SPOOL https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool <p>SPOOL is an open access journal for design in architecture and the built environment.</p> en-US <p>SPOOL allows the author(s) to hold their copyright without restrictions.</p> f.d.vanderhoeven@tudelft.nl (Frank van der Hoeven) F.Belliard@tudelft.nl (Frédérique Belliard) Thu, 01 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Narratives of Eastern Mediterranean and Atlantic European cities https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5919 <p>We have selected seven contributions for this issue of Spool, four from the Eastern Mediterranean basin (Istanbul, Beirut, Acre and Jaffa) and three from Atlantic Europe (Bodø, Matosinhos and Gafanha da Nazaré).</p> <p>Roula El Khoury and Paola Ardizzola address the post-civil war reconstruction of Beirut in Lebanon and reveal how neoliberal models of development resulted in a generic city.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>Adem Erdem Erbas uses the Istanbul port heritage area in Turkey to showcase how GIS helps to consider underground cultural inventory from a historic landscape perspective within the framework of the conservation plans.</p> <p>Ana Jayone Yarza Pérez explores the potential of adaptive reuse evaluation procedure in the Old City of Acre, Israel, as a means to deal with development and gentrification in this World Heritage site.</p> <p>Komal Potdar explores the historical evolution of the old town, cultural geography, and the current state of exclusion and gentrification in Jaffa, Israel. She underlines the need for discourse on socio-spatial analysis and assessment for decision-making processes for urban heritage design.</p> <p>Diego Inglez de Souza and Ivo Pereira de Oliveira reconnect architectural history with social and industrial accounts as a strategy for understanding the relationship between infrastructure, fishing, and urbanisation by studying the emblematic case of Matosinhos, Portugal.</p> <p>André Tavares seeks to trace the links between fluctuations in the natural cod resources, the technologies used by fishermen to catch and process the fish, and the development of coastal landscapes and the urban form of the fishing port Gafanha da Nazaré, Portugal.</p> <p>And finally, Fatma Tanis uses an interview with architect Daniel Rosbottom from DHDR to provide insight into situated architecture in port cities by addressing a library and concert hall project realised in Bodø, Norway.</p> Fatma Tanis, Frank van der Hoeven, Lara Schrijver Copyright (c) 2021 Fatma Tanis, Frank van der Hoeven, Lara Schrijver https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5919 Fri, 02 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Port Heritage, Planning Challenges and the Role of GIS Tools in Multi Layered Cities https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5904 <p>The aim of this study is to present arguments showing that on the port heritage area, underground cultural inventory should be considered from the historic landscape point of view within the framework of the conservation plans. This study focuses on the Yenikapı region, whose settlement history of the Historical Peninsula changed following the rescue excavation performed at the end of The Bosphorus Rail Tube Crossing Project (Marmaray). The area covering the Port of Theodosius, whose multi-layered urban formation started in the Neolithic period and which was one of the most significant grain trade ports in the Byzantine era, and the port heritage within the background of this area consist of important spatial formations. However, waterfront regeneration projects have disrupted the spatial continuity of cultural heritage under the effect of neoliberal policies.</p> <p>The methodology of the study, which involves the use of the Geographical Information System (GIS), is based on the overlapping of the archaeological surveys from the Istanbul Archaeology Museum, geological structure data from the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, and historical maps. The conservation planning approach in a metropolitan city like Istanbul, whose archaeological layers reflect the port heritage, should be developed by applying the concept of historic urban landscape.</p> Adem Erdem Erbas, Bedel Emre Copyright (c) 2021 Adem Erdem Erbas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5904 Thu, 01 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating Adaptive Reuse Alternatives of a Multi-Layered Port City https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5903 <p>Acre is a port city in the north-western part of Israel, with a history that goes back more than 4000 years. Being inscribed on the World Heritage List, the Old City of Acre preserves the urban and architectural elements of a historic town. Its outstanding value relies on the Crusader remnants preserved under the Ottoman city, showcasing the dynamism and continuous change of Mediterranean port cities. Moreover, the presence of various religions: Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and Bahai, adds to its complexity, expressed as monuments and religious sites that enrichen Acre’s cultural heritage. The dramatic change in values over the past decades has a direct impact on the built environment and the citizen’s lifestyles, in some cases jeopardising the physical elements and drastically influencing people’s lives. This paper aims to analyse the changes linked to the sea: livelihoods, tourism, and recreational use; and the change of use of the khan, as both the sea and the khan are constant elements in the city. The analysis of these processes serves as the starting point to identify changes in values which can enhance development or promote gentrification, and in the case of Khan Al-Umdan and its vicinity, we aim to recognise the lights and shadows that followed the adaptive reuse evaluation procedure, and the influence of the multiple narratives in its development. The conclusions will provide a solid base on which to develop a methodology on the one hand, identify changing processes, such as gentrification; and on the other, to evaluate adaptive reuse alternatives of cultural heritage in contested societies and changing values.</p> Ana Jayone Yarza Pérez Copyright (c) 2021 Ana Jayone Yarza Pérez https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5903 Thu, 01 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Jaffa Port, Israel https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5902 <p>The material extant of the fortifications of Jaffa, the physical markers of memory, narrates the contrasting status and evolution of one of the oldest port towns in Israel: from grandiose to decline, from thriving multicultural neighbourhoods to immigrant communities over time, from town centre to marginalised significance and shifting centralities in the wake of political and economic events. Its town centre, propagating social interaction, existed through complex and evolving agricultural, industrial, and residential land uses. This port town bears a testimony to the dynamic and enormous shifts in land use, communities, and collective social memory. The alternate port of Tel Aviv came into existence during the revolt in 1936-39 by Arabs of Mandatory Palestine. The drastic decline of the Arab population in Jaffa and its environs and the rise in the Jewish population in the new modern city of Tel Aviv was an antagonistic process of negation and exclusion. The asymmetric planning of Tel Aviv that emerged in the early 1900s identified it as uncivilised geography, turning into a dilapidated district. Communal and national identities were built on the premise of antithesis giving rise to significant demographic transformations. This socio-spatial metamorphosis of Tel Aviv-Jaffa became a representational space leading to physical and cognitive boundaries evident in the planning policies. Since the mid-1980s, the spatial overturns have led to the radical restructuring of the urban space through gentrification with political and socio-economic implications such as population displacement and the production of urban alterities. This oxymoron of creative destruction suggests the tensions at the heart of urban life that embodies the erasure and re-inscription of culture and economics. This article will explore the historical evolution of the old port town, cultural geography, and the current state of exclusion and gentrification in Jaffa, and underlines the need for discourse on socio-spatial analysis and assessment for decision-making processes for urban heritage design.</p> Komal Potdar Copyright (c) 2021 Komal Potdar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5902 Thu, 01 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Infrastructure, Canning and Architecture https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5901 <p>In this article, we seek to reconnect architectural history with social and industrial histories as a strategy for understanding the relationship between infrastructure, fishing, and urbanisation by studying the emblematic case of Matosinhos. This paper traces the formation of the port area and the process of its subsequent transformation with the development of the fishing and canning industries, to understand the relationship between urban planning, the architectures of production (infrastructures, industries, and urbanism) and the architectures of reproduction (housing), and the dynamics of the physical and economic transformations, as well as the key role played by the port in supporting the urbanisation process. In the last decades of the twentieth century, the canneries almost completely disappeared and the gap left by its concentration and modernisation led to the creation of a new urbanisation plan, directed by Álvaro Siza Vieira. Recent works, such as the seaside platform designed by Eduardo Souto de Moura and built at the beginning of the present century, the redevelopment of Leça’s shoreline in 2006 or the conversion of the ruins of a former winery into the new ‘house of architecture,’ are signs of growing functional disputes and symbolic transformations of a particular port city.</p> Diego Inglez de Souza, Ivo Pereira de Oliveira Copyright (c) 2021 Diego Inglez de Souza, Ivo Pereira de Oliveira https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5901 Thu, 01 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Invention of Cod in Gafanha da Nazaré https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5900 <p>To what extent can a fish drive specific urban developments? This paper seeks to trace the links between fluctuations in the natural cod resources, the technologies used by fishermen to catch and process the fish, and the development of coastal landscapes and urban forms. The fishing port of Gafanha da Nazaré, near Aveiro on the River Vouga lagoon, is an example of the close relationship between the twentieth-century nationalist cultural construction in Portugal (in which cod fishing played a major role), the development of urban sprawls in new territories (independently from the old urban centres with ties to agriculture) and the fluctuations in the cod populations on the other side of the Atlantic. Despite the somewhat haphazard development of the fishing port between the 1920s and the 1970s, it nonetheless established the territorial dynamics that displaced the centre of local urban developments from the ancient urban core to new territories.</p> André Tavares Copyright (c) 2021 André Tavares https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5900 Thu, 01 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000