PAS mathematical models to achieve alignment

  • Monique Arkesteijn TU Delft, Architecture and the Built Environment


The focus in this chapter is on the component mathematical models of PAS (see Figure 7.1 and Figure 7.2). PAS can only be performed if the system engineers are able to build a mathematical model of the problem situation for each of the pilot studies. In this chapter, I will show that the system engineers were able to do this for all three pilots.

Typically, a subset of the alternative is infeasible. When the feasible set of alternatives can be characterized mathematically, the PFM algorithm can search an optimal alternative within this set (either by an exhaustive search or by sampling, depending on the size of the feasible set). Otherwise, if a characterization of the feasible set is not available to the algorithm, the group decision makers – the stakeholders - can propose possible feasible alternatives for consideration. The algorithm can then rate these alternatives.

This chapter has the following structure:

–– TU Delft pilot for the food facilities in paragraph 7.1;

–– TU Delft pilot for lecture halls in paragraph 7.2;

–– Oracle’s pilot for office locations in paragraph 7.3;

–– Pilot comparison and conclusion in paragraph 7.4.

The mathematical models are explained for each of the pilots as follows: the model structure (first subparagraph), the model formulas (second subparagraph) and the optimization tool (third subparagraph).

Recall, that in step 5 alternatives are generated in two separate ways:

A The group of decision makers self-designs alternatives, use the design constraints to test the feasibility of the design alternatives, and use the PFM algorithm to yield an overall preference score of these feasible design alternatives;

B The system engineer generates feasible design alternatives and uses the PFM algorithm to find the feasible design alternative with the highest overall preference score.

The decision makers are able to design alternatives (step 5a) with the model that is explained in the first and second subparagraphs. The system engineer is able to generate alternatives (step 5b) with the optimization tool is, as is explained in the third subparagraph.

The mathematical models for the pilot studies have been built by the system engineer and the facilitator. The author had the role of the facilitator. The system engineer for the first pilot was Binnekamp, for the second pilot it was Valks with the aid of Barendse, and for the third pilot the system engineers were De Visser with the guidance of De Graaf. Valks and De Visser cooperated in this study as graduate students with the author as their main mentor and Binnekamp, Barendse and De Graaf as their second and/or third mentors.

Author Biography

Monique Arkesteijn, TU Delft, Architecture and the Built Environment

In 1993 Monique was one of the first four graduate students of the Faculty of Architecture's Master track "Bouwmanagement & Vastgoedbeheer", the current department of Management in the Built Environment (MBE), at the Delft University of Technology. She graduated with distinction on ‘productivity and real estate, privacy and communication in offices’ at the "Rijksgebouwendienst" (Central Government Real Estate Agency). Her drive for real estate management lies in her focus on people and processes, which has guided her in her entire professional life.

She worked four years as consultant for Starke Diekstra / Arcadis and was involved in building projects in the Netherlands and the Netherlands Antilles. From 1998 to 2000 Monique was senior real estate consultant and partner of Diephuis Stevens, where she worked on projects ranging from 20 to 1000 workplaces with investments up to 50 million euros. During this period she obtained an Executive Master of Business Administration degree at TSM Business School (1998 – 2000). After working in practice for seven years, Monique travelled the world, and spent years in India, Brasil and La Gomera, Spain.

Since 2003 Monique works as assistant professor Real Estate Management for the department of Management in the Built Environment (MBE). In the beginning she combined her work as assistant professor with freelance consultancy. From 2010 she focused full time on her work at university.

Monique is a passionate teacher and loves interactive teaching. She is responsible for the BSc (Bachelor) course on briefing (350+ students) and has coordinated the Real Estate Management MSc (Master) course for many years. Monique specializes in corporate real estate alignment and divides her work in three main areas: first and foremost her work is about a design and decision approach to CRE alignment.

Her aim is to enhance CRE alignment by combining heart and head, when designing corporate real estate solutions. Next to that, she worked amongst others with Chris Heywood from the University of Melbourne on a systematic comparison of CRE alignment models in theory. Together with colleagues and graduate students she studies how CRE alignment is done in practice.

From 2013 to 2018 she was head of the real estate management section at MBE. With professor Alexandra den Heijer, Monique leads the Campus Research Team. Next to her work on CRE alignment she has focused on alignment for municipal and educational real estate. During the last 10 years she coordinated and/or participated in the think tank ‘Envisioning the Faculty of the Future’ (2009), Campus vision 2030 TU Delft (2010), Ownership of museum real estate (2012), Campus NL (2016), Campus tools (2017 - ongoing), European campus (2019). Monique has published more than 30 journal papers and books and received an "Outstanding paper award" for the paper Designing a preference-based accommodation strategy: A pilot study at Delft University of Technology in 2016 from the Journal of Corporate Real Estate.

Besides TU Delft Monique regards CoreNet Global as her second work family. CoreNet Global is the world’s leading association for corporate real estate with more than 11.000 members. She served on the Global Board from 2015 to 2019 after being involved in the Benelux chapter board as member and chairwomen for many years. Recently, together with Jose Zwerink, Monique started the foundation We- Women-Cooperate (WWC), which strives for sustainable progress for Indian women. By connecting people, ideas & products, WWC brings affordable and sustainable energy to India, giving women room for economic development.

How to Cite
ARKESTEIJN, Monique. PAS mathematical models to achieve alignment. A+BE | Architecture and the Built Environment, [S.l.], n. 12, p. 277-300, nov. 2019. ISSN 2214-7233. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 25 feb. 2020. doi: