Passive cooling techniques

  • Xiaoyu Du TU Delft, Architecture and the Built Environment


Vernacular buildings are local buildings that have evolved overtime in one location to suit the local climate, culture and economy (Meir & Roaf, 2003). The construction of vernacular buildings uses locally available resources to address local needs. These kinds of structures evolve over time to reflect the environmental, cultural and historical context in which they exist (Coch, 1998). The building knowledge of this type of architecture is always handed down traditions and is thus more based on the knowledge achieved by trial and error and in this way handed down through the generations (Singh et al., 2009). Vernacular buildings are most often residential buildings. People have traditional lifestyles in vernacular buildings in virtually every climate in the world, from the Arctic circle to the tropics, in temperatures from below zero to over 40°C, and historically without the benefit of gas or electrically driven mechanized heating and cooling systems (Meir & Roaf, 2003).

After the emergence of modernist architecture, aided by the industrial revolution, vernacular buildings are seen to be in a state of decline and are frequently looked down upon, abandoned, neglected or actively demolished. Associated, by many at least, with an out-dated past and poverty, they are steadily replaced by architectural models that favour more modern, inter-national technologies, materials and forms (Oliver, 1997). It is assumed, as in international standards such as CENASO 7730 or ASHRAE 55, that people suffer less discomfort in very closely controlled conditions, then such vernacular buildings, along with modern passive buildings, cannot provide their occupants with ‘comfortable’ indoor climates (Santamouris, 2007). But nowadays, by the more and more important issues of energy consumption in building construction sectors, the continuity of the vernacular traditions is emphasized in academic research and building practice because of its climate-response, passive model and low-energy consumption. The principles that were used in traditional buildings can very well be implemented in modern buildings so as to produce “energy saving” buildings. If these principles are sensibly adopted in modern buildings, it should be possible to build sustainable buildings for the future (Shanthi Priya, Sundarraja, Radhakrishnan, & Vijayalakshmi, 2012). We can learn a lesson from the approach of the builders who acknowledged the interdependence of human beings, buildings and physical environment (Coch, 1998). A “new vernacular” can be developed, harnessing the types of low-tech solutions that are familiar to most of us from the vernacular, together with modern passive and active renewable energy technologies and strategies to reflect the new cultural, climatic and economic realities of the 21st century (Meir & Roaf, 2003).

Vernacular buildings have to adapt to the environment through low-tech methods. Changing building form and material is the most important technique to adapt to the environment to obtain the best comfortable living space, in another words, the environment deeply influenced building form design and material use. Fathy (1986) described the climate effect on building form generation in vernacular building as: “For example, the proportion of window to wall area becomes less as one moves toward the equator. In warm areas, people shun the glare and heat of the sun, as demonstrated by the decreasing size of the windows. In the subtropical and tropical zones, more distinctive changes in architectural form occur to meet the problems caused by excessive heat. In Egypt, Iraq, India, and Pakijstan, deep loggias, projecting balconies, and overhangs casting long shadows on the walls of buildings are found. Wooden or marble lattices fill large openings to subdue the glare of the sun while permitting the breeze to pass through. Such arrangements characterize the architecture of hot zones, and evoke comfort as well as aesthetic satisfaction with the visible endeavour of man to protect himself against the excessive heat”.

In recent years, a significant amount of research has looked specifically at environmental performance issues of vernacular architecture, including its thermal properties, energy consumption and resources (Foruzanmehr & Vellinga, 2011). Both qualitative and quantitative such as field measurements, field surveys, statistical methods, comparative study and computer simulation methods are used in the investigation of the performance of vernacular buildings. Professor Paul Oliver of Oxford University compiled the book “Dwellings: Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture” and published in 1997 with 4000 pages collection of research by over 750 authors from 80 countries. With two volumes categorized by climate and the ‘‘vernacular responses’’ of a plethora of cultures and another volume focused on materials, resources and production, it is the world’s foremost source for research in the area (Zhai & Previtali, 2010). Zhai and Previtali (2010) introduced an approach to categorizing distinct vernacular regions and evaluate energy performance of ancient vernacular homes as well as identify optimal constructions using vernacular building techniques. Chandel, Sharma, and Marwah (2016) reviewed the vernacular architecture features affecting indoor thermal comfort conditions and energy efficiency for adaptation in modern architecture to suit present day lifestyles. Singh et al. (2009) carried out a qualitative analysis on the vernacular buildings in north-east India. And Shanthi Priya et al. (2012) have conducted the qualitative and quantitative analysis to investigate the indoor environmental condition of a vernacular residential building in coastal region of Nagapatinam, India. Cardinale, Rospi, and Stefanizzi (2013) performed one experimental research on two types of vernacular buildings which lie in Southern Italy. Nguyen, Tran, Tran, and Reiter (2011) carried out an investigation on climate responsive design strategies of vernacular housing in Vietnam by a new research methodology which is adapted to the natural and social context of Vietnam. Ng and Lin (2012) analysed the microclimate of two Minangkabau vernacular houses in villages of Balimbing of Bukittinggi, Sumatra, Indonesia. Ali-Toudert, Djenane, Bensalem, and Mayer (2005) addressed the issue of outdoor thermal comfort in a hot and dry climate in relation to urban geometry. Beccali, Strazzeri, Germanà, Melluso, and Galatioto (2017) reviewed some models evaluating thermal comfort in natural ventilated vernacular buildings, based on adaptive approaches.

Borong et al. (2004) concluded that sun shading and insulation are of great importance while natural ventilation is just considered as an auxiliary approach for the design principles of the traditional Chinese vernacular dwellings, based on the field measurements of the thermal environment parameters and a long-term auto-recorder of the indoor and outdoor temperature at four typical traditional vernacular dwellings at Wannan area in summer. Bouillot (2008) studied six Chinese vernacular houses in different provinces and found that the value and the diversity of the Chinese housing stock is due to the combination of the specific structure of the Chinese eastern climates, which creates the contrast of cold-dry winters and hothumid summers, with the structure of the Ming t’ang, which contains the opposition of the yin and the yang. Liu et al. (2011)’s study interprets the characteristic of warm in winter and cool in summer in traditional Yaodong dwelling by measuring the indoor, outdoor and the wall’s temperatures in winter and summer. The results show that the Yaodong thick wall effectively damps the external temperature wave and keeps a steady inner surface temperature, are the chief causes of warm in winter and cool in summer in Yaodong. Gou et al. (2015) focused on a qualitative analysis of ancient dwellings located in the village of Xinye, in the hot summer and cold winter region of China. According to the analysis, the climate responsive strategies of the dwellings are mainly focused on natural ventilation, sun-shading and thermal insulation, illustrated by different building aspects such as the building location, building group layout and orientation, internal space arrangement, opening design, among other variables. Soflaei, Shokouhian, and Zhu (2017) investigated the potential of traditional courtyard houses in Iran and China in responding to environmental challenges alongside social norms over a long period of time. The social and environmental dimensions of the sustainability as well as the main elements of traditional courtyard houses in Iran and China were identified.

Because of the advantage of vernacular building using passive ways to achieve thermal comfort and energy efficiency as mentioned above, this research will start with the investigation of a Chinese vernacular buildings in chapter 4. The next part of the literature review is an overview of passive cooling techniques.


Al-Sallal, K. A., Al-Rais, L., & Dalmouk, M. B. (2013). Designing a sustainable house in the desert of Abu Dhabi. Renewable Energy, 49, 80-84. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2012.01.061

Al-Tamimi, N. A., & Fadzil, S. F. S. (2011). The Potential of Shading Devices for Temperature Reduction in High-Rise Residential Buildings in the Tropics. Procedia Engineering, 21, 273-282. doi:

Al_Sayed, K., Turner, A., Hillier, B., Iida, S., & Penn, A. (2014). Space Syntax Methodology (4 ed.). UCL, London: Bartlett School of Architecture.

AlAnzi, A., Seo, D., & Krarti, M. (2009). Impact of building shape on thermal performance of office buildings in Kuwait. Energy Conversion and Management, 50(3), 822-828. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2008.09.033

Aldawoud, A. (2008). Thermal performance of courtyard buildings. Energy and Buildings, 40(5), 906-910. doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2007.07.007

Aldawoud, A. (2013). The influence of the atrium geometry on the building energy performance. Energy and Buildings, 57, 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.10.038

Almeida, M., Maldonado, E., Santamouris, M., & Guarracino, G. (2005). The design of optimal openings. Natural Ventilation in the Urban Environment: Assessment and Design, 168-194.

Andreou, E. (2014). The effect of urban layout, street geometry and orientation on shading conditions in urban canyons in the Mediterranean. Renewable Energy, 63, 587-596. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2013.09.051

Appleton, J. (1975). The Experience of Landscape. London: John Wiley and Sons.

Asfour, O. S. (2010). Prediction of wind environment in different grouping patterns of housing blocks. [Article]. Energy and Buildings, 42(11), 2061-2069. doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2010.06.015

Balaras, C. A. (1996). The role of thermal mass on the cooling load of buildings. An overview of computational methods. Energy and Buildings, 24(1), 1-10. doi:

Beccali, M., Strazzeri, V., Germanà, M. L., Melluso, V., & Galatioto, A. (2017). Vernacular and bioclimatic architecture and indoor thermal comfort implications in hot-humid climates: An overview. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. doi:

Belusko, M., Bruno, F., & Saman, W. (2011). Investigation of the thermal resistance of timber attic spaces with reflective foil and bulk insulation, heat flow up. Applied Energy, 88(1), 127-137.

Benedikt, M. L. (1979). To take hold of space: isovists and isovist fields. Environment and planning B, 6, 47-65.

Berghauser-Pont, M., & Haupt, P. (2010). Spacematrix: space, density and urban form: NAi Publishers.

Berghauser Pont, M. Y., & Haupt, P. A. (2009). Space, density and urban form (doctoral thesis). Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands.

Borong, L., Gang, T., Peng, W., Ling, S., Yingxin, Z., & Guangkui, Z. (2004). Study on the thermal performance of the Chinese traditional vernacular dwellings in Summer. Energy and Buildings, 36(1), 73-79. doi: 10.1016/s0378-7788(03)00090-2

Bouillot, J. (2008). Climatic design of vernacular housing in different provinces of China. Journal of Environmental Management, 87(2), 287-299. doi:

Cardinale, N., Rospi, G., & Stefanizzi, P. (2013). Energy and microclimatic performance of Mediterranean vernacular buildings: The Sassi district of Matera and the Trulli district of Alberobello. Building and Environment, 59(0), 590-598. doi:

Chandel, S. S., Sharma, V., & Marwah, B. M. (2016). Review of energy efficient features in vernacular architecture for improving indoor thermal comfort conditions. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 65, 459-477. doi:

Chen, X., Zheng, B., & Fu, X. (2013). Actual Measurement Analysis of Lowering Temperature in Cooling Alley of Folk House. ARCHITECTURAL JOURNAL (in Chinese), 2, 4.

Chen, x., & Zhong, D. (2011). The principles of passive cooling alley and its inspiration. New Architecture (in Chinese), 3, 4.

Choi, A., Kim, Y., Oh, E., & Kim, Y. (2006). Application of the space syntax theory to quantitative street lighting design. Building and Environment, 41(3), 355-366. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.01.026

Choi, Y. (2013). Comparative Evaluation of Unit Layout Alternatives in Plan-Extension Remodeling of

Domestic Korean Apartment. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 12(2), 205-212.

Coch, H. (1998). Bioclimatism in vernacular architecture. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2(1-2), 67-87.

Dawes, M. J., & Ostwald, M. J. (2014). Prospect-Refuge theory and the textile-block houses of Frank Lloyd Wright: An analysis of spatio-visual characteristics using isovists. Building and Environment, 80, 228-240. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.05.026

Depecker, P., Menezo, C., Virgone, J., & Lepers, S. (2001). Design of buildings shape and energetic consumption. Building and Environment, 36, 627–635.

Dursun, P. (2007). Space Syntax in Architectural Design. Paper presented at the 6th International Space Syntax Symposium, İstanbul.

Evans, M. (1980). Housing, climate, and comfort. UK: Arch. Press Ltd..

Fabi, V., Andersen, R. V., Corgnati, S., & Olesen, B. W. (2012). Occupants’ window opening behaviour: A literature review of factors influencing occupant behaviour and models. Building and Environment, 58, 188-198. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.07.009

Fabi, V., Andersen, R. V., Corgnati, S. P., & Olesen, B. W. (2013). A methodology for modelling energy-related human behaviour: Application to window opening behaviour in residential buildings. Building Simulation, 6(4), 415-427. doi: 10.1007/s12273-013-0119-6

Fahmy, M., & Sharples, S. (2009). On the development of an urban passive thermal comfort system in Cairo, Egypt. Building and Environment, 44(9), 1907-1916. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2009.01.010

Fathy, H. (1986). Natural energy and vernacular architecture. United States: Chicago University Press

Fazia Ali-Toudert, Moussadek Djenane, Rafik Bensalem, & Mayer, H. (2005). Outdoor thermal comfort in the old desert city of Beni-Isguen Algeria. climate research, 28, 243-256.

Foruzanmehr, A., & Vellinga, M. (2011). Vernacular architecture: questions of comfort and practicability. [Article]. Building Research and Information, 39(3), 274-285. doi: 10.1080/09613218.2011.562368

Franz, G., & Wiener, J. M. (2008). From space syntax to space semantics: a behaviorally and perceptually oriented methodology for the efficient description of the geometry and topology of environment. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 35, 574-592.

Freewan, A. A. Y. (2014). Impact of external shading devices on thermal and daylighting performance of offices in hot climate regions. Solar Energy, 102, 14-30. doi:

Geetha, N. B., & Velraj, R. (2012). Passive cooling methods for energy efficient buildings with and without thermal energy storage - A review. [Review]. Energy Education Science and Technology Part a-Energy Science and Research, 29(2), 913-946.

Ghaffarianhoseini, A., Berardi, U., & Ghaffarianhoseini, A. (2015). Thermal performance characteristics of unshaded courtyards in hot and humid climates. Building and Environment, 87, 154-168. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.02.001

Giannopoulou, K., Santamouris, M., Livada, I., Georgakis, C., & Caouris, Y. (2010). The Impact of Canyon Geometry on Intra Urban and Urban: Suburban Night Temperature Differences Under Warm Weather Conditions. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 167(11), 1433-1449. doi: 10.1007/s00024-010-0099-8

Givoni, B. (1989). Urban design in different climates: World Meteorological Organization.

Givoni, B. (1994). Passive and low energy cooling of buildings. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold

Givoni, B. (1998). Effectiveness of mass and night ventilation in lowering the indoor daytime temperatures. Part I: 1993 experimental periods. Energy and Buildings, 28(1), 25-32. doi:

Gou, S., Li, Z., Zhao, Q., Nik, V. M., & Scartezzini, J.-L. (2015). Climate responsive strategies of traditional dwellings located in an ancient village in hot summer and cold winter region of China. Building and Environment, 86, 151-165. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.12.003

Hachem, C., Athienitis, A., & Fazio, P. (2011). Parametric investigation of geometric form effects on solar potential of housing units. Solar Energy, 85(9), 1864-1877. doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2011.04.027

Hillier, B. (1996). Space is the machine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hillier, B. (1999). The hidden geometry of deformed grids or, why space syntax works, when it looks as though it shouldn’t. Environment and Planning 26, 169-191.

Hillier, B. (2009). Spatial Sustainability in Cities Organic Patterns and Sustainable Forms. Paper presented at the The 7th International Space Syntax Symposium, Stockholm.

Hillier, B., Hanson, J., & Graham, H. (1987). Ideas are in things: an application of the space syntax method to discovering house genotypes. Environment and Planning 14, 363-385.

Hillier, B., & Shinichi, I. (2005). Network and Psychological Effects in Urban Movement. In G. C. Anthony & M. M. David (Eds.), Spatial Information Theory (pp. 475–490). Ellicottville: Springer.

Jeong, B., Jeong, J.-W., & Park, J. S. (2016). Occupant behavior regarding the manual control of windows in residential buildings. Energy and Buildings, 127, 206-216. doi:

Julienne, H. (1998). Decoding houses and homes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kleerekoper, L., van Esch, M., & Salcedo, T. B. (2012). How to make a city climate-proof, addressing the urban heat island effect. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 64(0), 30-38. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.06.004

Kolokotroni, M., & Aronis, A. (1999). Cooling-energy reduction in air-conditioned offices by using night ventilation. Applied Energy, 63(4), 241-253. doi:

Kubota, T., Miura, M., Tominaga, Y., & Mochida, A. (2008). Wind tunnel tests on the relationship between building density and pedestrian-level wind velocity: Development of guidelines for realizing acceptable wind environment in residential neighborhoods. Building and Environment, 43(10), 1699-1708. doi:

Lin, B., Tan, G., Wang, P., Song, L., Zhu, Y., & Zhai, G. (2002). Field study of thermal environment in Wannan traditional residential buildings in the summer. J Tsinghua Univ ( Sci & Tech ) (in Chinese), 42(8), 4.

Liu, J., Wang, L., Yoshino, Y., & Liu, Y. (2011). The thermal mechanism of warm in winter and cool in summer in China traditional vernacular dwellings. Building and Environment, 46(8), 1709-1715. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.02.012

Liu, J., Yao, R., Wang, J., & Li, B. (2012). Occupants’ behavioural adaptation in workplaces with non-central heating and cooling systems. Applied Thermal Engineering, 35, 40-54. doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.09.037

Liu, L., Lin, B., & Peng, B. (2015). Correlation analysis of building plane and energy consumption of high-rise office building in cold zone of China. Building Simulation, 8(5), 487-498. doi: 10.1007/s12273-015-0226-7

Liu, W., Zheng, Y., Deng, Q., & Yang, L. (2012). Human thermal adaptive behaviour in naturally ventilated offices for different outdoor air temperatures: A case study in Changsha China. Building and Environment, 50, 76-89. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.10.014

Marshall, S. (2005). Streets and Patterns. London and New York: Spon Press.

Marshall, S., & Çalişkan, O. (2011). A Joint Framework for Urban Morphology and Design. Built Environment, Volume 37(4), 409-426. doi:

Mazria, E. (1979). The Passive Solar Energy Book: A Complete Guide to Passive Solar Home, Greenhouse and Building Design. Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale Press.

Meir, I., & Roaf, S. (2003). Between Scylla and Charibdis: In search of the suatainable design paradigm between vernacular and high-tech. Paper presented at the PLEA, Santiago, Chile.

Muhaisen, A. S. (2006). Shading simulation of the courtyard form in different climatic regions. Building and Environment, 41(12), 1731-1741. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.07.016

Muhaisen, A. S., & Gadi, M. B. (2005). Mathematical model for calculating the shaded and sunlit areas in a circular courtyard geometry. Building and Environment, 40(12), 1619-1625. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2004.12.018

Muhaisen, A. S., & Gadi, M. B. (2006). Effect of courtyard proportions on solar heat gain and energy requirement in the temperate climate of Rome. Building and Environment, 41(3), 245-253. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.01.031

Ng, T. N., & Lin, H. T. (2012). Analysis on Microclimate and Construction of the Vernacular Architecture in Minangkabau of Sumatra, Indonesia. Paper presented at the Advanced Materials Research.

Nguyen, A.-T., Tran, Q.-B., Tran, D.-Q., & Reiter, S. (2011). An investigation on climate responsive design strategies of vernacular housing in Vietnam. Building and Environment, 46(10), 2088-2106. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.04.019

Niachou, K., Livada, I., & Santamouris, M. (2008). Experimental study of temperature and airflow distribution inside an urban street canyon during hot summer weather conditions. Part II: Airflow analysis. Building and Environment, 43(8), 1393-1403. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2007.01.040

Oliver, P. (1997). Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Pacheco, R., Ordonez, J., & Martinez, G. (2012). Energy efficient design of building: A review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(6), 3559-3573. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2012.03.045

Pasupathy, A., Velraj, R., & Seeniraj, R. (2008). Phase change material-based building architecture for thermal management in residential and commercial establishments. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12(1), 39-64.

Rajapaksha, I., Nagai, H., & Okumiya, M. (2003). A ventilated courtyard as a passive cooling strategy in the warm humid tropics. Renewable Energy, 28(11), 1755-1778. doi: 10.1016/s0960-1481(03)00012-0

Safarzadeh, H., & Bahadori, M. N. (2005). Passive cooling effects of courtyards. [Article]. Building and Environment, 40(1), 89-104. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2004.04.014

Sanaieian, H., Tenpierik, M., Linden, K. v. d., Mehdizadeh Seraj, F., & Mofidi Shemrani, S. M. (2014). Review of the impact of urban block form on thermal performance, solar access and ventilation. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 38, 551-560. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.06.007

Santamouris, M. (Ed.). (2007). Advances in Passive Cooling. London: Earthscan.

Santamouris, M., & Asimakopoulos, D. (1996). Passive cooling of buildings. London: James and James

Santamouris, M., & Kolokotsa, D. (2013). Passive cooling dissipation techniques for buildings and other structures: The state of the art. [Review]. Energy and Buildings, 57, 74-94. doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.11.002

Santamouris, M., Sfakianaki, A., & Pavlou, K. (2010). On the efficiency of night ventilation techniques applied to residential buildings. Energy and Buildings, 42(8), 1309-1313. doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2010.02.024

Shanthi Priya, R., Sundarraja, M. C., Radhakrishnan, S., & Vijayalakshmi, L. (2012). Solar passive techniques in the vernacular buildings of coastal regions in Nagapattinam, TamilNadu-India – a qualitative and quantitative analysis. Energy and Buildings, 49, 50-61. doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.09.033

SHARPLES, S., & BENSALEM, R. (2001). Airflow in courtyard and atrium buildings in the urban environment A wind tunnel study. Solar Energy, 70(3), 237–244.

Shaviv, E. (1981). The influence of the orientation of the main solar glazing on the total energy consumption of a building. Solar Energy, 26, 453-454.

Singh, M. K., Mahapatra, S., & Atreya, S. K. (2009). Bioclimatism and vernacular architecture of north-east India. Building and Environment, 44(5), 878-888. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2008.06.008

Soflaei, F., Shokouhian, M., Abraveshdar, H., & Alipour, A. (2017). The impact of courtyard design variants on shading performance in hot- arid climates of Iran. Energy and Buildings, 143, 71-83. doi:

Soflaei, F., Shokouhian, M., & Zhu, W. (2017). Socio-environmental sustainability in traditional courtyard houses of Iran and China. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 69, 1147-1169. doi:

Taleghani, M., Tenpierik, M., & van den Dobbelsteen, A. (2014). Energy performance and thermal comfort of courtyard/atrium dwellings in the Netherlands in the light of climate change. Renewable Energy, 63, 486-497. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2013.09.028

Taleghani, M., Tenpierik, M., van den Dobbelsteen, A., & de Dear, R. (2013). Energy use impact of and thermal comfort in different urban block types in the Netherlands. Energy and Buildings, 67, 166-175. doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.08.024

Taleghani, M., Tenpierik, M., van den Dobbelsteen, A., & Sailor, D. J. (2014). Heat in courtyards: A validated and calibrated parametric study of heat mitigation strategies for urban courtyards in the Netherlands. Solar Energy, 103, 108-124. doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2014.01.033

Tang, M. (2002). Solar control for buildings. Building and Environment, 37, 659–664.

Turner, A. (2001). Depthmap a program to perform visibility graph analysis. Paper presented at the 3rd International Space Syntax Symposium, Atlanta.

Valladares-Rendón, L. G., Schmid, G., & Lo, S.-L. (2017). Review on energy savings by solar control techniques and optimal building orientation for the strategic placement of façade shading systems. Energy and Buildings, 140, 458-479. doi:

Visagavel, K., & Srinivasan, P. S. S. (2009). Analysis of single side ventilated and cross ventilated rooms by varying the width of the window opening using CFD. Solar Energy, 83(1), 2-5. doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2008.06.004

Wang, W., Rivard, H., & Zmeureanu, R. (2006). Floor shape optimization for green building design. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 20(4), 363-378. doi: 10.1016/j.aei.2006.07.001

Yang, X., Li, Y., & Yang, L. (2012). Predicting and understanding temporal 3D exterior surface temperature distribution in an ideal courtyard. Building and Environment, 57, 38-48. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.03.022

Yang, Z., Li, X. H., & Hu, Y. F. (2006). Study on solar radiation and energy efficiency of building glass system. Applied Thermal Engineering, 26(8-9), 956-961. doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2005.06.012

Yi, Y. K., & Malkawi, A. M. (2009). Optimizing building form for energy performance based on hierarchical geometry relation. Automation in Construction, 18(6), 825-833. doi: 10.1016/j.autcon.2009.03.006

Yin, W., Zhang, G., Yang, W., & Wang, X. (2010). Natural ventilation potential model considering solution multiplicity, window opening percentage, air velocity and humidity in China. Building and Environment, 45(2), 338-344. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2009.06.012

Zhai, Z., & Previtali, J. M. (2010). Ancient vernacular architecture: characteristics categorization and energy performance evaluation. Energy and Buildings, 42(3), 357-365. doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2009.10.002

Zhang, A., Gao, C., & Zhang, L. (2005). Numerical simulation of the wind field around different building arrangements. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 93(12), 891-904. doi:

Author Biography

Xiaoyu Du, TU Delft, Architecture and the Built Environment

Xiaoyu Du obtained his MSc in Building Technology at Chongqing University, China. From 2002 to present, he taught at the department of building technology, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Chongqing University. He is an associate professor in Chongqing university currently. He has a long experience of teaching in multidisciplines related to architectural design and designing practice. He teaches complex building design, building construction, detailed design and green building innovation related technologies for undergraduate and graduate students. He participated and finished some education and research projects, and published papers and book chapters. He also finished many design projects for residential communities and public buildings in China. He joined the faculty of architecture and the built environment, TU Delft as a guest researcher in 2011.


How to Cite
DU, Xiaoyu. Passive cooling techniques. A+BE | Architecture and the Built Environment, [S.l.], n. 10, p. 60-100, nov. 2019. ISSN 2214-7233. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 07 aug. 2020. doi: