Post-breakage Tensile and Bending Response of Laminated Glass
Laminated glass, composed by glass plies sandwiching polymeric interlayers, can provide a safe post-glass breakage response, in compliance with the fail-safe approach used in the structural design. In fact, when glass breaks, shards remain attached to the polymer, preventing danger from falling materials and imparting a "tension stiffening" effect to the interlayer, so that the broken panel maintains a certain residual load-bearing capacity. Here, a homogenized approach is presented to describe the mechanical properties of broken heat-treated laminated glass under tensile stresses. The model accounts for the stress diffusion from the delaminated zones, where shards are bridged by the interlayer-ligament only, to the regions where glass is bonded to the interlayer. The model provides a simple but accurate estimate of the effective tensile properties of the cracked laminate. Here, the influence of the interlayer thickness, the size of the glass shards and the glass-polymer delamination on the post-critical response is accurately investigated, and analytical results are compared with numerical ones. The obtained expression for the tensile modulus is used to predict, in more general terms, the response of cracked laminated glass under in-plane and out-of-plane bending. In both cases, a key point is the correct evaluation of the tension stiffening in the polymeric interlayer due to the adhesion with the glass shards.