Residual effects of feigning: An investigation based on self- report and behavioural data
AbstractIn this explorative study, residual effects of feigning were investigated on the basis of self- report as well as behavioural data. Participants therefore provided self- reported estimates of their hearing abilities and conducted a difficult sound detection task (informational masking paradigm). Participants were manipulated in order to feign hearing symptoms voluntarily. The influence of the character trait fantasy proneness on the frequency of feigning was observed. The manipulation did not lead to the hypothesized behaviour. No relationship was found between fantasy proneness and a tendency to feign symptoms. Residual effects of feigning were not found for self- reported, but well for behavioural data. In combination with previous findings, this result provides additional evidence for the existence of residual effects of feigning and shows possible directions for future research.
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Arlington, VA, American Psychiatric Association, 2013
Bush, S. S., Ruff, R. M., Troster, A. I., Barth, J. T., Koffler, S. P., Pliskin, N. H., . . . Silver, C. H. (2005). Symptom validity assessment: practice issues and medical necessity NAN policy & planning committee. Arch Clin Neuropsychol, 20(4), 419-426. doi: 10.1016/j.acn.2005.02.002
Chafetz, M. D. (2008). Malingering on the social security disability consultative exam: predictors and base rates. Clin Neuropsychol, 22(3), 529-546. doi: 10.1080/13854040701346104
Dandachi-FitzGerald, B., Ponds, R. W., & Merten, T. (2013). Symptom validity and neuropsychological assessment: a survey of practices and beliefs of neuropsychologists in six European countries. Arch Clin Neuropsychol, 28(8), 771-783. doi: 10.1093/arclin/act073
Garry, M., Manning, C. G., Loftus, E. F. (1996). Imagination inflation: Imagining a childhood event inflates confidence that it occurred. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3(2), 208-214.
Gutschalk, A., Micheyl, C., Oxenham, A. J. (2008). Neural Correlates of Auditory Perceptual Awareness under Informational Masking. PLoS Biol, 6(6): e138. 10.1371/journal
Kemp, S., Coughlan, A. K., Rowbottom, C., Wilkinson, K., Teggart, V., & Baker, G. (2008). The base rate of effort test failure in patients with medically unexplained symptoms. J Psychosom Res, 65(4), 319-325. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.02.010
Lockea, D. E. C., Smigielskia, J. S., Powella, M. R., Stevens, S. R. (2008). Effort issues in post-acute outpatient acquired brain injury rehabilitation seekers. NeuroRehabilitation, 23, 273–281.
Merckelbach, H., Horselenberg, R., Muris, P. (2001). The Creative Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ): a brief self-report measure of fantasy proneness. Personality and Individual Differences, 23, 987-995.
Merckelbach, H., Horselenberg, R., Muris, P., Stougie, S. (2000). Dissociative experiences, response bias, and fantasy proneness in college students. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 49-58.
Merckelbach, H., Jelicic, M., & Pieters, M. (2011). The residual effect of feigning: how intentional faking may evolve into a less conscious form of symptom reporting. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol, 33(1), 131-139. doi: 10.1080/13803395.2010.495055
Merckelbach, H., & Merten, T. (2012). A note on cognitive dissonance and malingering. Clin Neuropsychol, 26(7), 1217-1229. doi: 10.1080/13854046.2012.710252
Merckelbach, H., & Smith, G. P. (2003). Diagnostic accuracy of the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS) in detecting instructed malingering. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 18(2), 145-152. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0887-6177(01)00191-3
Noble, W., Jensen, N. S., Naylor, G., Bhullar, N., Akeroyd, M. A. (2013). A short form of the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing scale suitable for clinical use: the SSQ12. Int J Audiol 52(6): 409-412.
Smith, G., Burger, G. (1997). Detection of malingering: validation of the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS). Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online, 25(2), 183-189.
Wilson, S. C., Barber, T. X. (1982). The Fantasy-prone Personality: Implication for Understanding Imagery, Hypnosis, and Parapsychological Phenomena. PSI Research, 1(3), 94-116.
Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted under the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike (CC BY-SA) license and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page.