Solar façades - Main barriers for widespread façade integration of solar technologies
Keywords:Solar technologies, PV, Solar thermal collectors, Solar cooling, Façade integration, Survey
Solar energy has been actively promoted as a clean energy source since 1973’s oil crisis, evidenced by the emergence of initiatives such as the Solar Heating & Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency or the US Department of Energy. Nonetheless, solar technologies have not been widely used in the built environment, limiting their operation to industrial and macroscale applications. Commercially available products such as building integrated PV panels (BIPV) or building integrated solar thermal collectors (BIST); and novel prototypes and concepts for solar cooling integrated facades are seen as interesting alternatives for the development of new performance based façade components for high-performing commercial buildings. However, there are barriers to overcome in order to promote widespread application of architecturally integrated solar components.
The present paper seeks to discuss perceived barriers for widespread façade integration of solar technologies, in order to define the current scenario and generate guidelines for future developments. In order to achieve this, the paper presents the results of a survey addressed to professionals with practical experience in the development of façade systems for office buildings, situated at any stage of the design and construction process. Hence, architects, façade consultants, system suppliers and façade builders were considered. The outcome of this study is the definition of the main perceived barriers for façade integration of solar technologies, discussing the results from the survey along with other related experiences found in the literature.This study is part of the ongoing PhD research project titled COOLFACADE: Architectural integration of solar cooling strategies into the curtain-wall, developed within the Façade Research Group (FRG) in the Green Building Innovation programme (GBI) of the Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, TU Delft.
BP. (2016). BP Energy Outlook, 2016 edition. London, United Kingdom.
Cappel, C., Streicher, W., Lichtblau, F., & Maurer, C. (2014). Barriers to the Market Penetration of Façade-integrated Solar Thermal Systems. Energy Procedia, 48, 1336-1344. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.02.151
DOE. (2016). U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved Sept 13th, 2016, from http://energy.gov/
DOE/EIA. (2016). International Energy Outlook 2016. Washington, DC, USA: US Energy Information Administration, US Department of Energy.
DIRECTIVE 2002/91/EC: EUR-Lex (2002).
Farkas, K., & Horvat, M. (2012). T.41.A.1: Building integration of Solar Thermal and Photovoltaics - Barriers, Needs and Strategies: IEA SHC Task 41: Solar Energy and Architecture.
Frontini, F. (2011). Daylight and solar control in building: A new angle selective see-thorough PV-façade for solar control. Paper presented at the PLEA 2011 - Architecture and Sustainable Development, Conference Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture.
Fung, T. Y. Y., & Yang, H. (2008). Study on thermal performance of semi-transparent building-integrated photovoltaic glazings. Energy and Buildings, 40(3), 341-350. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2007.03.002
IEA-SHC. (2016). IEA Solar Heating & Cooling Programme. Retrieved Sept 13th, 2016, from https://www.iea-shc.org/
Joly, M., Antonetti, Y., Python, M., Gonzalez, M., Gascou, T., Scartezzini, J.-L., & Schüler, A. (2013). Novel black selective coating for tubular solar absorbers based on a sol–gel method. Solar Energy, 94(0), 233-239. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2013.05.009
Li, D. H. W., Lam, T. N. T., Chan, W. W. H., & Mak, A. H. L. (2009). Energy and cost analysis of semi-transparent photovoltaic in office buildings. Applied Energy, 86(5), 722-729.
Mandalaki, M., Zervas, K., Tsoutsos, T., & Vazakas, A. (2012). Assessment of fixed shading devices with integrated PV for efficient energy use. Solar Energy, 86(9), 2561-2575. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2012.05.026
Munari Probst, M. C., & Roecker, C. (2007). Towards an improved architectural quality of building integrated solar thermal systems (BIST). Solar Energy, 81(9), 1104-1116. doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2007.02.009
OECD/IEA. (2015). Energy and climate change / World Energy Outlook Special Report. Paris, France: IEA - International Energy Agency.
Orel, B., Spreizer, H., Šurca Vuk, A., Fir, M., Merlini, D., Vodlan, M., & Köhl, M. (2007). Selective paint coatings for coloured solar absorbers: Polyurethane thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paints (Part II). Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 91(2–3), 108-119. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2006.07.012
Prieto, A., Klein, T., & Knaack, U. (2016). Facade integration: survey-based assessment of the main problems for the integration of building services in facade systems. Paper presented at the ID@50 Integrated Design Conference, Bath, United Kingdom.
Schüler, A., Boudaden, J., Oelhafen, P., De Chambrier, E., Roecker, C., & Scartezzini, J. L. (2005). Thin film multilayer design types for colored glazed thermal solar collectors. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 89(2–3), 219-231. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2004.11.015
Yang, R. J. (2015). Overcoming technical barriers and risks in the application of building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV): hardware and software strategies. Automation in Construction, 51(0), 92-102. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2014.12.005