Design with forms as well as patterns

  • Jiaxiu Cai TU Delft, Architecture and the Built Environment


The research investigates How can the morphological approach in combination with the pattern language approach assist urban designers to achieve historical continuity in urban design both on theory and application levels.

This research overviews the developments and applications of the two approaches worldwide with a special emphasis on the Dutch school. The Dutch morphological reduction technique and the Dutch interpretation of a pattern language are used in the case study—Wuhan, a Chinese city—to study the transformation of urban form and lifestyle. The multi-scalar historical morphological analysis results in an atlas that consists of four series of analytical maps on three levels of scale as well as 13 spatial structuring elements of the city; whereas the public life study results in a pattern book consisting of 20 individual patterns and three pattern languages. The practical implications and relevance for -- the design of -- the future of the city are discussed.

The research is set up in a systematic and symmetrical manner for comparison of and reflection on the two approaches. It concludes that:

  1. The morphological approach can be used to interpret first space (perceived space) and convey its information into second space (conceived space), whereas the pattern language approach can be used to interpret third space (lived space) and convey its information into second space (conceived space).
  2. The morphological approach has a tendency to work from large scale to small scale and the pattern language approach tends to be built up from small scale to large scale, whereas urban design works with multiple scales at the same time.
  3. The morphological approach and the pattern language approach provide means for urban designers to systematically recognize historical layers so as to distil the meaning in the physical and non-physical contexts respectively. Consirately adding another layer that contains the contemporary meaning (design intervention) to these recognized layers is the way to pass down and simultaneously generate incremental change in the tradition of the context. This results in historical continuity and thus in permanence in urban design.
  4. The morphological approach, the pattern language approach, and urban design are processes in themselves and can be combined into one integrated process.
  5. The morphological approach, the pattern language approach and urban design are characterized by reduction, abstraction, interpretation, and communication.
  6. Some properties of the two approaches can be seen as counterparts because the roles these properties play in the design process tend to be similar:
  • Individual homogeneous areas vs Individual patterns;
  • Structural homogeneous areas vs Anchoring points/ Structuring patterns;
  • Secondary connections in homogeneous areas vs Linkages between patterns;
  • ? / Typology of homogeneous areas vs Clusters of patterns.


Alexander, C. (1979). The timeless way of building. Oxford University Press.

Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., Silverstein, M., Jacobson, M., Fiksdahl-King, I., & Angel, S. (1977). A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. Oxford University Press.

Banham, R. (1976). Megastructure: Urban Futures of the Recent Past. Harper and Row.

Bekkering, H. (2001). Meaning and Tradition. In A. D. Graafland (Ed.), Cities in Transition. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers.

Bekkering, H. (2006). Cultuurhistorie en Stedenbouwkundig Ontwerp [Cultural History and Urban Planning]. In H. Meyer & L. van den Burg (Eds.), Geheugen Van De Stad [The Memory of the City]. Nijmegen.

Bekkering, H.C. On Permanence in Urban Design. In H.C. Bekkering, D. Hauptmann and others (Eds.), The Architecture Annual 2006-2007. Delft University of Technology. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers 2007.

Bekkering, H. (2013). On Permanence in Urban Design. Presented at the 10th China Urban Housing Conference, Shanghai.

Bekkering, H. C. (2014). Designerly Ways of Urban Thinking. Retrieved from

Bekkering, H., & LIU, Y. (2015). Mapping Detroit “The City of Holes.” In J. M. Thomas & H. Bekkering (Eds.), Mapping Detroit Land, Community, and Shaping a City (pp. 27–48). Wayne State University Press.

Bhatt, R. (2010). Christopher Alexander’s pattern language: an alternative exploration of space-making practices. The Journal of Architecture, 15(6), 711–729.

Bijhouwer, R. (2008). Introduction. In T. Avermaete, P. Avidar, D. de Bruijn, J. Declerck, C. Grafe, K. Havik, A. Holtrop, J. La-gae, R. Molendijk, L. Schrijver, & M. Stuhlmacher (Eds.), OASE 75 (pp. 18). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: NAi Publishers.

Braudel, F. (1949). La Méditerranée et le monde méditerranéen à l’époque de Philippe II [The Mediterranean and the Medi-terranean World in the Age of Philip II]. Paris, France: Armand Colin.

Bruin, A. V. (2010). Future Proofing Late Post-War Neighbourhoods. Delft University of Technology, Delft. Retrieved from uuid:02f67e62-d228-492b-af2b-67bd878f6111

Buchanan, P. (1988). What City? A Plea for Place in the Public Realm. Architectural Review, 184(1101), 31–41.

Buchanan, P. (1997) A lecture talk in the symposium of ‘The New Urban Agenda for Urban Design’, October 1996, Depart-ment of Environment, cited in Cowan, R. (1997) The new urban agenda. Urban Design Quarterly, 63, pp. 18–23.

Bullock, A., & Stallybrass, O. (1988). The Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought.

CAI, J., & LI, M. (2012). A Study on the Alley in the “LiFen” Residential Areas in Hankow Historical Colonies, Take the Histor-ical British Colony as an Example. Presented at the ISUF Conference, Delft.

CAI, J. (2015). Thinking in Forms as Well as Patterns. Presented at the Future of Places III. Retrieved from

Castex, J., Céleste, P., & Panerai, P. (1980). Lecture d'une Ville: Versailles [Reading a City: Versailles]. Paris, France: Le Moniteur.

Castex, J., & Panerai, P. (1982). Prospects for Typomorphology. Lotus International, 36, 94–99.

Chen, F., & Thwaites, K. (2018). Chinese Urban Design: The Typomorphological Approach. Routledge.

Chen, Z. (2010). The Production of Urban Public Space Under Chinese Market Economic Reform- a Case Study of Shenzen. The University of Hong Kong.

China Academy of Urban Planning & Design. (2013). Wuhan 2049 Strategic Vision.

China's State Council. (2010). Hubei Yangtze River Economic Zone Development Plan.

China's State Council. (2014). Yangtze River Economic Zone Integrated Transport Corridor Planning (2014–2020).

China's State Council. (2015). Development Plan of the Urban Agglomeration in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River.

Childs, M. C. (2010). A spectrum of urban design roles. Journal of Urban Design, 15(1), 1–19.

CHU, D. (2012). ùÃ兰îÜÚË码£ºËïõè师视å¯ù»îÜàòã¼与设计 [Enigmatic Code of the Netherlands: Cities, Architecture and De-sign Through an Architects Vision]. Beijing: ñé国ËïõèÍï业õó÷úÞä [China Architecture & Building Press].

Conzen, M. R. G. (1958). The Growth and Character of Whitby. In G. H. J. Daysh (Ed.), A Survey Of Whitby And The Surround-ing Area. Stratford-on-Avon, United Kingdom: The Shakespeare Head Press.

Conzen, M. R. G. (1960). Alnwick, Northumberland. A Study in Town-Plan Analysis. London, United Kingdom: George Philip & Son.

Cross, N. (2007). Forty years of design research. Design Studies, 28(1), 1–4.

Cullen, G. (1961). The Concise Townscape. New York, United States of America: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.

Curry, T. (2014). A theoretical basis for recommending the use of design methodologies as teaching strategies in the design studio. Design Studies, 35(6), 632–646.

Curry, T. M. (2017). Form Follows Feeling: The Acquisition of Design Expertise and the function of Aesthesis in the Design Process, 1–272.

Çaliskan, O. (2012). Design thinking in urbanism: Learning from the designers. Urban Design International, 17(4), 272–296.

Çalişkan, O. (2013). Pattern formation in urbanism: A critical reflection on urban morphology, planning and design. A+BE | Architecture and the Built Environment.

De Hoog, M. (2005). 4 x Amsterdam: Ontwerpen aan de Stad [4 x Amsterdam: Design to the City]. Bussum, The Nether-lands: THOTH.

De Jong, T. M., & Van der Voordt, D. J. M. (Eds.). (2002). Ways to Study and Research (pp. 1–560). DUP Science (an imprint of Delft University Press).

Deleuze, G. (2004). Difference and Repetition. A&C Black.

DENG, X. (2006). 汉ïáʶ传统ʶ区ÐÀ间环ÌÑú¼为研ϼ [Environment-Behavior Studies on the Interspaces in Traditional Area of Hanzheng Jie of Wuhan City] (Master thesis). Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan.

DONG, J. (2010). China City Construction History. Beijing, P.R. China: Architecture & Building Press.

DONG, X. (1929). Wuhan Special City Planning Guideline. Beijing, P.R. China: National Government.

Dorst, K. (2011). The Core of ‘Design Thinking’ and its Application. Design Studies, 32(6), 521–532.

Dorst, K. (2013). Academic Design. Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Dorst, K. (2015a). Frame Creation and Design in the Expanded Field. She Ji: The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innova-tion, 1(1), 22–33.

Dorst, K. (2015b). Frame Innovation - Create New Thinking by Design. Boston, United States of America: MIT Press.

Dorst, K., & Cross, N. (2001). Creativity in the Design Process: Co-Evolution of Problem–Solution. Design Studies, 22(5), 425–437.

Dovey, K. (1990). The pattern language and its enemies. Design Studies, 11(1), 3–9.

Duan, J., & Qiu, G. (2008). 国èâàòã¼û¡态学研ϼîÜ兴ÑÃ与发î÷[The Emergence and Development of Overseas Urban Mor-phology Study]. àòã¼规划学ÊÊ[Urban Planning Forum], 10(5), 34–42.

Engel, H. (1978). Typologie en morfologie van de Dapperbuurt [Typology and morfology of the Dapperbuurt]. Internal publication of the faculty of Architecture, Delft.

Erickson, B., & Lloyd-Jones, T. (2013). Design Problems. In M. Roberts & C. Greed (Eds.), Approaching Urban Design (pp. 3–7). Routledge.

FAN, K. (1823). Hankou essays.

Fortier, B. (1989). La Métropole Imaginaire; un Atlas de Paris [The Imaginary Metropolis; an Atlas of Paris]. Brussels, Bel-gium: Mardaga.

Fosso, M., Andreotti, A., & Palmboom, F. (2014). Frits Palmboom: Inspiration and Process in Architecture. Milan, Italy: Moleskine.

Fried, M. (1963). Grieving for a Lost Home. In L. J. Duhl (Ed.), The Urban Condition (pp. 151–171). New York.

Geurtsen, R. (1981). De Stad - Object van Bewerking [The City - Object of Adaptation]. Delft, The Netherlands: TU Delft.

Geurtsen, R. (1988). Locatie Zuidpoort Delft. Stadsmorfologische Atlas [Location Southgate Delft. Atlas of Urban Morphol-ogy]. The Netherlands: Delft University Press.
Geurtsen, R., & De Hoog, M. (1981). Stad in Stolling [City in Fixation]. In U. Barbieri, R. Bijhouwer, A. Devolder, S. Gall, A. van Hattum, H. Kuiper, M. Lampe, J. Nycolaas, & W. Wang (Eds.), Stedebouw in Rotterdam [Urbanism in Rotterdam] (pp. 99–115). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Van Gennep.

Geurtsen, R. and L. Bos (1981). Kopenhagen, dubbelstad. Een bewerkte reisindruk [Copenhagen, double city. An edited trav-el impression] In: Wonen-TA\BK (10-12).

Geurtsen, R., Leupen, B., & Tjalling, S. (1990). Werkboek Landschapskunde, Architectuur, Stedebouw [Workbook Landscape Science, Architecture, Urbanism]. Delft, The Netherlands: TU Delft.

Geurtsen, R., Verhees, J., & Burgerová, L. (2009). History of European Urbanism from Netherlands Perspective. Prague, Czech Republic: České vysoké učení technické - Fakulta architektury {Czech Technical University - Faculty of Architecture].

Gilroy, R. (2012). Physical Threats to Older People’s Social Worlds: Findings from a Pilot Study in Wuhan, China. Environ-ment and Planning A, 44(2), 458–476.

Goldschmidt, G. (1991). The dialectics of sketching. Creativity Research Journal, 4(2), 123–143.

GONG, L. (2006). 汉ïáʶ֪ͧ研ϼñýÊ¥Ëï楼ð¬ [Monographs on the Social Spatiality of Hanzheng Jie Area of Wuhan City, Staircases of Spontaneous Settlements] (Master thesis). Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan.

Gottdiener, M. (1994). The Social Production of Urban Space. University of Texas Press.

Gourley, J. (2015). CCTV – Headquarters. Retrieved from

Green, T. A. (1997). Folklore: An Encyclopedia of Beliefs, Customs, Tales, Music, and Art. ABC-CLIO.

Gunder, M. (2011). Commentary: Is urban design still urban planning? an exploration and response. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 31(2), 184–195.

Haken, H., & Portugali, J. (1996). Synergetics, Inter-Representation Networks and Cognitive Maps. In The Construction of Cognitive Maps (Vol. 32, pp. 45–67). Dordrecht: Springer, Dordrecht.

Hankou City Construction Works Bureau. (1936). Hankow Metropolitan Planning.

Harvey, D. (1991). Afterword. In The Production of Space (pp. 425–434). Blackwell.

Harvey, D. (2006). Spaces of Global Capitalism: A Theory of Uneven Geographical Development. New York, United States of America: Verso.

He, S., Wu, F., Webster, C., & Liu, Y. (2010). Poverty Concentration and Determinants in China’s Urban Low-income Neigh-bourhoods and Social Groups. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 34(2), 328–349.

Hee, L., Boontharm, D., & Viray, E. (Eds.). (2012). Future Asian Space: Projecting the Urban Space of New East Asia. Singa-pore: NUS Press.

Heizō , I., & Wallacker, B. E. (1979). Chinese walled cities: a collection of maps from Shina Jōkaku no Gaiyō. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.

Heng, C.K. (1999). Cities of Aristocrats and Bureaucrats: The Development of Medieval Chinese Citiescapes. Singapore: NUS Press.

Heng, C. K., Low, B. L., & Hee, L. (Eds.). (2010). On Asian Streets and Public Space. Singapore: Ridge Books.

Hinse, T. (2014). The Morphology of the Times: European Cities and their Historical Growth. Berlin, Germany: DOM Pub-lishers.
The Historical Atlas of Wuhan. (1998). Wuhan, P.R. China: SinoMaps Press.

Hooimeijer, F. (2014). The Making of Polder Cities. Japsam Books.

Hooimeijer, F. L. (2011). The Tradition of Making: Polder Cities.

Houkes, W., Vermaas, P. E., Dorst, K., & De Vries, M. J. (2002). Design and Use as Plans: An Action-Theoretical Account. De-sign Studies, 23(3), 303–320.

HUANG, Y. (2008). 汉ïáʶ֪ͧ研ϼñý×â发ïÁ [Monographs on the Social Spatial of Hanzheng Jie Area of Wuhan City: Barber Shop] (Master thesis). Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan.

HUO, B. (2006). 汉ïáʶ֪ͧ研ϼñý诊ᶠ[Monographs on the Social Spatiality of Hanzheng Jie Area of Wuhan City: Clinic] (Master thesis). Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan.

Ibelings, H. (2009). Geschiedenis [History]. In H. Ibelings, & V. van Rossem (Eds.), De nieuwe traditie: Continuïteit en verni-euwing in de Nederlandse architectuur [The new tradition: Continuity and renewal in Dutch architecture] (pp. 235–270). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: SUN.

Ingalls, J. (2017). Architecture majors work the hardest in college, study reveals. Retrieved from

Johnson, J. (2015). Embracing design in complexity. In K. Alexiou, J. Johnson, & T. Zamenopoulos (Eds.), Embracing Complexity in Design (pp. 193-216). Oxford, United Kingdom: Routledge.

KAPLAN, J. (2017). Ranked: The most sleep-deprived college majors in America. Retrieved from

Karimnia, E. (2018). Producing Publicness. Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology.

Karthaus, M. (2008). Plan Analysis & Design Legitimation. In T. Avermaete, P. Avidar, D. de Bruijn, J. Declerck, C. Grafe, K. Havik, A. Holtrop, J. Lagae, R. Molendijk, L. Schrijver, & M. Stuhlmacher (Eds.), OASE 75 (pp. 19–31). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: NAi Publishers.

King, I. F. (1993). Christopher Alexander and contemporary architecture. A+U Publishing Company.

Koster, E. (2001). Stadsmorfologie, een proeve van vormgericht onderzoek ten behoeve van stedenbouwhistorisch onderzoek [Urban morphology, a test of form-oriented research for urban archaeological research]. Unpublished PhD thesis, Rijksuniversiteit, Groningen.

Kuiper, J. A. (1991). Visueel & Dynamisch: De Stedebouw van Granpré Molière en Verhagen 1915-1950 [Visual & Dynam-ic: The Urbanism of Granpré Molière and Verhagen 1915-1950]. Delft, The Netherlands: Publikatieburo Bouwkunde.

Kunzmann, K. (2017). A Personal (European) Glance on Urban Development Policies in China. Urban Planning Interna-tional, 32(6), 1–4.

Lang, J. T. (1985). Programs, Paradigms, Architecture, City Planning, and Urban Design:. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 5(1), 26–27.

Lawson, B. (2006). How Designers Think: The Design Process Demystified. Architectural Press.

Lefebvre, H. (1970). La Révolution Urbaine [The Urban Revolution]. Paris, France: Gallimard.

Lefebvre, H. (1979). Space: social production and use value. In Critical Sociology: European Perspectives. Halsted Press.

Lefebvre, H. (1991). The Production of Space. Blackwell.

Leupen, B., Grafe, C., Körnig, N., Lampe, M., & De Zeeuw, P. (1997). Design and Analysis. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers.

LI, X. (1993). Meaning of the site: a holistic approach towards site analysis on behalf of the Development of a design tool based on a comparative case-study between FengShui and Kevin Lynch's system. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

LI, X. (2002). The aesthetic of the absent The Chinese conception of space. The Journal of Architecture, 7(1), 87–101.

LI, X. (2010). Rationale of Form. London, United Kingdom: RIBA.

Li, X. (2018). Residents’ Perceptions of Impending Forced Relocation in Urban China.

Li, X., Kleinhans, R., & van Ham, M. (2017). Shantytown Redevelopment Projects: State-led Redevelopment of Declining Neighbourhoods under Market Transition in Shenyang, China. Cities, 73, 106–116.

LI, X., & Yeo, K. S. (1991). Chinese Conception of Space. Beijing, P.R. China: China Architecture & Building Press.

LI, X., & Yeo, K. S. (2002). The Propensity of Chinese Space: Architecture in the Novel Dream of the Red Chamber. Tradition-al Dwellings and Settlements Review, 13(2), 49–62.

LI, Y., YANG, P., & TANG, B. (1989). Wuhan 1949-1989. Wuhan, P.R. China: Wuhan Press.

Liu, Y., & Wu, F. (2006). Urban Poverty Neighbourhoods: Typology and Spatial Concentration Under China’s Market Transi-tion, a Case Study of Nanjing. Geoforum, 37(4), 610–626.

LONG, Y. (2006). 汉ïáʶ--ìé个Þªïá规àõàòã¼ [Hanzhengjie: an Informal City]. 时”ÛËïõè [Time+Architecture], (3).

Longhurst, R. (2010). Semi-structured Interviews and Focus Groups Cli ord. In: Cli ord, N., French, S. Valentine, G. Key methods in Geography. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

Lootsma, B. (2000). Super Dutch: New Architecture in the Netherlands. Princeton Architectural Press.

Lugten, M. (2014). Re-Sil(I)Ence:Design Patterns for an Aircraft Noise Abating Spatial Environment.

Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of the City. Cambridge, United States of America: The M.I.T. Press.

MA, Z. (2009). ìíßÈßæüÀ视å¯ù»îÜ‘´ã¼Íö间研ϼ£ºì¤Ùë汉汉ïáʶ为ÖÇ [The Research on Urban Space from the Perspective of Everyday Life – A Case Study on HanZheng Jie of Wuhan] (Doctoral dissertation). Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan.

Mangin, D., & Panerai, P. (1999). Projet Urbain [Urban Project]. Marseille, France: Editions Parenthèses.

Manzo, L. C., Kleit, R. G., & Couch, D. (2008). “Moving Three Times Is Like Having Your House on Fire Once”: the Experience of Place and Impending Displacement Among Public Housing Residents. Urban Studies, 45(9), 1855–1878.

Marshall, S., & Çalişkan, O. (2011). A Joint Framework for Urban Morphology and Design. Built Environment, 37(4), 409–426.

McHarg, I. (1969). Design with Nature. New York, United States of America: Garden City.

Mehaffy, M. W. (2007). Notes on the genesis of wholes: Christopher Alexander and his continuing influence. Urban Design International, 12(1), 41–49.

Merrifield, A. (1993). Place and Space: A Lefebvrian Reconciliation. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 18(4), 516–531.

Meyer, H. (1999). City and Port: Transformation of Port Cities. London, Barcelona, New York and Rotterdam. Utrecht, The Netherlands: International Books.

Meyer, H. (2002). Plan Analysis. In T. M. de Jong, & D. J. M. van der Voordt (Reds.), WAYS to study and research urban, ar-chitectural and technical design (pp. 125–136). Delft, The Netherlands: DUP Science.

Meyer, H. (2003). Transformaties van het Verstedelijkt Landschap: Het Werk van Palmboom & Van den Bout [Transfor-mations of the Urbanized Landscape: The Work of Palmboom & Van den Bout]. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: SUN.

Meyer, H. (2016). The City of the Future; the Future of Urbanism [Video file]. Retrieved from

Meyer, H., de Josselin de Jong, F., & Hoekstra, M. J. (2009). Het Ontwerp van de Openbare Ruimte [The Design of the Public Space]. Amsterdam: Boom Uitgevers Amsterdam.

Meyer, H., & Van der Burg, L. (2005). Inleiding [Introduction]. In V. J. Meyer, & L. Van der Burg (Eds.), In Dienst van de Stad [Working in the City] (pp. 6–8). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: SUN.

Meyer, H., & Van den Burg, L. (2006). Inleiding [Introduction]. In H. Meyer, & L. van den Burg (Eds.), Het Geheugen van de Stad [The Memory of the City] (pp. 6–9). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: SUN.

MOHURD. (2013). Jie du’Guowuyuan Jiakuai Peng-hu-qu Gaizao Gongzuo de Yijian (Decoding the suggestions on accelerat-ing the redevelopment of the shantytowns from the state council). Retrieved August 22, 2018, from

Moudon, A. V. (1989). Built for Change: Neighborhood Architecture in San Francisco. Cambridge, United States of America: The MIT Press.

Moudon, A. V. (1994). Getting to know the built landscape: typomorphology. In K. A. Franck & L. H. Schneekloth (Eds.), Ordering space (pp. 289–311).

Moudon, A. V. (1997). Urban Morphology as an Emerging Interdisciplinary Field. Urban Morphology, (1), 3–10.

Moudon, A. V. (2003). A Catholic Approach to Organizing what Urban Designers Should Know. In A. R. Cuthbert (Ed.), De-signing Cities: Critical Readings in Urban Design (pp. 362–386). Oxford: Blackwell.

Muratori, S. (1960) Studi per una Operante Storia Urbana di Venezia [Studies for an Active Urban History of Venice]. Rome, Instituto poligrafico dello Stato.

Ouroussoff, N. (2011, July 13). Koolhaas, Delirious in Beijing. The New York Times, p. C1. New York.

Palmboom, F. (1987) Rotterdam, verstedelijkt landschap [Rotterdam, urbanized landscape]. The Netherlands, Rotterdam: Uitgeverij 010.

Palmboom, F. (2018). IJsselmeer: A spatial perspective. Nijmegen, The Netherlands: Vantilt Publishers.

Palmboom, F., & Thomaes, S. (2010). Drawing the Ground-Landscape Urbanism Today: The Work of Palmbout Urban Landscapes. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser.

Panerai, P. (2008). Paris Métropole, Formes et échelles du Grand Paris [Paris Metropolis, Forms and Scales of Greater Par-is]. Paris, France: La Villette.

Panerai, P., Castex, J., & Depaule, J. (1997). Formes Urbaines, de l’îlot à la Barre [Urban forms, from the island to the bar]. Marseille, France: Editions Parenthèses.

Panerai, P., Castex, J., Depaule, J., & Samuels, I. (2004). Urban Forms: The Death and Life of the Urban Block. Oxford, Unit-ed Kingdom: Architectural Press.

Panerai, P., Depaule, J., Demorgon, M., & Veyrenche, M. (1980). Eléments d'Analyse Urbaine [Elements of Urban Analysis]. Brussels, Belgium: Archives d'Architective Moderne.

Panerai, P., & Langé, L. (2001). Formes Urbaines, Tissus Urbains : Essai de Bibliographie Raisonnée, 1940-2000 [Urban Forms, Urban Tissues: A Reasoned Bibliography Essay, 1940-2000]. Paris, France: Direction generale de L’Urbanisme, de l”Habitat et de la Construction.

PI, M. (2006). Wuhan General History. Wuhan, P.R. China: Wuhan Press.

Pinzón Cortes, C. (2009, November 10). Mapping Urban Form. Delft University of Technology.

Popkin, S. J. (2010). A Glass Half Empty? New Evidence From the HOPE VI Panel Study. Housing Policy Debate, 20(1), 43–63.

Popkin, S. J., Levy, D. K., Harris, L. E., Comey, J., Cunningham, M. K., & Buron, L. F. (2004). The HOPE VI Program: What About the Residents? Housing Policy Debate, 15(2), 385–414.

Posthumus, H., & Kleinhans, R. (2013). Choice Within Limits: How the Institutional Context of Forced Relocation Affects Tenants’ Housing Searches and Choice Strategies. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 29(1), 105–122.

Protzen, J.-P. (1978). The Poverty of Pattern Language. Design Methods and Theories, 12(3), 194.

Protzen, J.-P., & Harris, D. J. (2010). The Universe of Design-Horst Rittel’s Theories of Design and Planning. Routledge.

QIAN, Y. (2006). 汉ïáʶ֪ͧ研ϼñýçé:ßæ产Íö间ÞÈ [Monographs on the Social Spatiality of Hanzheng Jie Area of Wuhan City, Serial No.5: History about the Development of Production Space] (Master thesis). Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan.

Qizhi, M., Yisheng, S., & Nan, S. (2017). The State of China’s Cities. China Architechture & Building Press.

Rino.xu (2015, July 15). [CCTV Headquarters]. Retrieved from

Roozenburg, N. F. M., & Eekels, J. (1995). Product Design: Fundamentals and Methods. New York, United States of Ameri-ca: Wiley.

Rosemont, H., & Ames, R. T. (2009). The Chinese Classic of Family Reverence: A Philosophical Translation of the Xiaojing. University of Hawai’i Press.

Rossi, A. (1982). The Architecture of the City. The MIT Press.

Rowe, C., & Koetter, F. (1978). Collage City. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Rowe, W. T. (1989). Hankow: Conflict and Community in a Chinese City, 1796-1895. Stanford, United States of America: Stanford University Press.

Salingaros, N. A. (2000). The structure of pattern languages. Architectural Research Quarterly, 4(02), 149-162.

Salustri, F. A., Eng, N. L., & Rogers, D. (2009). Designing as Balance-Seeking Instead of Problem-Solving. Design Principles and Practices: an International Journal—Annual Review, 3(3), 343–356.

Saunders, W. S. (2002). A Pattern Language by Christopher Alexander. Harvard Design Magazine, (16).

Schon, D. A., & Wiggins, G. (1992). Kinds of Seeing and Their Functions in Designing. Design Studies, 13(2), 135–156.

Schoonderbeek, M. G. H. (2015). Place-time discontinuities: Mapping in architectural discourse. Delft University of Tech-nology.

Schoonderbeek, M., Geerts, F., Patteeuw, V., & Declerck, J. (2008). Editorial. A Magazine of Neither. Twenty-Five Years of OA-SE. In T. Avermaete, P. Avidar, D. de Bruijn, J. Declerck, C. Grafe, K. Havik, A. Holtrop, J. Lagae, R. Molendijk, L. Schrijver, & M. Stuhlmacher (Eds.), OASE 75 (pp. 2–8). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: NAi Publishers.

Shils, E. (1983). Tradition. University of Chicago Press.

Sijmons, D., Venema, H., & Van Dooren, N. (2002). = Landscape. Amsterdam : Architectura + Natura.

Simon, H. A. (1969). The Sciences of the Artificial. Cambridge, United States of America: The MIT Press

Soja, E. W. (1996). Thirdspace: Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Real-and-Imagined Places. Wiley-Blackwell.

Steenhuis, M. (2007). Stedenbouw in het Landschap. Pieter Verhagen (1882 - 1950). [Urbanism in the Landscape. Pieter Verhagen (1882 - 1950)]. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: NAi Uitgevers.

Stevens, Q. (2007). The Ludic City: Exploring the Potential of Public Spaces.

TANG, L. (2010). Population, Space and Hankou Urban Development (1460–1930). Beijing, P.R. China: China Social Sci-ences Press.

The State Council of PRC. (2013). “The suggestions of the State Council on accelerating the slum clearance and upgrade pro-jects.” The State Council of PRC. Retrieved August 22, 2018, from

TU Delft. (n.d.). European Post-Master in Urbanism (EMU). Retrieved 2018, from

UCL. (n.d.). Urban Form and Formation. Retrieved from

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. (2017a). The Least Developed Countries Report 2017. Geneva: United Nations Publication.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. (2017b). World Investment Report 2017. Geneva: United Nations Publication.

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2018). 2018 Revision of World Urbanization Prospects. Popu-lation Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA). Retrieved from

Unwin, T. (2000). A Waste of Space? Towards a Critique of the Social Production of Space…. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 25(1), 11–29.

Urhahn, G., & Bobić, M. (1994). A pattern image: a typological tool for quality in urban planning. Thoth.

Vale, L. J. (1997). Empathological Places: Residents’ Ambivalence Towards Remaining in Public Housing. Journal of Plan-ning Education and Research, 16(3), 159–175.

van der Cammen, H. (1987). Nieuw Nederland 2050 [New Netherlands 2050]. Amsterdam: Stichting Nederland Nu Als Ontwerp.

van der Hoeven, C., & Louwe, J. (1985). Amsterdam Als Stedelijk Bouwwerk. Een Morfologische Analyse [Amsterdam as Ur-ban Building. A Morphological Analysis]. Nijmegen: SUN.

van de Ven, G. P. (2002). Man-Made Lowlands: History of Water Management and Land Reclamation in the Netherlands. Uitgeverij Matrijs.

van Dooren, E., Boshuizen, E., van Merrienboer, J., Asselbergs, T., & Van Dorst, M. (2014). Making explicit in design educa-tion: generic elements in the design process. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 24(1), 53–71.

van Dorst, M. (2006). Sustainable liveability: Privacy zoning as a physical condition for social sustainability. In A. Abdel-Hadi, M. K. Tolba, & S. Soliman (Eds.), Environment, Health, and Sustainable Development.

van Dorst, M. (Ed.). (2012). The Pattern Book (pp. 1–234). Delft University of Technology.

van Dorst, M. (Ed.). (2013). The Pattern Book (pp. 1–152). Delft University of Technology.

Venturi, R. (1966). Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture. New York, United States of America: Museum of Modern Art.

Venturi, R., Izenour, S., & Scott Brown, D. (1977). Learning from Las Vegas : The Forgotten Symbolism of Architectural Form. Cambridge, United States of America: The MIT Press.

Wall, E., & Waterman, T. (2010). Basics Landscape Architecture 01: Urban Design. AVA Publishing.

WANG, M. (2006). ãó体 , Íö间与ý¨现”Ûàõ [Body, Space and Postmodernity]. Ë°苏ìÑÚÅõó÷úÞä [Jiangsu People’s Publish-ing, LTD].

Whitehand, J. W. R. (1987). The Changing Face of Cities: A Study of Development Cycles and Urban Form. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishers.

Whitehand, J. W. R. (1990). Townscape Management: Ideal and Reality. In T. R. Slater, & M. R. G. Conzen (Eds.), The built form of western cities; essays for M.R.G. Conzen on the Occasion of his Eightieth Birthday (pp. 370–399). London, United Kingdom: Leicester University Press.

Whitehand, J. W. R. (2001). British Urban Morphology: the Conzenian Tradition. Urban Morphology, 5(2), 103–109.

Whyte, W.H. (1980). The social life of small urban spaces . Washington D.C., United States of America: Conservation Foun-dation.

WU, C., WANA, Q., & DONG, X. (2015). Development Plan of the Urban Agglomeration in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River. Journal of Hubei University of Economics, 13(4), 5–10.

WU, Z. (2009). Planning Wuhan – 100 Years. Beijing, P.R. China: China Architecture & Building Press.

Wuhan Geomatic Institute. (2014). 2014 Annual Blue Book of Wuhan Geographic Information. Wuhan, P.R. China

Wuhan Municipal Bureau of Statistics. (2014). Wuhan Economic and Social Development Statistics Bulletin. Wuhan, P.R. China.

Wuhan Planning & Design Institute. (2015). Three Lines and One Road, Protection Plan of the Third Batch of Lakes in Wu-han City. Wuhan, P.R. China.

Wuhan Urban Planning Administration. (1999). Wuhan City Planning Annals. Beijing, P.R. China: China Architecture & Building Press.

XIONG. L. (2019). Mapping a Urbanizing Delta: a cartographic exploration of spatial relationship in the Pearl River Del-ta. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Delft University of Technology, Delft.

XU, G., WANG, X. (1684). Huguang Annals. (Vol. 80). Hubei Kangxi Edition.

XU, W., LIU, Q. et al. (ed.). (2010). Images and Interpretation of Wuhan City History. Wuhan, P.R. China: Wuhan Publish-ing House.

YE, J. (2005). 汉ïáʶ֪ͧ研ϼñý죣º×µ动îÜßÂʶ£ºèâÝ»ßÂ业Íö间××éÄ状况研ϼ [Monographs on the Social Spatiality of Hanzheng Jie Area of Wuhan City, Serial No.2, Mobile Commercial Street – Research on the commercial use in exterior space] (Master thesis). Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan.

YU, Z. (2010). Spatial Establishment of Wuhan Urban Settlement. Beijing, P.R. China: China Architecture & Building Press.

Zhang, B., & Zhou, J. (2014). Urbanisation, urban planning and paradigms: new theories, China’s practices and discussion. Proceedings of the ICE - Urban Design and Planning, 167(6), 264–271.

ZHANG, L. (2009). Ëïõè辞谢èÌÊ«——从ãæäç视”Þ楼ÝÁÛ’楼”Þûý说Ñà [Architecture Opposes Player—Reflection on the North Building Fire in the New CCTV Building]. Huazhong Architecture, (3), 283–286.

Zhou. J. (2012). Urban Vitality in Dutch and Chinese New Towns: A comparative study between Almere and Tongzhou. Delft University of Technology, Delft.
How to Cite
CAI, Jiaxiu. Design with forms as well as patterns. A+BE | Architecture and the Built Environment, [S.l.], n. 30, p. 1-340, dec. 2018. ISSN 2214-7233. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 23 sep. 2020. doi: