SPOOL https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool <p>SPOOL is an open access journal for design in architecture and the built environment.</p> en-US <p>SPOOL allows the author(s) to hold their copyright without restrictions.</p> f.d.vanderhoeven@tudelft.nl (Frank van der Hoeven) N.S.Blaauw@tudelft.nl (Nienke Blaauw) Wed, 01 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Additive Manufacturing and Spark Plasma Sintering of Lunar Regolith for Functionally Graded Materials https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5258 <p>This study investigates the feasibility of in-situ manufacturing of a functionally graded metallic-regolith. To fabricate the gradient, digital light processing, an additive manufacturing technique, and spark plasma sintering were selected due to their compatibility with metallic-ceramic processing in a space environment. The chosen methods were first assessed for their ability to effectively consolidate regolith alone, before progressing regolith directly onto metallic substrates. Optimized processing conditions based on the sintering temperature, initial powder particle size, and different compositions of the lunar regolith powders were identified. Experiments have successfully proven the consolidation of lunar regolith simulants at 1050°C under 80 MPa with digital light processing and spark plasma sintering, while the metallic powders can be fully densified at relatively low temperatures and a pressure of 50 MPa with spark plasma sintering. Furthermore, the lunar regolith and Ti<sub>6</sub>Al<sub>4</sub>V gradient was proven to be the most promising combination. While the current study showed that it is feasible to manufacture a functionally graded metallic-regolith, further developments of a fully optimized method have the potential to produce tailored, high-performance materials in an off-earth manufacturing setting for the production of aerospace, robotic, or architectural components.</p> Mathilde Laot, Belinda Rich, Ina Cheibas, Jia Fu, Jia-Ning Zhu, Vera Popovich Copyright (c) 2021 Mathilde Laot, Belinda Rich, Ina Cheibas, Jia Fu, Jia-Ning Zhu, Vera Popovich https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5258 Sun, 12 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Design-to-Robotic-Production of Underground Habitats on Mars https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/6075 <p>In order for off-Earth top surface structures built from regolith to protect astronauts from radiation, they need to be several meters thick. Technical University Delft (TUD) proposes to excavate into the ground to create subsurface habitats. By excavating, not only can natural protection from radiation be achieved but also thermal insulation, as the temperature is more stable underground. At the same time, valuable resources can be excavated via in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). In this process, a swarm of autonomous mobile robots excavate the ground in a downwards sloping spiral movement. The excavated regolith will be mixed with cement, which can be produced on Mars through ISRU, in order to create concrete. The concrete is then 3D printed/sprayed onto the excavated tunnel to reinforce it. As soon as the tunnels are reinforced, the material between the tunnels can be removed in order to create a larger cavity that can be used for habitation. The proposed approach relies on design-to-robotic-production (D2RP) technology developed at TUD<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>for on-Earth applications. The rhizomatic 3D-printed structure is a structurally optimized, porous shell structure with increased insulation properties. In order to regulate the indoor pressurised environment, an inflatable structure is placed inside the 3D-printed cavity. This inflatable structure is made of materials that can at some point also be produced on Mars via ISRU. Depending on location, the habitat and the production system are powered by a system combining solar and kite-power.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>The ultimate goal is to develop an autarkic D2RP system for building subsurface autarkic habitats on Mars from locally-obtained materials.</p> Henriette Bier, Edwin Vermeer, Arwin Hidding, Krishna Jani Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/6075 Wed, 01 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Learning lessons from Earth and Space towards Sustainable Multi-planetary Design https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5431 <p>Off-Earth structural design has been a subject of fascination and research for decades. Given that the vision of permanent lunar and Martian human presence is materialising, it is an opportune moment to reflect on the future applicability and challenges of off-Earth design. This article investigates contemporary thinking about off-Earth structural design – specifically focused on large-scale infrastructure such as habitats – and assesses it in terms of its sustainability. We suggest that the extra-terrestrial setting, which is characterised by resource, construction, and labour constraints, is to be analysed as an extreme case of the built environment on Earth. Subsequently, we propose that structural design methodologies originating on Earth can benefit both the off-Earth context, through their inherent material efficiency and use of local materials, and the on-Earth context, where unsustainable growth and material inefficiency dominate our built environment. As our planet rapidly heads towards a scarcity of construction materials and disruptive environmental change, what sustainability lessons can we learn from our past, and how can we apply these to extra-terrestrial construction? Finally, how can we use these lessons to futureproof our built environment?</p> Marina Konstantatou, Miriam Dall’Igna, Samuel Wilkinson, Irene Gallou, Daniel Piker Copyright (c) 2021 Marina Konstantatou, Miriam Dall’Igna, Samuel Wilkinson, Irene Gallou, Daniel Piker https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5431 Sun, 12 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Additive Manufacturing of Lunar Regolith simulant using Direct Ink Writing https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5268 <p>This work explores the use of a lunar regolith simulant as feedstock for the direct ink writing additive manufacturing process as an option to enable future lunar in-situ resource utilisation. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated in a laboratory setting by manufacturing objects with different geometries, using methyl cellulose or sodium alginate as binding agents, water and lunar regolith simulant to create a viscous, printable ‘ink’. A custom three-axis gantry system is used to produce green bodies for subsequent sintering. The sintered objects are characterised using compressive strength measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is proposed that the bioorganic compounds used in this work as additives could be produced in situ for a future lunar base through photosynthesis, utilising carbon dioxide exhaled by astronauts together with the available sunlight. Thus, all the components used for the dispersion – additive, water, and regolith – are available in situ. The compressive strength for sintered samples produced with this method was measured to be 2.4 MPa with a standard deviation of 0.2 MPa (n = 4). It is believed, based on the high sample porosity observed during SEM analysis, that the comparatively low mechanical strength of the samples is due to a low sintering temperature, and that the mechanical strength could be increased by optimising the sintering process further.</p> <p>It is proposed that the bio-organic compounds used in this work as additives could be produced at the site for a future lunar base through photosynthesis, utilising carbon dioxide exhaled by astronauts together with the available sunlight. Thus, all the components used for the feedstock – additive, water (in the form of ice) and regolith – are locally available or can be produced in-situ.</p> <p>The compressive strength for sintered samples produced with this method was measured to be 2.4 MPa with a standard deviation of 0.2 MPa (n = 4). Based on the high sample porosity observed from the SEM analysis, the comparatively low mechanical strength of the manufactured samples is due to a non-optimal sintering process carried out at a too-low temperature, and that the mechanical strength could be increased by optimising the sintering process further.</p> Billy Grundström, Timon Schild, Aidan Cowley Copyright (c) 2021 Billy Grundström, Timon Schild, Aidan Cowley https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5268 Sun, 12 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Combined Airborne Wind and Photovoltaic Energy System for Martian Habitats https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/6058 <p>Generating renewable energy on Mars is technologically challenging. Firstly, because, compared to Earth, key energy resources such as solar and wind are weak as a result of very low atmospheric pressure and low solar irradiation. Secondly, because of the harsh environmental conditions, the required high degree of automation, and the exceptional effort and cost involved in transporting material to the planet. Like on Earth, it is crucial to combine complementary resources for an effective renewable energy solution. In this work, we present the results of a design synthesis exercise, a 10 kW microgrid solution, based on a pumping kite power system and photovoltaic solar modules to power the construction and subsequent use of a Mars habitat. To buffer unavoidable energy fluctuations and balance seasonal and diurnal resource variations, the two energy systems are combined with a compressed gas storage system and lithium-sulphur batteries. The airborne wind energy solution was selected because of its low weight-to-wing-surface-area ratio, compact packing volume, and high capacity factor which enables it to endure strong dust storms in an airborne parking mode. The surface area of the membrane wing is 50 m2 and the mass of the entire system, including the kite control unit and ground station, is 290 kg. The performance of the microgrid was assessed by computational simulation using available resource data for a chosen deployment location on Mars. The projected costs of the system are €8.95 million, excluding transportation to Mars.</p> Lora Ouroumova, Daan Witte, Bart Klootwijk, Esmée Terwindt, Francesca van Marion, Dmitrij Mordasov, Fernando Corte Vargas, Siri Heidweiller, Márton Géczi, Marcel Kempers, Roland Schmehl Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/6058 Sun, 12 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Interesting Challenges of Designing for Humans in Space https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5267 <p>Extra-terrestrial living and working environments are characterized by significant challenges in logistics, environmental demands, engineering, social and psychological issues, to name a few. Everything is limited: physical volume, air, water, power, and medicine … everything, even people, and therefore all is treated as valuable resource. This situation is complicated by the end product being the result of balancing many competing interests. The relationship between humans, space, and technology is forced, as well as a dynamic process. Although mathematical models for complex systems exist, long-term effects are hard to predict, and even more so to calculate. Even if we had technological solutions for all hazards and threats, there would still be the question of how these subsystems work together, how they are perceived, and if they are accepted by the inhabitants.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>Habitability<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>design is vital to the success of future space exploration. Research into the dynamic system of ‘living together in an isolated and extreme environment for a long time’ does not lead to a single common solution. Instead, designers are left trying to translate differing first-person astronaut accounts into a solution bound by the constraints of physics, schedule, and cost. The early days of human spaceflight were all about discovery. Trying to replace conjecture with experience and fact. For example, the Moon was thought to have meters of soft dust that would swallow landing spacecraft. We have built on the successes and failures, but some achievements have also been forgotten. Today, we use these lessons to create effective designs for ‘living together in the isolated and extreme environment (ICE)’ of space. Following are descriptions of historical and newer examples of possible solutions that show what can be achieved when the demanding constraints of space inspire creative solutions for combining human needs with technological possibilities.</p> Sandra Haeuplik-Meusburger, Brand Griffin Copyright (c) 2021 Sandra Haeuplik-Meusburger, Brand Griffin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/5267 Sun, 12 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Advancements in Designing, Producing, and Operating Off-Earth Infrastructure https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/6056 <p>Sending humans to the Moon and Mars in the near future requires appropriate infrastructure to support and subsequently sustain human activities. This includes infrastructure to shield from environmental conditions, generate energy, and facilitate mobility and communication. Construction of such infrastructure aims to use in-situ resources and reduce the use of supplies from Earth. The establishment and maintenance of the required infrastructure, equipment, and hardware involves the development of adequate manufacturing techniques, which can enable maximal use of the local resources. Those techniques can be based on processing of local materials into construction materials, extraction of useful elements from local materials or in combination with materials brought from Earth. The required manufacturing techniques address the range of needs for sustained human activities, from smaller scale manufactured items to large built structures. The design of such structures is associated with a number of space systems’ engineering challenges, ranging from the accurate definition of all resource budgets (mass, volume, power, data) to the design of the interfaces between all subsystems making use of these resources. The interplanetary spacecraft used to transport the required materials (and eventually, crew) from Earth to the final site would probably need to be designed ad-hoc for this specific application, given its peculiar mass and volume constraints, especially in case a reusable concept is adopted. Other engineering aspects involved in the design of the infrastructure systems include the selection of an appropriate power generation approach and the definition of the radiation environment in order to provide sufficient shielding to the habitats. This Spool CpA #4 issue investigates challenges of designing, engineering, constructing, operating, and maintaining off-Earth infrastructure.</p> Henriette Bier, Angelo Cervone, Advenit Makaya Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/6056 Sun, 12 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Dialogues on Architecture https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/6057 <p>Dialogues on Architecture is a series of dialogues between researchers and practitioners, who are embracing the intellectual model of high technology and are involved in its advancement and application in architecture. Dialogue #4 focuses on the technology transfer between on- and off-Earth research and its impact on society, and in particular on industry and education. The dialogue takes place between Henriette Bier (HB), Paul Chan (PC), Advenit Makaya (AM), and Angelo Cervone (AC).</p> Henriette Bier, Paul Chan, Advenit Makaya, Angelo Cervone Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/spool/article/view/6057 Sun, 12 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000