comfort and performance of children in classrooms–new directions for research. Indoor and Built Environment, 2017. 26(8): p. 1040-1050.

Bluyssen, P.M., The Indoor Environment Handbook: How to make buildings healthy and comfortable. 2009: Routledge.

Braat-Eggen, P.E., A. van Heijst, M. Hornikx, and A. Kohlrausch, Noise disturbance in open-plan study environments: A field study on noise sources, student tasks and room acoustic parameters. Ergonomics, 2017. 60(9): p. 1297-1314.

Burgess, M. MAPPED: How many hours do children spend at school around the world? 2013 [cited 2019 Sep 27, 2019]; Available from: http://helpmeinvestigate.com/education/2013/04/mapped-how-many-hours-dochildren-spend-at-school-around-the-world/.

Campbell, C., C. Svensson, and E. Nilsson. The challenge of meeting both acoustic and thermal comfort in 21st century school classrooms. in INTER-NOISE and NOISE-CON Congress and Conference Proceedings. 2014. Institute of Noise Control Engineering.

Canning, D. and A. James, The Essex Study Optimised classroom acoustics for all. UK: The Association of Noise Consultants, 2012.

CHAN, K.W.P., Innovative learning environments (ILE): Inventory case study: Lok Sin Tong Leung Wong Wai Fong Memorial School, Hong Kong. 2012.

Chatzidiakou, L., D. Mumovic, and A.J. Summerfield, What do we know about indoor air quality in school

Chen, L., Jennison, B. L., Yang, W., & Omaye, S. T., Elementary school absenteeism and air pollution. Inhalation Toxicology, 2000. 12(11): p. 997-1016.

Chmelik, V., J. Kuran, and M. Rychtarikova. Optimization of a membrane structure design for existing project of children’s playground in the city of Krupina. in TensiNet Symposium 2019, Softening the habitats, 3-5 June 2019, Politecnico di Milano.

Clark, C., J. Head, and S.A. Stansfeld, Longitudinal effects of aircraft noise exposure on children’s health and cognition: a six-year follow-up of the UK RANCH cohort. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2013. 35: p.1-9.

classrooms? A critical review of the literature. Intelligent Buildings International, 2012. 4(4): p. 228-259.

Csobod, E., P. Rudnai, and E. Vaskovi, School Environment and Respiratory Health of Children (SEARCH). International research project report within the programme ‘Indoor air quality in European schools: Preventing and reducing respiratory diseases.’Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, Hungary. Assessed August, 2010. 29: p. 2012.

Daisey, J.M., W.J. Angell, and M.G. Apte, Indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools: an analysis of existing information. Indoor air, 2003. 13(1): p. 53-64.

de Dear, R., J. Kim, C. Candido, and M. Deuble, Adaptive thermal comfort in Australian school classrooms. Building Research & Information, 2015. 43(3): p. 383-398.

De Giuli, V., O. Da Pos, and M. De Carli, Indoor environmental quality and pupil perception in Italian primary schools. Building and Environment, 2012. 56: p. 335-345.

de Korte, E.M., M. Spiekman, L. Hoes-van Oeffelen, B. van der Zande, G. Vissenberg, G. Huiskes, and L.F.M.

de Korte, E.M., M. Spiekman, L. Hoes-van Oeffelen, B. van der Zande, G. Vissenberg, G. Huiskes, and L.F.M.

Dik Trom. School for strong Dalton education [cited 2019; Available from: https://obsdiktrom.nl/wp-content/uploads/Schoolguide-English-version.pdf.

Dockrell, J.E. and B.M. Shield, Acoustical barriers in classrooms: The impact of noise on performance in the classroom. British Educational Research Journal, 2006. 32(3): p. 509-525.

Dorizas, P.V., M.-N. Assimakopoulos, and M. Santamouris, A holistic approach for the assessment of the indoor environmental quality, student productivity, and energy consumption in primary schools. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 2015. 187(5): p. 1-18.

Evans, G.W. and L. Maxwell, Chronic Noise Exposure and Reading Deficits The Mediating Effects of Language Acquisition. Environment and Behavior, 1997. 29(5): p. 638-656.

Fanger, P.O., Human requirements in future air-conditioned environments. International Journal of Refrigeration, 2001. 24(2): p. 148-153.

Fisher, J., Technological interdependence, labor production functions, and control systems. Accounting, Organizations Society, 1994. 19(6): p. 493-505.

Frumkin, H., R.J. Geller, and J. Nodvin, Safe and healthy school environments. 2006: Oxford University Press.

Gilavand, A., Investigating the Impact of Environmental Factors on Learning and Academic Achievement of Elementary Students: Review. Int J Med Res Health Sci, 2016. 5: p. 360-369.

Grocoff, P.N., Electric Lighting and Daylighting in Schools. IssueTrak: A CEFPI Brief on Educational Facility

Guo, H., F. Murray, and S. Lee, The development of low volatile organic compound emission house—a case study. Building and environment, 2003. 38(12): p. 1413-1422.

Haines, M.M., S.A. Stansfeld, R.F.S. Job, B. Berglund, and J. Head, Chronic aircraft noise exposure, stress responses, mental health and cognitive performance in school children. Psychological Medicine, 2001. 31(02).

Harris, D.D., The influence of flooring on environmental stressors: a study of three flooring materials in a hospital. HERD, 2015. 8(3): p. 9-29.

Hathaway, W.E., Effects of school lighting on physical development and school performance. The Journal of Educational Research, 1995. 88(4): p. 228-242.

Hathaway, W.E., Effects of school lighting on physical development and school performance. The Journal of Educational Research, 1995. 88(4): p. 228-242.

Haverinen‐Shaughnessy, U., A. Borras‐Santos, M. Turunen, J.P. Zock, J. Jacobs, E. Krop, L. Casas, R. Shaughnessy, M. Täubel, and D. Heederik, Occurrence of moisture problems in schools in three countries from different climatic regions of Europe based on questionnaires and building inspections–the HITEA study. Indoor Air, 2012. 22(6): p. 457-466.

Haverinen‐Shaughnessy, U., A. Borras‐Santos, M. Turunen, J.P. Zock, J. Jacobs, E. Krop, L. Casas, R.

Heerwagen, J., Sustainable Design Can Be an Asset to the Bottom Line-expanded internet edition. Environmental Design & Construction, 2002.

Hellinga, H., Daylight and View: The influence of windows on the visual quality of indoor spaces. 2013, Delft University of Technology.

Heschong, L., Daylighting and human performance. ASHRAE journal, 2002. 44(6): p. 65.

Hodgson, M., Case-study evaluations of the acoustical designs of renovated university classrooms. Applied Acoustics, 2004. 65(1): p. 69-89.

Hoof, J.V., Forty years of Fanger’s model of thermal comfort: comfort for all? Indoor Air, 2008. 18(3): p. 182-201.

Humphreys, M.A. and J.F. Nicol, Self-assessed productivity and the office environment: monthly surveys in five European countries. ASHRAE transactions, 2007. 113: p. 606.

Hygge, S., Classroom experiments on the effects of different noise sources and sound levels on long‐term recall and recognition in children. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 2003. 17(8): p. 895-914.

Johnson, P.D. and W.A. Kritsonis, Greener Schools, Greater Learning, and the LEED Value. Online Submission, 2010. 7(1).

Kats, G., Greening America’s Schools, iAmerican Federation of Teachers, et al. Capital E, 2006.

Kim, J., F. Bauman, P. Raftery, E. Arens, H. Zhang, G. Fierro, M. Andersen, and D. Culler, Occupant comfort and behavior: High-resolution data from a 6-month field study of personal comfort systems with 37 real office workers. Building and Environment, 2019. 148: p. 348-360.

Kim, S.-S., D.-H. Kang, D.-H. Choi, M.-S. Yeo, and K.-W. Kim, Comparison of strategies to improve indoor air quality at the pre-occupancy stage in new apartment buildings. Building and Environment, 2008. 43(3): p. 320-328.

Klatte, M., J. Hellbrück, J. Seidel, and P. Leistner, Effects of classroom acoustics on performance and wellbeing in elementary school children: A field study. Environment and Behavior, 2010. 42(5): p. 659-692.

Klatte, M., J. Hellbrück, J. Seidel, and P. Leistner, Effects of classroom acoustics on performance and wellbeing in elementary school children: A field study. Environment and Behavior, 2010. 42(5): p. 659-692.

Klatte, M., T. Lachmann, and M. Meis, Effects of noise and reverberation on speech perception and listening comprehension of children and adults in a classroom-like setting. Noise and Health, 2010. 12(49): p. 270.

Koski, M.-I. Dutch primary education: Montessori & The Dalton Plan. 2014 26 Aug; Available from: https://www.iamexpat.nl/education/education-news/dutch-primary-education-montessori-dalton-plan.

Koski, M.-I., Dutch primary education: Jenaplan & Steiner. 2014 26 Aug; Available from: https://www.iamexpat.nl/education/education-news/dutch-primary-education-jenaplan-steiner.

Kuijt-Evers, Personal environmental control: Effects of pre-set conditions for heating and lighting on personal settings, task performance and comfort experience. Building and Environment, 2015. 86: p. 166-176.

Kuijt-Evers, Personal environmental control: Effects of pre-set conditions for heating and lighting on personal settings, task performance and comfort experience. Building and Environment, 2015. 86: p. 166-176.

Küller, R. and C. Lindsten, Health and behavior of children in classrooms with and without windows. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 1992. 12(4): p. 305-317.

Kwok, A.G. and C. Chun, Thermal comfort in Japanese schools. Solar Energy, 2003. 74(3): p. 245-252.

Liang, H.-H., T.-P. Lin, and R.-L. Hwang, Linking occupants’ thermal perception and building thermal performance in naturally ventilated school buildings. Applied Energy, 2012. 94: p. 355-363.

Lillard, A.S., Playful learning and Montessori education. NAMTA Journal, 2013. 38(2): p. 137-174.

Luo, M., E. Arens, H. Zhang, A. Ghahramani, and Z. Wang, Thermal comfort evaluated for combinations of energy-efficient personal heating and cooling devices. Building and Environment, 2018. 143: p. 206-216.

Madureira, J., M. Alvim-Ferraz, S. Rodrigues, C. Gonçalves, M. Azevedo, E. Pinto, and O. Mayan, Indoor air quality in schools and health symptoms among Portuguese teachers. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 2009. 15(1): p. 159-169.

Mattsson, M. and S. Hygge. Effect of particulate air cleaning on perceived health and cognitive performance in school children during pollen season. in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate. 2005. Tsinghua University.

Melikov, A.K., H. Groengeak, and J.B. Nielsen, Personal Ventilation: from research to practical use. Proceedings of CLIMA, Helsinki, 2007.

Melikov, A.K., M. Skwarczynski, J. Kaczmarczyk, and J. Zabecky, Use of personalized ventilation for improving health, comfort, and performance at high room temperature and humidity. Indoor Air, 2013. 23(3): p. 250-263.

Melikov, A.K., M. Skwarczynski, J. Kaczmarczyk, and J. Zabecky, Use of personalized ventilation for improving health, comfort, and performance at high room temperature and humidity. Indoor Air, 2013. 23(3): p. 250-263.

Melikov, A.K., Personalized ventilation. Indoor Air, 2004. 14(s7): p. 157-167.

Melikov, A.K., R. Cermak, and M. Majer, Personalized ventilation: evaluation of different air terminal devices. Energy and buildings, 2002. 34(8): p. 829-836.

Mendell, M.J. and G.A. Heath, Do indoor pollutants and thermal conditions in schools influence student performance? A critical review of the literature. Indoor Air, 2005. 15(1): p. 27-52.

Mendell, M.J. and G.A. Heath, Do indoor pollutants and thermal conditions in schools influence student performance? A critical review of the literature. Indoor Air, 2005. 15(1): p. 27-52.

Mendell, M.J., E.A. Eliseeva, M.M. Davies, M. Spears, A. Lobscheid, W.J. Fisk, and M.G. Apte, Association of classroom ventilation with reduced illness absence: a prospective study in California elementary schools. Indoor air, 2013. 23(6): p. 515-528.

MONTESSORI NORTHWEST. Inside a Montessori Classroom. 2017 [cited 2019; Available from: https://montessori-nw.org/inside-a-montessori-classroom.

Mott, M.S., D.H. Robinson, A. Walden, J. Burnette, and A.S. Rutherford, Illuminating the effects of dynamic lighting on student learning. Sage Open, 2012. 2(2): p. 2158244012445585.

needs of the IEQ in classrooms. Building and environment, 2019. 147: p. 258-266.

Nicklas, M.H. and G.B. Bailey, Student performance in daylit schools. Innovative Design. Raleigh, North carolina, 1996.

Nijs, L. and M. Rychtáriková, Calculating the optimum reverberation time and absorption coefficient for good speech intelligibility in classroom design using U50. Acta Acustica united with Acustica, 2011. 97(1): p. 93-102.

p. 337-351.

Paciuk, M., Personal Control of the Workspace Environment as Affected by Changing Concepts in Office Design. 1990.

Parinduri, R.A., Do children spend too much time in schools? Evidence from a longer school year in Indonesia.Economics of Education Review, 2014. 41: p. 89-104.

Parkinson, T. and R. de Dear, Thermal pleasure in built environments: spatial alliesthesia from contact heating. Building Research & Information, 2016. 44(3): p. 248-262.

Pasut, W., H. Zhang, E. Arens, and Y. Zhai, Energy-efficient comfort with a heated/cooled chair: Results from human subject tests. Building and Environment, 2015. 84: p. 10-21.

Pasut, W., H. Zhang, E. Arens, and Y. Zhai, Energy-efficient comfort with a heated/cooled chair: Results from human subject tests. Building and Environment, 2015. 84: p. 10-21.

Pasut, W., H. Zhang, E. Arens, S. Kaam, and Y. Zhai, Effect of a heated and cooled office chair on thermal comfort. HVAC&R Research, 2013. 19(5): p. 574-583.

Pepler, R.D. and R. Warner, Temperature and learning: an experimental study. Ashrae Transactions, 1968. 74(2): p. 211-219.

Rathunde, K. and M. Csikszentmihalyi, Middle school students’ motivation and quality of experience: A comparison of Montessori and traditional school environments. American journal of education, 2005. 111(3): p. 341-371.

Rønneseth, Ø., Personal Heating and Cooling Devices: Increasing Users’ Thermal Satisfaction. A literature study. ZEN Report, 2018.

Ronsse, L.M. and L.M. Wang, Relationships between unoccupied classroom acoustical conditions and elementary student achievement measured in eastern Nebraska. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2013. 133(3): p. 1480-1495.

Roulet, C.-A., N. Johner, F. Foradini, P. Bluyssen, C. Cox, E. De Oliveira Fernandes, B. Müller, and C. Aizlewood, Perceived health and comfort in relation to energy use and building characteristics. Building Research & Information, 2006. 34(5): p. 467-474.

Russo, D. and A. Ruggiero, Choice of the optimal acoustic design of a school classroom and experimental verification. Applied Acoustics, 2019. 146: p. 280-287.

Shaughnessy, M. Täubel, and D. Heederik, Occurrence of moisture problems in schools in three countries from different climatic regions of Europe based on questionnaires and building inspections–the HITEA study. Indoor Air, 2012. 22(6): p. 457-466.

Shendell, D.G., R. Prill, W.J. Fisk, M.G. Apte, D. Blake, and D. Faulkner, Associations between classroom CO2 concentrations and student attendance in Washington and Idaho. Indoor air, 2004. 14(5): p. 333-341.

Shield, B. and J. Dockrell, The effects of environmental noise on child academic attainments. Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, 2002. 24(6).

Shield, B., J. Dockrell, R. Asker, and I. Tachmatzidis, The effects of noise on the attainments and cognitive development of primary school children, in Final report for Department of Health DETR. 2002.

Shield, B.M. and J.E. Dockrell, Acoustical barriers in classrooms: the impact of noise on performance in the classroom. British Educational Research Journal, 2006. 32: p. 17.

Shield, B.M. and J.E. Dockrell, The effects of noise on children at school: a review. Building Acoustics, 2003. 10(2): p. 97-116.

Shield, B.M. and J.E. Dockrell, The effects of noise on children at school: a review. Building Acoustics, 2003. 10(2): p. 97-116.

Shield, B.M. and J.E. Dockrell. The Effects of classroom and environmental noise on children’s academic performance. in 9th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Foxwoods, CT. 2008.

Siebein, G.W. Understanding classroom acoustic solutions. in Seminars in Hearing. 2004.

Simons, E., S.-A. Hwang, E.F. Fitzgerald, C. Kielb, and S. Lin, The impact of school building conditions on student absenteeism in upstate New York. American journal of public health, 2010. 100(9): p. 1679-1686.

Standard, A.S.H.R.A.E., Standard 55–2017 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, in American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers: Atlanta, GA, USA. 2017.

Standard, A.S.H.R.A.E., Standard 55–2017 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air conditioning Engineers: Atlanta, GA, USA, 2017.

Stranger, M., S. Potgieter-Vermaak, and R. Van Grieken, Comparative overview of indoor air quality in Antwerp, Belgium. Environment International, 2007. 33(6): p. 789-797.

Tabuchi, Y., K. Matsushima, and H. Nakamura, Preferred illuminances on surrounding surfaces in relation to task illuminance in office room using task-ambient lighting. Journal of Light & Visual Environment, 1995. 19(1): p. 28-39.

Taub, M., H. Zhang, E. Arens, F. Bauman, D. Dickerhoff, M. Fountain, W. Pasut, D. Fannon, Y. Zhai, and M. Pigman, The use of footwarmers in offices for thermal comfort and energy savings in winter. 2015.

Taub, M., H. Zhang, E. Arens, F. Bauman, D. Dickerhoff, M. Fountain, W. Pasut, D. Fannon, Y. Zhai, and M. Pigman, The use of footwarmers in offices for thermal comfort and energy savings in winter. 2015.

Teli, D., M.F. Jentsch, and P.A.B. James, Naturally ventilated classrooms: An assessment of existing comfort models for predicting the thermal sensation and preference of primary school children. Energy and Buildings, 2012. 53: p. 166-182.

ter Mors, S., J.L. Hensen, M.G. Loomans, and A.C. Boerstra, Adaptive thermal comfort in primary school classrooms: Creating and validating PMV-based comfort charts. Building and Environment, 2011. 46(12): p. 2454-2461.

Theodosiou, T. and K. Ordoumpozanis, Energy, comfort and indoor air quality in nursery and elementary school buildings in the cold climatic zone of Greece. Energy and Buildings, 2008. 40(12): p. 2207-2214.

Toftum, J., B.U. Kjeldsen, P. Wargocki, H.R. Menå, E.M. Hansen, and G. Clausen, Association between classroom ventilation mode and learning outcome in Danish schools. Building and Environment, 2015. 92: p. 494-503.

Toftum, J., Central automatic control or distributed occupant control for better indoor environment quality in the future. Building and environment, 2010. 45(1): p. 23-28.

Turunen, M., O. Toyinbo, T. Putus, A. Nevalainen, R. Shaughnessy, and U. Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Indoor environmental quality in school buildings, and the health and wellbeing of students. International journal of hygiene and environmental health, 2014. 217(7): p. 733-739.

Turunen, M., O. Toyinbo, T. Putus, A. Nevalainen, R. Shaughnessy, and U. Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Indoor environmental quality in school buildings, and the health and wellbeing of students. International journal of hygiene and environmental health, 2014. 217(7): p. 733-739.

UNESCO. School HVAC: High Performance School Characteristics. 2014 [cited 2018 10 July]; Available from: http://www.unescocorp.com/sedial-eiusmod-tempor/.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. Improving Indoor Air Quality. 2020; Available from: https://www.epa.gov/indoor-air-quality-iaq/improving-indoor-air-quality.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. Teachers and Healthy Indoor School Environments. 2016 [cited 2018 10 July]; Available from: https://www.epa.gov/iaq-schools/teachers-and-healthy-indoor-schoolenvironments.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. Top Actions Teachers Can Take to Address IAQ. 2016 [cited 2018 10 July]; Available from: https://19january2017snapshot.epa.gov/iaq-schools/teachers-and-healthyindoor-school-environments_.html#topactions.

US EPA. Building Air Quality Guide: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers. 2010; Available from: www.epa.gov/indoor-air-quality-iaq/building-air-quality-guide-guide-building-owners-and-facilitymanagers.

Verhaart, J., M. Veselý, and W. Zeiler, Personal heating: effectiveness and energy use. Building Research & Information, 2015. 43(3): p. 346-354.

Wargocki, P. and D.P. Wyon, The effects of moderately raised classroom temperatures and classroom ventilation rate on the performance of schoolwork by children (RP-1257). Hvac&R Research, 2007. 13(2): p. 193-220.

Wargocki, P., Improving indoor air quality improves the performance of office work and school work. Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 2008.

Watanabe, S., A.K. Melikov, and G.L. Knudsen, Design of an individually controlled system for an optimal thermal microenvironment. Building and Environment, 2010. 45(3): p. 549-558.

WHO, Burden of disease fromenvironmental noise -- Quantification of healthy life years lost in Europe. 2011.

WHO. Parma declaration on Environment and Health. in Fifth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health. Protecting children’s health in a changing environment. Parma, Italy. 2010.

Winterbottom, M. and A. Wilkins, Lighting and discomfort in the classroom. Journal of environmental psychology, 2009. 29(1): p. 63-75.

Wohlfarth, H., Colour and Light Effects on Students’ Achievement, Behavior and Physiology. 1986.

Wong, N.H. and S.S. Khoo, Thermal comfort in classrooms in the tropics. Energy and buildings, 2003. 35(4): p. 337-351.

Wong, N.H. and S.S. Khoo, Thermal comfort in classrooms in the tropics. Energy and buildings, 2003. 35(4): p. 337-351.

Wong, N.H. and S.S. Khoo, Thermal comfort in classrooms in the tropics. Energy and buildings, 2003. 35(4):

Wu, W. and E. Ng, A review of the development of daylighting in schools. Lighting Research and Technology, 2003. 35(2): p. 111-124.

Wyon, D.P., Individual control at each workplace: the means and the potential benefits. Creating the productive workplace, 2000: p. 192-206.

Wyon, D.P., Individual control at each workplace: the means and the potential benefits. Creating the productive workplace, 2000: p. 192-206.

Yamakawa, K., K. Watabe, M. Inanuma, K. Sakata, and H. Takeda, A study on the practical use of a task and ambient lighting system in an office. Journal of Light & Visual Environment, 2000. 24(2): p. 15-18.

Yang, B., S. Sekhar, and A.K. Melikov, Ceiling‐mounted personalized ventilation system integrated with a secondary air distribution system–a human response study in hot and humid climate. Indoor Air, 2010. 20(4): p. 309-319.

Yang, B., S. Sekhar, and A.K. Melikov, Ceiling‐mounted personalized ventilation system integrated with a secondary air distribution system–a human response study in hot and humid climate. Indoor Air, 2010. 20(4): p. 309-319.

Yang, B., T. Olofsson, F. Wang, and W. Lu, Thermal comfort in primary school classrooms: A case study under subarctic climate area of Sweden. Building and Environment, 2018. 135: p. 237-245.

Zeiler, W. and G. Boxem, Effects of thermal activated building systems in schools on thermal comfort in winter. Building and Environment, 2009. 44(11): p. 2308-2317.

Zhang, D. and P.M. Bluyssen, Actions of primary school teachers to improve the indoor environmental quality of classrooms in the Netherlands. Intelligent Buildings International, 2019. DOI:10.1080/17508975.2019.1617100.

Zhang, D., M.A. Ortiz, and P.M. Bluyssen, Clustering of Dutch school children based on their preferences and needs of the IEQ in classrooms. Building and Environment, 2019. 174: p. 258-266.

Zhang, D., M.A. Ortiz, and P.M. Bluyssen, Clustering of Dutch school children based on their preferences and

Zhang, H., E. Arens, and Y. Zhai, A review of the corrective power of personal comfort systems in non-neutral ambient environments. Building and Environment, 2015. 91: p. 15-41.

Zhang, H., E. Arens, and Y. Zhai, A review of the corrective power of personal comfort systems in non-neutral ambient environments. Building and Environment, 2015. 91: p. 15-41.

Zhang, H., E. Arens, D. Kim, E. Buchberger, F. Bauman, and C. Huizenga, Comfort, perceived air quality, and work performance in a low-power task–ambient conditioning system. Building and Environment, 2010. 45(1):p. 29-39.

Zhang, Y. and R. Zhao, Effect of local exposure on human responses. Building and Environment, 2007. 42(7): p. 2737-2745.

Zhang, Y. and R. Zhao, Effect of local exposure on human responses. Building and Environment, 2007. 42(7): p. 2737-2745.

Zhang, Y.F., D.P. Wyon, L. Fang, and A.K. Melikov, The influence of heated or cooled seats on the acceptable ambient temperature range. Ergonomics, 2007. 50(4): p. 586-600.

Zhang, Y.F., D.P. Wyon, L. Fang, and A.K. Melikov, The influence of heated or cooled seats on the acceptable ambient temperature range. Ergonomics, 2007. 50(4): p. 586-600.

Zhao, Z., Z. Zhang, Z. Wang, M. Ferm, Y. Liang, and D. Norbäck, Asthmatic symptoms among pupils in relation to winter indoor and outdoor air pollution in schools in Taiyuan, China. Environmental health perspectives, 2008. 116(1): p. 90-97.
How to Cite
ZHANG, Dadi. Individually controlled noise reducing devices to improve IEQ in classrooms of primary schools. A+BE | Architecture and the Built Environment, [S.l.], n. 10, p. 1-258, july 2020. ISSN 2214-7233. Available at: <https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/abe/article/view/5113>. Date accessed: 13 aug. 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.7480/abe.2020.10.5113.
Published
2020-07-10