Superposition matrix for the assessment of performance-relevant adaptive façade functions


  • Jens Boeke TU Delft, Architecture and the Built Environment
  • Ulrich Knaack TU Delft, Architecture and the Built Environment
  • Marco Hemmerling Cologne University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Architectural Design



Intelligent building envelope, superposition matrix, adaptive façade, multi-functionality, intelligent technical system


The environmental boundary conditions and the demand for comfort change constantly during the use of a building. By dynamically balancing changing conditions and requirements, adaptive façades contribute to the energy efficiency of buildings. The façade fulfils a multitude of functions that are interdependent and relate to environmental conditions and requirements. By negotiating mutually supportive and competing adaptive functions, intelligent coordination offers the potential for better performance of façades in building operation. The strategy is already being applied in other application areas, such as the intelligently cooperating machines in industry 4.0. There, individual automated production plants are networked to form intelligent technical systems with regard to a common production goal. The research presented follows the assumption that this strategy can be applied to automated and adaptive functions of the façade to increase the building performance. The study identifies those functions which, due to possible automation and adaptivity, as well as effect on performance, can be considered as possible components of an intelligently cooperating system. In addition, characteristics are determined which can be used to evaluate the extent of automation and adaptivity of an individual façade function. The study shows that the detailed analysis of the automation and adaptivity within identified façade functions is possible. With a superimposition matrix, it also provides a tool that enables this assessment of the degree of automation and adaptability.


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How to Cite

Boeke, J., Knaack, U., & Hemmerling, M. (2019). Superposition matrix for the assessment of performance-relevant adaptive façade functions. Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, 7(2), 1–20.